Ger/CL/1914, Germany Light Cruiser laid down 1914 (Engine 1933) Displacement: 3,820 t light; 3,957 t standard; 4,307 t normal; 4,588 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 437.80 ft / 435.00 ft x 43.00 ft x 20.00 ft (normal load) 133.44 m / 132.59 m x 13.11 m x 6.10 m Armament: 9 - 5.12" / 130 mm guns in single mounts, 67.03lbs / 30.41kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 603 lbs / 274 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 4 - 23.6" / 600.0001 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 54,846 shp / 40,915 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 4,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 632 tons Complement: 265 - 345 Cost: £0.536 million / $2.142 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 75 tons, 1.8 % Armour: 496 tons, 11.5 % - Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 52 tons, 1.2 % - Armour Deck: 427 tons, 9.9 % - Conning Tower: 17 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 1,598 tons, 37.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,651 tons, 38.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 487 tons, 11.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 2,605 lbs / 1,182 Kg = 38.9 x 5.1 " / 130 mm shells or 0.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 1.9 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 13.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.42 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.403 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.12 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.86 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 60 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forecastle (32 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Mid (32 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m (13.00 ft / 3.96 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Stern: 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Average freeboard: 15.82 ft / 4.82 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 133.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 87.7 % Waterplane Area: 11,534 Square feet or 1,072 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 100 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 75 lbs/sq ft or 368 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.14 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is cramped

## Monday, January 31, 2005

### My latest attempt at the Ger/CL/1914 design

The Ger/CL/1914 design is essentially a 3rd Class protected cruiser, whose sole protection is a 2in deck. That does some interesting things. For one, hull strength is easier to achieve. My current strategy for increasing hull strength while having a good seakeeping ability is to increase the draft. That will increase the composite strength by some amount. From there, I reduce the displacement to reduce the composite strength back to 1.0. That should increase the seakeeping ability. I keep doing that until I have a seakeeping ability above 1.0 along with adequate composite strength. As you can see, I increased the date on the engine, to get a better SHP/ton of machinery (to 34.32 SHP/ton). Real ships in 1914 actually were better than that. This is an issue with Springsharp that we can hope will be corrected.

## Sunday, January 30, 2005

### The "Super Lion" design

This is my latest attempt at the "Super Lion" design mentioned in Winston Churchill's The World Crisis, Volume I. Admiral Fisher liked the concept: 10-15 guns and a speed of 30 knots. It was his perfect capital ship for 1912. Of course, it wasn't built, as it was too "edgy", at a time when the decision makers were conservatives if not reactionaries.

Super Lion, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1912 Displacement: 35,421 t light; 37,173 t standard; 41,040 t normal; 44,133 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 750.00 ft / 750.00 ft x 95.00 ft x 32.00 ft (normal load) 228.60 m / 228.60 m x 28.96 m x 9.75 m Armament: 10 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (5x2 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread 14 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 18,387 lbs / 8,340 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 190.00 ft / 57.91 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Main Belt covers 115 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 7.00" / 178 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 154,565 shp / 115,305 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,960 tons Complement: 1,441 - 1,874 Cost: £4.033 million / $16.133 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,298 tons, 5.6 % Armour: 11,390 tons, 27.8 % - Belts: 4,056 tons, 9.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 870 tons, 2.1 % - Armament: 3,310 tons, 8.1 % - Armour Deck: 2,974 tons, 7.2 % - Conning Tower: 179 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 6,163 tons, 15.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 15,569 tons, 37.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,619 tons, 13.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 39,456 lbs / 17,897 Kg = 23.4 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 5.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.01 Metacentric height 4.7 ft / 1.4 m Roll period: 18.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.98 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.630 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.89 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.39 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (67 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (67 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 26.57 ft / 8.10 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 114.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 141.7 % Waterplane Area: 53,585 Square feet or 4,978 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 97 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 195 lbs/sq ft or 951 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.31 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### Another shot at the Jap/CL/1933 design

I thought I would try the new trick (moving the date forward for machinery) for the 1933 Japanese light cruiser. It is very "edgy" with 9-16cm guns (6.3in) and 37 knots with a 12,000nm range. I still had to give it an unnaturally deep draft, to get sufficient hull strength and seakeeping ability.

Jap/CL/1933, Japan Light Cruiser laid down 1933 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 14,141 t light; 14,672 t standard; 16,251 t normal; 17,514 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 672.08 ft / 669.00 ft x 65.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 204.85 m / 203.91 m x 19.81 m x 9.14 m Armament: 9 - 6.30" / 160 mm guns (3x3 guns), 124.98lbs / 56.69kg shells, 1933 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (6x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1933 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 36 - 0.98" / 25.0 mm guns (12x3 guns), 0.48lbs / 0.22kg shells, 1933 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 1,892 lbs / 858 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 8 - 24.0" / 609.6 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 510.00 ft / 155.45 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 117 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 510.00 ft / 155.45 m 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 5.00" / 127 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 5.00" / 127 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 189,502 shp / 141,369 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,842 tons Complement: 719 - 935 Cost: £6.446 million / $25.784 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 236 tons, 1.5 % Armour: 3,080 tons, 19.0 % - Belts: 742 tons, 4.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 396 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 350 tons, 2.2 % - Armour Deck: 1,522 tons, 9.4 % - Conning Tower: 69 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 4,785 tons, 29.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 6,039 tons, 37.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,110 tons, 13.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 15,394 lbs / 6,983 Kg = 123.2 x 6.3 " / 160 mm shells or 2.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 3.3 ft / 1.0 m Roll period: 15.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.45 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.436 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.29 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.87 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 54 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (50 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 22.72 ft / 6.93 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 155.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 133.4 % Waterplane Area: 27,431 Square feet or 2,548 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 120 lbs/sq ft or 588 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.73 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### The original "Super Swift" design

I had to do bad things with the date that the machinery was built (to get a high enough power out per ton of weight), but I was able to pull off the Super Swift design mentioned in Volume I of Churchill's book The World Crisis. He described to Admiral Fisher two designs which caught Fisher's imagination: the Super Lion andthe Super Swift. I decided to try the Super Swift, as originally specified (6-4in guns and 37 knots, with no armor). Fisher wrote about the Super Lion, the Super Swift, the submarine, and aviation as being the future. The Super Swift was needed to be the eyes for the submarine. Anything else was a waste, in his view. I suspect that even with the late machinery date, Springsharp expects too much machinery volume for the SHP/ton achieved (48.58 SHP/ton).

Super Swift, Great Britain Scout cruiser laid down 1912 (Engine 1945) Displacement: Super Swift, Great Britain Scout cruiser laid down 1912 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 2,628 t light; 2,710 t standard; 2,822 t normal; 2,913 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 370.84 ft / 370.00 ft x 36.00 ft x 18.00 ft (normal load) 113.03 m / 112.78 m x 10.97 m x 5.49 m Armament: 6 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 192 lbs / 87 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 240 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 85,501 shp / 63,784 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 3,200nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 203 tons Complement: 193 - 251 Cost: £0.359 million / $1.434 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 24 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 1,760 tons, 62.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 843 tons, 29.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 195 tons, 6.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 557 lbs / 253 Kg = 17.4 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.33 Metacentric height 1.8 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 11.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.33 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.412 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.28 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 19.24 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 71 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 58 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forecastle (30 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (50 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (14.00 ft / 4.27 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 18.24 ft / 5.56 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 207.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 109.3 % Waterplane Area: 8,260 Square feet or 767 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 63 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 41 lbs/sq ft or 202 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.50 - Longitudinal: 3.67 - Overall: 0.61 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is extremely poor Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### A very fast Japanese Light Cruiser: Jap/CL/1933

16cm (6.3in) guns were a good pre-dreadnought caliber. I thought it would appropriate for a light cruiser. The original design for the Mogami class wanted 37 knots, so I thought that speed would be appropriate for this ship. The main thing wrong is that the power to weight for the machinery is too low (34.32 SHP/ton), so I had to distort the design to get both sufficient strenght and seakeeping ability.

Jap/CL/1933, Japan Light Cruiser laid down 1933 Displacement: 15,051 t light; 15,594 t standard; 16,871 t normal; 17,892 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 672.08 ft / 669.00 ft x 63.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 204.85 m / 203.91 m x 19.20 m x 9.14 m Armament: 9 - 6.30" / 160 mm guns (3x3 guns), 124.98lbs / 56.69kg shells, 1933 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (6x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1933 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 33 - 0.98" / 25.0 mm guns (11x3 guns), 0.48lbs / 0.22kg shells, 1933 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 1,891 lbs / 858 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 8 - 24.0" / 609.6 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 435.00 ft / 132.59 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 435.00 ft / 132.59 m 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 196,114 shp / 146,301 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 8,400nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,298 tons Complement: 739 - 962 Cost: £7.210 million / $28.842 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 236 tons, 1.4 % Armour: 3,079 tons, 18.3 % - Belts: 863 tons, 5.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 306 tons, 1.8 % - Armament: 340 tons, 2.0 % - Armour Deck: 1,514 tons, 9.0 % - Conning Tower: 57 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 5,714 tons, 33.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 6,021 tons, 35.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,820 tons, 10.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 12,285 lbs / 5,572 Kg = 98.3 x 6.3 " / 160 mm shells or 1.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 3.1 ft / 0.9 m Roll period: 15.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 55 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.49 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.467 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.62 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.87 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 55 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (50 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 22.72 ft / 6.93 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 177.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 128.2 % Waterplane Area: 27,271 Square feet or 2,534 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 118 lbs/sq ft or 578 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.69 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, January 29, 2005

### The Ger/CL/1927 design

I have a 1927 design for the Germans, and it works quite nicely, except for the size. Again, the SHP/ton is the problem.

Ger/CL/1927, Germany Light Cruiser laid down 1927 Displacement: 8,667 t light; 8,983 t standard; 9,937 t normal; 10,701 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 590.94 ft / 590.00 ft x 58.00 ft x 22.00 ft (normal load) 180.12 m / 179.83 m x 17.68 m x 6.71 m Armament: 9 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns (3x3 guns), 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1927 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 10 - 4.13" / 105 mm guns (5x2 guns), 35.32lbs / 16.02kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, majority aft, all raised mounts - superfiring 18 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm guns (9x2 guns), 1.55lbs / 0.70kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts on side ends, majority forward Weight of broadside 1,308 lbs / 593 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 12 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 121 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 80,944 shp / 60,384 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,718 tons Complement: 496 - 646 Cost: £2.903 million / $11.613 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 163 tons, 1.6 % Armour: 2,115 tons, 21.3 % - Belts: 675 tons, 6.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 275 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 288 tons, 2.9 % - Armour Deck: 848 tons, 8.5 % - Conning Tower: 30 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 2,555 tons, 25.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 3,833 tons, 38.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,271 tons, 12.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 12,066 lbs / 5,473 Kg = 117.2 x 5.9 " / 150 mm shells or 1.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 2.9 ft / 0.9 m Roll period: 14.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.39 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.462 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.17 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.81 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forecastle (30 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (50 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 19.48 ft / 5.94 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 147.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 119.5 % Waterplane Area: 22,908 Square feet or 2,128 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 102 lbs/sq ft or 499 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.35 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Friday, January 28, 2005

### A very strange, fast Japanese light cruiser: Jap/CL/1927

I wanted a smaller vessel that could make 36 knots, but I got a large ship that could make 35 knots. The problem is the SHP/ton generated by Springsharp. Springsharp gave it 31.68 SHP/ton of machinery weight. Japanese light cruisers built in the early 1920's had much higher output machinery for the weight. The place for the straight word on this is Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War. This is the report for my light cruiser:

Jap/CL/1927, Japan Enter ship type laid down 1927 Displacement: 10,823 t light; 11,185 t standard; 12,040 t normal; 12,724 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 607.05 ft / 605.00 ft x 57.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 185.03 m / 184.40 m x 17.37 m x 7.92 m Armament: 9 - 5.50" / 140 mm guns (3x3 guns), 83.19lbs / 37.73kg shells, 1927 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 8 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (4x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 21 - 0.98" / 25.0 mm guns (7x3 guns), 0.48lbs / 0.22kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 1,259 lbs / 571 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 160 8 - 24.0" / 609.6 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 480.00 ft / 146.30 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 122 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 480.00 ft / 146.30 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 132,495 shp / 98,841 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,539 tons Complement: 574 - 747 Cost: £3.987 million / $15.949 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 157 tons, 1.3 % Armour: 2,126 tons, 17.7 % - Belts: 695 tons, 5.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 302 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 256 tons, 2.1 % - Armour Deck: 828 tons, 6.9 % - Conning Tower: 45 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 4,182 tons, 34.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 4,357 tons, 36.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,218 tons, 10.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 8,845 lbs / 4,012 Kg = 106.3 x 5.5 " / 140 mm shells or 1.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 2.9 ft / 0.9 m Roll period: 14.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.42 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.470 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.61 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.60 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 51 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Mid (50 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 20.80 ft / 6.34 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 189.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 117.5 % Waterplane Area: 22,371 Square feet or 2,078 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 102 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 105 lbs/sq ft or 513 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.65 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### Another run at a Japanese Heavy Cruiser: Jap/CA/1921b1

I have another, rather unsatisfactory, Japanese heavy cruiser design: Jap/CA/1927b1. I like the 9.4in gun and wanted at least a 35 knot speed. What I got was another ship that was too large (I'm working in an environment where I have blown off the Washington Naval Treat limitations):

Jap/CA/9127b1, Japan Heavy Cruiser laid down 1927 Displacement: 17,158 t light; 17,937 t standard; 19,511 t normal; 20,770 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 724.08 ft / 721.00 ft x 71.00 ft x 29.00 ft (normal load) 220.70 m / 219.76 m x 21.64 m x 8.84 m Armament: 9 - 9.40" / 239 mm guns (3 mounts), 415.29lbs / 188.37kg shells, 1927 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 8 raised guns - superfiring 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (6x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring 33 - 0.98" / 25.0 mm guns (11x3 guns), 0.48lbs / 0.22kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 4,503 lbs / 2,043 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 12 - 24.0" / 609.6 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 111 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 5.00" / 127 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 165,668 shp / 123,588 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 9,000nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,833 tons Complement: 825 - 1,073 Cost: £6.565 million / $26.262 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 563 tons, 2.9 % Armour: 3,619 tons, 18.5 % - Belts: 765 tons, 3.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 462 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 503 tons, 2.6 % - Armour Deck: 1,827 tons, 9.4 % - Conning Tower: 62 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 5,229 tons, 26.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,747 tons, 39.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,353 tons, 12.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 17,302 lbs / 7,848 Kg = 41.7 x 9.4 " / 239 mm shells or 2.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 3.7 ft / 1.1 m Roll period: 15.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.72 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.460 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.15 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.85 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 53 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Mid (50 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 21.80 ft / 6.64 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 152.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 126.0 % Waterplane Area: 32,926 Square feet or 3,059 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 105 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 141 lbs/sq ft or 686 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.33 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### My attempt at a new Kongo-type battlecruiser

I just tried a new Kongo-type battlecruiser, and it worked out pretty well. It is not like the Kongo in the sense that I used the all-or-nothing armoring scheme, but I did attempt to use a raised forecastle and have 4 calibers of guns. The armor basis is somewhat greater, but I retained the 31 knots speed, although the ship is larger. I also wanted long range: 12,000nm for Pacific operations.

Jap/CB/1927, Enter country Enter ship type laid down 1927 Displacement: 35,341 t light; 37,056 t standard; 40,778 t normal; 43,756 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 815.56 ft / 814.00 ft x 101.00 ft x 31.00 ft (normal load) 248.58 m / 248.11 m x 30.78 m x 9.45 m Armament: 8 - 14.00" / 356 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1,372.00lbs / 622.33kg shells, 1927 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 5.50" / 140 mm guns (8x2 guns), 83.19lbs / 37.73kg shells, 1927 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, 7 raised mounts 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (6x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 45 - 0.98" / 25.0 mm guns (15x3 guns), 0.48lbs / 0.22kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, majority aft, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 13,078 lbs / 5,932 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 106 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 7.00" / 178 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 165,366 shp / 123,363 Kw = 31.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,700 tons Complement: 1,434 - 1,865 Cost: £12.149 million / $48.596 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,635 tons, 4.0 % Armour: 11,850 tons, 29.1 % - Belts: 3,612 tons, 8.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,119 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 2,655 tons, 6.5 % - Armour Deck: 4,286 tons, 10.5 % - Conning Tower: 179 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 5,220 tons, 12.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 16,636 tons, 40.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,438 tons, 13.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 60,938 lbs / 27,641 Kg = 44.4 x 14.0 " / 356 mm shells or 8.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.07 Metacentric height 5.8 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 17.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 64 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.84 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.27 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.560 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.53 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 1.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Mid (65 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 27.01 ft / 8.23 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 90.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 209.5 % Waterplane Area: 57,917 Square feet or 5,381 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 115 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 195 lbs/sq ft or 953 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.35 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, January 27, 2005

### This is pretty unsatisfactory: Jap/CA/1927

I have a big, fast, heavily armed Japanese heavy cruiser, but it is too big. That was the cost of having 8-10in guns and 35 knots, with a 10,000nm range.

Jap/CA/1927, Japan Heavy Cruiser laid down 1927 Displacement: 18,077 t light; 18,733 t standard; 20,453 t normal; 21,830 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 751.01 ft / 748.00 ft x 74.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 228.91 m / 227.99 m x 22.56 m x 8.23 m Armament: 8 - 10.00" / 254 mm guns in single mounts, 500.00lbs / 226.80kg shells, 1927 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (6x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 27 - 0.98" / 25.0 mm guns (9x3 guns), 0.48lbs / 0.22kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, majority forward Weight of broadside 4,763 lbs / 2,160 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 12 - 24.0" / 610 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 485.00 ft / 147.83 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 485.00 ft / 147.83 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 169,400 shp / 126,373 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 9,600nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,097 tons Complement: 854 - 1,111 Cost: £6.842 million / $27.366 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 595 tons, 2.9 % Armour: 4,122 tons, 20.2 % - Belts: 967 tons, 4.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 431 tons, 2.1 % - Armament: 667 tons, 3.3 % - Armour Deck: 2,009 tons, 9.8 % - Conning Tower: 48 tons, 0.2 % Machinery: 5,347 tons, 26.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,013 tons, 39.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,376 tons, 11.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 19,766 lbs / 8,966 Kg = 39.5 x 10.0 " / 254 mm shells or 2.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.14 Metacentric height 4.1 ft / 1.2 m Roll period: 15.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.66 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.00 Hull form characteristics: Hull has raised forecastle Block coefficient: 0.479 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.11 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.35 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 52 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Mid (50 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 21.76 ft / 6.63 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 146.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 136.4 % Waterplane Area: 36,191 Square feet or 3,362 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 139 lbs/sq ft or 676 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.99 - Longitudinal: 1.10 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### The destroyer corresponding to my other 1927 British ships

I did a destroyer design to go with the other 1927 British designs: GB/DD/1927. The armament is 4-5.1in DP guns in twin turrets, 10-40mm AA in twin mountings, and 8-21in TT in quadruple mounts. To achieve adequate seakeeping ability, I had to go with a raised forecastle. I had wrestled with a flush deck, and couldn't get the right combination of characteristics.

GB/DD/1927, Great Britain Destroyer laid down 1927 Displacement: 1,519 t light; 1,575 t standard; 1,663 t normal; 1,734 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 348.80 ft / 348.00 ft x 34.00 ft x 12.00 ft (normal load) 106.32 m / 106.07 m x 10.36 m x 3.66 m Armament: 4 - 5.10" / 130 mm guns (2x2 guns), 66.33lbs / 30.08kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts 10 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (5x2 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, majority aft, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 285 lbs / 129 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 135 8 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 40,939 shp / 30,540 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 3,200nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 159 tons Complement: 129 - 169 Cost: £0.759 million / $3.037 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 36 tons, 2.1 % Machinery: 898 tons, 54.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 586 tons, 35.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 144 tons, 8.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 442 lbs / 201 Kg = 6.7 x 5.1 " / 130 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.28 Metacentric height 1.5 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 11.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.60 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.410 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.24 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 21.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 69 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 52 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Mid (50 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m (12.00 ft / 3.66 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Stern: 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Average freeboard: 16.24 ft / 4.95 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 190.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 94.1 % Waterplane Area: 7,606 Square feet or 707 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 58 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 37 lbs/sq ft or 179 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.47 - Longitudinal: 2.74 - Overall: 0.56 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### The GB/DL/1927 design (something seems wrong with it)

I'm not sure why, but I suspect something wrong with this design for a British large destroyer or destroyer leader: GB/DL/1927. I was able to get a strong-enough ship right away, but distorted what I had to increase seakeeping ability to a viable level. The ship can make 35 knots and has 6-5.1in DP guns with 12-40mm AA and 8-21in TT. I would be interested to know, if anyone can see an error in this Springsharp design.

GB/DL/1927, Great Britain Destroyer Leader laid down 1927 Displacement: 1,653 t light; 1,734 t standard; 1,840 t normal; 1,926 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 390.77 ft / 390.00 ft x 37.00 ft x 12.00 ft (normal load) 119.11 m / 118.87 m x 11.28 m x 3.66 m Armament: 6 - 5.10" / 130 mm guns (3x2 guns), 66.33lbs / 30.08kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (3x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, majority aft, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 421 lbs / 191 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 8 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 1 shaft, 39,956 shp / 29,807 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 3,600nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 192 tons Complement: 139 - 182 Cost: £0.848 million / $3.394 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 53 tons, 2.9 % Machinery: 937 tons, 50.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 663 tons, 36.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 187 tons, 10.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 518 lbs / 235 Kg = 7.8 x 5.1 " / 130 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.33 Metacentric height 1.9 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.61 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low forecastle and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.372 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.54 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 22.85 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 64 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forecastle (20 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Mid (50 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 15.44 ft / 4.71 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 186.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 115.6 % Waterplane Area: 9,104 Square feet or 846 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 63 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 40 lbs/sq ft or 193 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.48 - Longitudinal: 1.70 - Overall: 0.55 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Wednesday, January 26, 2005

### An unarmored cruiser (GB/CL/1927 Unarmored)

I thought that the other missing piece was an unarmored cruiser to go with the rest of my British cruiser family for 1927. The odd thing about this ship is that it is fast, like a destroyer (35 knots). Not having armor almost is a mandate for having speed. The armament is destroyer-like or A/A cruiser-like, being 10-5.1in DP guns with 24-40mm AA. I am interested in the 5.1in gun. The British almost adopted the caliber, and then backed off, as they were concerned about the shot weight. A cruiser should overcome that objection, as the ship is much more substantial. I also included 8-21in TT. The only negative is that due to the speed, the space below decks is cramped.

GB/CL/1927 Unarmored, Great Britain Unarmored Cruiser laid down 1927 Displacement: 5,260 t light; 5,488 t standard; 6,244 t normal; 6,850 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 512.94 ft / 512.00 ft x 51.00 ft x 18.00 ft (normal load) 156.35 m / 156.06 m x 15.54 m x 5.49 m Armament: 10 - 5.10" / 130 mm guns (5x2 guns), 66.33lbs / 30.08kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 24 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (6x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 710 lbs / 322 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 8 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 81,222 shp / 60,592 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 8,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,362 tons Complement: 350 - 456 Cost: £2.246 million / $8.983 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 89 tons, 1.4 % Machinery: 2,564 tons, 41.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,608 tons, 41.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 984 tons, 15.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 4,380 lbs / 1,987 Kg = 66.0 x 5.1 " / 130 mm shells or 0.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.36 Metacentric height 3.1 ft / 1.0 m Roll period: 12.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.33 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.465 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.04 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.92 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 63 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forecastle (20 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Mid (50 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 19.64 ft / 5.99 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 144.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 143.0 % Waterplane Area: 17,526 Square feet or 1,628 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 85 lbs/sq ft or 416 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.11 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### My 1927 3rd Class Cruiser (GB/CL/1927)

I was amazed at this ship, my 3rd Class Cruiser design for 1927, worked out. The explanation is probably that she is underarmed for her size (9-5.5in and 8-4in guns, with 8-21in TT). She is essentially a protected cruiser with a small belt at the waterline offering additional protection. That seems to mean something. The other factor is that I only wanted 32 knots of speed. I was able to get a 9,000nm range. She continues my recent tradition of having a good seaboat, good stability, and a good gun platform.

GB/CL/1927, Great Britain 3rd Class Cruiser laid down 1927 Displacement: 7,911 t light; 8,240 t standard; 9,329 t normal; 10,201 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 560.91 ft / 560.00 ft x 56.00 ft x 19.00 ft (normal load) 170.96 m / 170.69 m x 17.07 m x 5.79 m Armament: 9 - 5.50" / 140 mm guns (3x3 guns), 83.19lbs / 37.73kg shells, 1927 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 8 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (4x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 1,005 lbs / 456 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 240 8 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 10.00 ft / 3.05 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 107 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 73,566 shp / 54,880 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 9,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,961 tons Complement: 474 - 617 Cost: £2.573 million / $10.290 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 126 tons, 1.3 % Armour: 2,013 tons, 21.6 % - Belts: 483 tons, 5.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 230 tons, 2.5 % - Armour Deck: 1,262 tons, 13.5 % - Conning Tower: 38 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 2,322 tons, 24.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 3,450 tons, 37.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,418 tons, 15.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 12,857 lbs / 5,832 Kg = 154.5 x 5.5 " / 140 mm shells or 1.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 2.9 ft / 0.9 m Roll period: 13.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.36 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.548 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.86 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (20 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Mid (50 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 19.56 ft / 5.96 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 92.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 143.1 % Waterplane Area: 22,741 Square feet or 2,113 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 122 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 95 lbs/sq ft or 466 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.41 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### A 2nd Class Cruiser for 1927

This was my first attempt at sort of a 2nd Class Cruiser to go with my 1st Class Cruiser with 9.2in guns. The 2nd Class Cruiser has 9-7.5in and 12-4in DP guns with 8-21in TT. The idea is to be practically a protected cruiser, and the design has a 3in deck. I have a narrow belt, as well, to augment the deck. The speed is modest with a range intended for the Pacific theater: 12,000 nm. Hopefully, I haven't made any data entry errors, and the design is good as specified. I had to do minor tweaking as I had omitted turret and barbette armor, which Springsharp rightfully complained about. The ship is flush-decked, as I prefer.

GB/CL/1927, Great Britain 2nd Class Cruiser laid down 1927 Displacement: 11,695 t light; 12,181 t standard; 14,021 t normal; 15,493 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 615.98 ft / 615.00 ft x 65.00 ft x 22.00 ft (normal load) 187.75 m / 187.45 m x 19.81 m x 6.71 m Armament: 9 - 7.50" / 191 mm guns (3x3 guns), 210.94lbs / 95.68kg shells, 1927 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 28 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (7x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 2,337 lbs / 1,060 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 8 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 435.00 ft / 132.59 m 10.00 ft / 3.05 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 109 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 435.00 ft / 132.59 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 5.00" / 127 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 92,007 shp / 68,637 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,312 tons Complement: 643 - 837 Cost: £3.859 million / $15.437 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 292 tons, 2.1 % Armour: 3,137 tons, 22.4 % - Belts: 720 tons, 5.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 290 tons, 2.1 % - Armament: 440 tons, 3.1 % - Armour Deck: 1,624 tons, 11.6 % - Conning Tower: 63 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 2,904 tons, 20.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 5,362 tons, 38.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,326 tons, 16.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 20,676 lbs / 9,379 Kg = 98.0 x 7.5 " / 191 mm shells or 2.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 3.4 ft / 1.0 m Roll period: 14.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 55 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.57 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.10 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.558 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.46 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.24 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (50 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 22.48 ft / 6.85 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 121.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 164.4 % Waterplane Area: 29,268 Square feet or 2,719 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 124 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 116 lbs/sq ft or 568 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.47 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, January 25, 2005

### A British heavy cruiser with 9.2in guns

I was surprised that the process of designing a 1927 British heavy cruiser with 9-9.2in and 12-4in DP guns with 8-21in TT was so easy. I had the design working pretty quickly, although I had some data entry problems to correct in Springsharp. I have started to go back and see if there are any obvious mistakes or omissions. The easiest thing for me to do is to forget to supply the height of the anti-torpedo bulkhead. I decided to include one, since the Japanese heavy cruisers had one, however ineffective that might have been. The displacement is rather large, but not surprisingly so. You can see the standard displacment is under 17,000 tons. The other potential pitfall is to forget to supply the number of rounds for the main armament. I was helped as Springsharp, in this case, initialized the value to 150 rounds. Anyway, here is the design:

GB/CA/1927, Great Britain Heavy Cruiser laid down 1927 Displacement: 16,126 t light; 16,846 t standard; 19,084 t normal; 20,874 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 675.94 ft / 675.00 ft x 70.00 ft x 24.00 ft (normal load) 206.03 m / 205.74 m x 21.34 m x 7.32 m Armament: 9 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (3x3 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1927 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1927 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring 24 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (2x12 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1927 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 3,935 lbs / 1,785 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 8 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 445.00 ft / 135.64 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 425.00 ft / 129.54 m 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 5.00" / 127 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 109,159 shp / 81,433 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,028 tons Complement: 811 - 1,055 Cost: £5.309 million / $21.236 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 492 tons, 2.6 % Armour: 4,897 tons, 25.7 % - Belts: 1,786 tons, 9.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 330 tons, 1.7 % - Armament: 740 tons, 3.9 % - Armour Deck: 1,978 tons, 10.4 % - Conning Tower: 62 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 3,446 tons, 18.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,292 tons, 38.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,958 tons, 15.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 28,285 lbs / 12,830 Kg = 72.6 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 3.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.11 Metacentric height 3.6 ft / 1.1 m Roll period: 15.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.74 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.07 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.589 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.64 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.46 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (50 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 23.32 ft / 7.11 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 110.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 170.1 % Waterplane Area: 35,640 Square feet or 3,311 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 121 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 133 lbs/sq ft or 651 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.30 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, January 24, 2005

### To make a 1905 to 1907 destroyer "work" (and probably later)

I was just experimenting with an early Tribal class ship from about 1906 in Springsharp. To make it "work", I reduced the cruising speed to 12 knots and the fuel carried. The fuel turned out to be not necessary, as the reduction to 12 knots was the factor that was critical. Again, this is a design that has a composite strength less than 1.0 (0.54), and it still gets the accolade: "Design well balanced for a light fast combatant". The speed is 32 knots and the armament is 2-4in QF and 2-18in TT. By the way, I understand that the British 18in torpedo was actually the same diameter as the German torpedo (450mm), and the British just rounded the number to keep the terminology simple. The normal load displacement came out as 1,089 tons. The standard displacement was 1,013 tons. The usual issue with Springsharp 2.1 came into play: machinery for small vessels is too heavy and to great in volume for what was actually true. I would expect that to be reduced as in issue by Springsharp 3.0.

## Sunday, January 23, 2005

### I had fallen into the trap thinking that I had to have a composite strength of 1.0

I keep forgetting the Springsharp allows a composite strength less than 1.0 for light, fast combatants. I keep doing bad things to my destroyer design (US/DD/1936) because I was trying to get the composite strength to 1.0, when I didn't need to do so. Instead, I was able to achieve a reasonable result (I guess) with a design that has a rather modern look, with a fairly high-freeboard, flush decked hull. The speed is 36 knots and the armament is 6-5in DP, 12-40mm AA, and with 10-21in TT. The machinery still weighs too much, but I guess that doesn't matter.

US/DD/1936a1, Enter country Enter ship type laid down 1936 Displacement: 1,977 t light; 2,063 t standard; 2,243 t normal; 2,386 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 376.84 ft / 376.00 ft x 37.00 ft x 14.00 ft (normal load) 114.86 m / 114.60 m x 11.28 m x 4.27 m Armament: 6 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (3x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1936 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (3x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1936 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, majority aft, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 398 lbs / 181 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 10 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 53,204 shp / 39,690 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 3,750nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 323 tons Complement: 162 - 211 Cost: £1.464 million / $5.855 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 50 tons, 2.2 % Machinery: 1,190 tons, 53.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 737 tons, 32.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 266 tons, 11.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 570 lbs / 258 Kg = 9.1 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.28 Metacentric height 1.8 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 11.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.72 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.16 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.403 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.16 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 22.39 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 69 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 52 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forecastle (20 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Mid (50 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 18.48 ft / 5.63 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 188.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 95.1 % Waterplane Area: 8,903 Square feet or 827 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 66 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 37 lbs/sq ft or 182 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.43 - Longitudinal: 3.05 - Overall: 0.53 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### I'm playing with a super-DD, but I'm not ready to post it

I'm having trouble with a super-DD that can make 36 knots, because of the known issues with Springstyle 2.1, which Ian Ross-Gowan is working to fix. The DD has grown too large (4621 tons, standard) and has too short a range (2500 nm), right now.

### Super-destroyer leader: US/DL/1936

To go with the rest, I have my super-destroyer leader. I couldn't resist having an odd gun, the 5.5in DP, of which I included 8, along with 16-40mm AA and 10-21in TT. The speed is the hoped-for 36 knots, but only a 3,500 nm range.

US/DL/1936, United States Destroyer Leader laid down 1936 Displacement: 5,847 t light; 6,071 t standard; 6,414 t normal; 6,689 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 518.08 ft / 498.00 ft x 49.00 ft x 20.00 ft (normal load) 157.91 m / 151.79 m x 14.94 m x 6.10 m Armament: 8 - 5.50" / 140 mm guns (4x2 guns), 83.19lbs / 37.73kg shells, 1936 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (4x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1936 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 697 lbs / 316 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 240 10 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 110,620 shp / 82,523 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 3,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 618 tons Complement: 357 - 465 Cost: £3.756 million / $15.024 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 87 tons, 1.4 % Machinery: 3,104 tons, 48.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,656 tons, 41.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 567 tons, 8.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 3,061 lbs / 1,389 Kg = 36.8 x 5.5 " / 140 mm shells or 0.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.32 Metacentric height 2.8 ft / 0.9 m Roll period: 12.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 50 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.37 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.460 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.16 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 22.32 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 65 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Mid (50 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 19.96 ft / 6.08 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 167.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 114.2 % Waterplane Area: 15,695 Square feet or 1,458 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 93 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 87 lbs/sq ft or 426 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.90 - Longitudinal: 2.61 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### Springsharp is using too low a SHP/ton: US/CL/1936b1 (AA cruiser)

I have my US/CL/1936b1 design, but it is warped because Springsharp is only using a 35.64 SHP/ton machinery basis. That means the machinery is too heavy and takes up too much space. Given that, I was able to achieve a 36-knot AA cruiser with 8-21 TT and 16-5in DP guns (along with 32-40mm AA). The armor basis is 3in, with a 2in deck. The range is 8,000 nm, as that seemed like a reasonable compromise:

US/CL/1936b1, United States Light Cruiser laid down 1936 Displacement: 11,190 t light; 11,617 t standard; 12,751 t normal; 13,658 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 611.08 ft / 610.00 ft x 62.00 ft x 25.00 ft (normal load) 186.26 m / 185.93 m x 18.90 m x 7.62 m Armament: 16 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (8x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1936 Model Dual purpose guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 32 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (8x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1936 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 1,062 lbs / 482 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 280 8 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 395.00 ft / 120.40 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 155,242 shp / 115,810 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 8,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,042 tons Complement: 599 - 779 Cost: £5.869 million / $23.475 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 133 tons, 1.0 % Armour: 2,042 tons, 16.0 % - Belts: 789 tons, 6.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 308 tons, 2.4 % - Armour Deck: 909 tons, 7.1 % - Conning Tower: 35 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 4,356 tons, 34.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 4,660 tons, 36.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,561 tons, 12.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 10,778 lbs / 4,889 Kg = 172.4 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 1.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 3.4 ft / 1.0 m Roll period: 14.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.29 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.472 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.84 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.70 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 61 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (50 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 22.72 ft / 6.93 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 119.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 146.9 % Waterplane Area: 24,577 Square feet or 2,283 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 106 lbs/sq ft or 516 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.84 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### The big, fast 6in-gun light cruiser: US/CL/1936

The next step is to have a big, fast 6in gun light cruiser to fit in with the rest of the extreme ships. This design is the US/CL/1936a1, as I hope to do another light cruiser which is AA-oriented. This ship has 15-6in QF guns and 12-5in DP guns, along with 36-40mm AA. The speed is extreme: 36 knots and the range pretty extreme for what I have been doing: 12,000 nm. The armor basis is 4in, and I included 12-21in TT, as well, as this is tryining to be a US Mogami (except larger).

US/CL/1936, United States Light Cruiser laid down 1936 Displacement: 16,262 t light; 17,011 t standard; 19,149 t normal; 20,860 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 673.15 ft / 672.00 ft x 70.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 205.18 m / 204.83 m x 21.34 m x 7.92 m Armament: 15 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (5x3 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1936 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (6x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1936 Model Dual purpose guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 36 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (9x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1936 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 2,440 lbs / 1,107 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 12 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 450.00 ft / 137.16 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 5.00" / 127 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 177,218 shp / 132,204 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,849 tons Complement: 813 - 1,058 Cost: £8.023 million / $32.091 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 305 tons, 1.6 % Armour: 3,960 tons, 20.7 % - Belts: 1,200 tons, 6.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 880 tons, 4.6 % - Armour Deck: 1,819 tons, 9.5 % - Conning Tower: 62 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 4,972 tons, 26.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,024 tons, 36.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,888 tons, 15.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 22,812 lbs / 10,347 Kg = 211.2 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 2.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 3.5 ft / 1.1 m Roll period: 15.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 55 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.51 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.09 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.548 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.60 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.92 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 60 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 25.64 ft / 7.82 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 97.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 158.2 % Waterplane Area: 32,767 Square feet or 3,044 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 117 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 125 lbs/sq ft or 609 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.70 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### Now for the fairly big, fast heavy cruiser: US/CA/1936

My concept for the heavy cruiser includes something larger than 8in guns. The most obvious choice for the US is the 10in gun. I decided on 9-10in, 12-5in DP guns, and 36 quad 40mm AA guns (admittedly, anachronistic for 1936). The dimensions ended up as 715ft (WL) x 80ft x 28ft. The armor basis is 7in, with a 3in deck. The speed is 34 knots, the best I could easily do. I played with the beam and draft to be able to get a 10,000 nm range and a cruising speed of 15 knots. The displacement is large: 22,467 tons Standard. I would think that the ship could do well against anything else that it might face. I even was able to get a 1in A/T bulkhead, but only after I realized I had omitted the height of the bulkhead, and had to rejigger everything to get adequate seakeeping and hull strength.

US/CA/1936, United States Heavy Cruiser laid down 1936 Displacement: 21,526 t light; 22,477 t standard; 24,573 t normal; 26,250 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 718.12 ft / 715.00 ft x 80.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 218.88 m / 217.93 m x 24.38 m x 8.53 m Armament: 9 - 10.00" / 254 mm guns (3x3 guns), 500.00lbs / 226.80kg shells, 1936 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (6x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1936 Model Dual purpose guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 36 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (9x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1936 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 5,320 lbs / 2,413 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 179,681 shp / 134,042 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 10,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,773 tons Complement: 980 - 1,275 Cost: £10.640 million / $42.559 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 665 tons, 2.7 % Armour: 6,123 tons, 24.9 % - Belts: 2,193 tons, 8.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 430 tons, 1.8 % - Armament: 1,238 tons, 5.0 % - Armour Deck: 2,189 tons, 8.9 % - Conning Tower: 73 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 5,042 tons, 20.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,697 tons, 39.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,047 tons, 12.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 31,120 lbs / 14,116 Kg = 62.2 x 10.0 " / 254 mm shells or 3.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 4.1 ft / 1.3 m Roll period: 16.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.68 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.537 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.94 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.74 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 25.56 ft / 7.79 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 117.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 191.6 % Waterplane Area: 39,437 Square feet or 3,664 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 114 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 154 lbs/sq ft or 754 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.46 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### Now, the extremely large American battlecruiser: US/CB/1936

The counterpart to the very large battleship is the very large (if not extremely large) battlecruiser. For whatever reason (perhaps a faulty calculation), the ship can reach 36 knots. I really did not have to do much to make this ship "work". One feature is that it is not so well protected against torpedoes. This is the Springsharp report for the US/CB/1936:

US/CB/1936, United States Enter ship type laid down 1936 Displacement: 116,905 t light; 121,965 t standard; 131,180 t normal; 138,551 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 1,353.57 ft / 1,350.00 ft x 150.00 ft x 41.00 ft (normal load) 412.57 m / 411.48 m x 45.72 m x 12.50 m Armament: 9 - 21.00" / 533 mm guns (3x3 guns), 4,630.50lbs / 2,100.36kg shells, 1936 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (6x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1936 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1936 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 56 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (14x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1936 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 43,464 lbs / 19,715 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 15.0" / 381 mm 730.00 ft / 222.50 m 20.00 ft / 6.10 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 83 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 17.0" / 432 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 15.0" / 381 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 510,151 shp / 380,572 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 15,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 16,587 tons Complement: 3,446 - 4,480 Cost: £56.204 million / $224.815 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 5,433 tons, 4.1 % Armour: 37,627 tons, 28.7 % - Belts: 9,527 tons, 7.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 9,079 tons, 6.9 % - Armour Deck: 18,353 tons, 14.0 % - Conning Tower: 667 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 14,314 tons, 10.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 59,532 tons, 45.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 14,274 tons, 10.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 217,022 lbs / 98,439 Kg = 46.9 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 9.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 10.6 ft / 3.2 m Roll period: 19.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 75 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.85 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.50 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.553 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 36.74 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 44 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 45.00 ft / 13.72 m - Forecastle (20 %): 37.00 ft / 11.28 m - Mid (50 %): 37.00 ft / 11.28 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 37.00 ft / 11.28 m - Stern: 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Average freeboard: 37.72 ft / 11.50 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 67.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 289.8 % Waterplane Area: 141,721 Square feet or 13,166 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 120 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 297 lbs/sq ft or 1,448 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.99 - Longitudinal: 1.06 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### Another "super ship": US/BB/1936

I drew a picture dated June 13, 2001 depicting a very large battleship with a sort of US look to it. I scaled off that picture and used the specs to enter into Springsharp. The main change that I had to make was to lower the freeboard, as what I had drawn was excessive. The result is a very capable ship. It is all that I would want in a very large battleship:

US/BB/1936 Very Large, United States Battleship laid down 1936 Displacement: 107,265 t light; 111,822 t standard; 118,713 t normal; 124,225 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 1,203.61 ft / 1,200.00 ft x 150.00 ft x 41.00 ft (normal load) 366.86 m / 365.76 m x 45.72 m x 12.50 m Armament: 9 - 21.00" / 533 mm guns (3x3 guns), 4,630.50lbs / 2,100.36kg shells, 1936 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (6x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1936 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 8 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1936 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 44 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (11x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1936 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, majority aft, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 43,312 lbs / 19,646 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 17.0" / 432 mm 640.00 ft / 195.07 m 20.00 ft / 6.10 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 82 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 640.00 ft / 195.07 m 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 17.0" / 432 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 17.0" / 432 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 3rd: 2.00" / 51 mm - 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 17.00" / 432 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 6 shafts, 285,230 shp / 212,782 Kw = 31.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 12,403 tons Complement: 3,197 - 4,157 Cost: £49.682 million / $198.730 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 5,414 tons, 4.6 % Armour: 39,654 tons, 33.4 % - Belts: 9,644 tons, 8.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,700 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 9,958 tons, 8.4 % - Armour Deck: 16,467 tons, 13.9 % - Conning Tower: 885 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 8,003 tons, 6.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 54,194 tons, 45.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 11,447 tons, 9.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 226,994 lbs / 102,963 Kg = 49.0 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 42.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.03 Metacentric height 9.8 ft / 3.0 m Roll period: 20.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 80 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.96 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.61 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.563 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 34.64 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 41 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 46.00 ft / 14.02 m - Forecastle (18 %): 37.00 ft / 11.28 m - Mid (0 %): 37.00 ft / 11.28 m - Quarterdeck (18 %): 37.00 ft / 11.28 m - Stern: 39.00 ft / 11.89 m - Average freeboard: 37.81 ft / 11.52 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 65.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 280.3 % Waterplane Area: 127,162 Square feet or 11,814 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 120 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 301 lbs/sq ft or 1,471 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.32 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

### A (relatively) fast protected cruiser

In my quest for very fast ships, I just tried a British light cruiser for 1921 that only has a 2in protective deck and can make 33 knots. My requirement is for a good seaboat and stability, so that had to be taken into account. I also want good strength, not something that is very lightly built and easily damaged. I started with 462ft x 46ft x 15ft, and went from there. I had wanted 35 knots, which should be doable, but is not with Springsharp. I had to narrow the hull, deepen the draft, go from flush-decked to a raised forecastle, to make the design work. The armament is what I think is appropriate for such a ship: 9-5.5in QF and 8-4.7in DP guns. Needless to say, the size ballooned, as is usual with my Springsharp designs. Occasionally, I will be surprised, and that doesn't happen, but with fast ships, it is often true. I find that I still don't have a really good handle on how to specify freeboard, as I have been showing the raised forecastle wrong. This is the report:

GB/CL/1921, Great Britain Light Cruiser laid down 1921 Displacement: 5,674 t light; 5,901 t standard; 6,142 t normal; 6,335 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 517.87 ft / 517.00 ft x 44.00 ft x 18.00 ft (normal load) 157.85 m / 157.58 m x 13.41 m x 5.49 m Armament: 9 - 5.50" / 140 mm guns (3x3 guns), 83.19lbs / 37.73kg shells, 1921 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 8 - 4.70" / 119 mm guns in single mounts, 51.91lbs / 23.55kg shells, 1921 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 1,164 lbs / 528 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 6 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 2.00" / 51 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 64,908 shp / 48,421 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 3,500nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 434 tons Complement: 346 - 450 Cost: £1.613 million / $6.452 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 145 tons, 2.4 % Armour: 765 tons, 12.5 % - Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 154 tons, 2.5 % - Armour Deck: 597 tons, 9.7 % - Conning Tower: 14 tons, 0.2 % Machinery: 2,235 tons, 36.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,528 tons, 41.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 468 tons, 7.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 3,663 lbs / 1,662 Kg = 44.0 x 5.5 " / 140 mm shells or 0.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 1.7 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 14.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.86 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.525 Length to Beam Ratio: 11.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.57 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 60 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Forecastle (35 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (35 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 18.08 ft / 5.51 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 136.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 109.0 % Waterplane Area: 16,138 Square feet or 1,499 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 96 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 85 lbs/sq ft or 413 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.75 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

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