GB/BB/1912 a2, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1912 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 37,282 t light; 38,970 t standard; 42,620 t normal; 45,539 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 700.00 ft / 700.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 33.00 ft (normal load) 213.36 m / 213.36 m x 32.00 m x 10.06 m Armament: 9 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (3x3 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 16,484 lbs / 7,477 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 460.00 ft / 140.21 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 460.00 ft / 140.21 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 80,283 shp / 59,891 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 9,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,569 tons Complement: 1,483 - 1,928 Cost: £3.448 million / $13.791 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,060 tons, 4.8 % Armour: 16,317 tons, 38.3 % - Belts: 4,483 tons, 10.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 919 tons, 2.2 % - Armament: 3,619 tons, 8.5 % - Armour Deck: 7,060 tons, 16.6 % - Conning Tower: 237 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 2,943 tons, 6.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 15,963 tons, 37.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,337 tons, 12.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 63,315 lbs / 28,719 Kg = 37.5 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 10.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.03 Metacentric height 5.7 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 18.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 70 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.74 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.55 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.615 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.67 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.46 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 48 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 45 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (67 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (67 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 26.16 ft / 7.97 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 73.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 140.0 % Waterplane Area: 54,514 Square feet or 5,064 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 110 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 204 lbs/sq ft or 994 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.73 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Monday, February 28, 2005

### I reconsidered the GB/BB/1912 design

I would like to think that it would be fair game to allow for a higher speed for the GB/BB/1912 design, while the nominal speed is 22 knots, to allow for 25 knots. The "natural speed", according to Springsharp, is 26.46 knots, so 25 knots is still "underperforming". I also have been vascillating about my reading of the sketch records from 1971, and decided that my original estimate of the secondary armament as 12-6in QF guns was more likely to be correct, and that the one spot where there was a 14/6 reference, that it was Belt/Deck armor. Eventually, the deck armor was 7in, as my cross sectional drawing indicates. This is the revised Springsharp report:

## Sunday, February 27, 2005

### Cliff's GB/BB/1912 design

My friend Cliff's design for a 1912 battleship that he intended to build in numbers ended up larger in Springsharp than he had hoped back in 1971. The design had 9-15in/42 BLR and 14-6in QF guns, with a 14in belt and 7in deck. The tanti-torpedo bulkhead was 2in. The best information that I have is a cross section that shows the armor arrangement. He only wanted 22 knots, although the design could easily have been a 26 knot ship, since the length was 700ft. I had the most problems with stability, and I don't totally understand the issues, except that perhaps I was overly generous with turret and barbette armor. I'm not absolutely sure about the ram or plow boq, but that is what I think that Cliff intended. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1912 (Macbeth class), Great Britain Battleship laid down 1912 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 36,250 t light; 37,928 t standard; 41,511 t normal; 44,377 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 700.00 ft / 700.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 33.00 ft (normal load) 213.36 m / 213.36 m x 32.00 m x 10.06 m Armament: 9 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (3x3 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, 12 raised mounts Weight of broadside 16,700 lbs / 7,575 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 460.00 ft / 140.21 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 460.00 ft / 140.21 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 48,341 shp / 36,062 Kw = 22.00 kts Range 9,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,449 tons Complement: 1,453 - 1,890 Cost: £3.270 million / $13.081 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,087 tons, 5.0 % Armour: 16,518 tons, 39.8 % - Belts: 4,478 tons, 10.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 953 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 3,899 tons, 9.4 % - Armour Deck: 6,955 tons, 16.8 % - Conning Tower: 232 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 1,772 tons, 4.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 15,872 tons, 38.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,261 tons, 12.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 70,218 lbs / 31,851 Kg = 41.6 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 13.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.03 Metacentric height 5.7 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 18.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 72 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.77 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.76 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.599 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.67 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.46 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 41 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 41 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (67 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (67 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 26.16 ft / 7.97 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 64.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 140.8 % Waterplane Area: 53,706 Square feet or 4,989 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 205 lbs/sq ft or 1,000 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.79 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

### Useful information (for me)

I have not read March's classic work, British Destroyers, cover-to-cover. I was reading the section about the V-class from WWI, and saw that he listed some useful weights. For example, the H-type mine with Mk.VIII sinkers weighed 1,840 lbs. With the smaller 21in torpedoes previously in use, the two triple tube mounts in the W-class were 20-1/2 tons. With the new, larger 21in torpedoes, the weight jumped to 32-1/2 tons. This is from pp.206 and 207. This is probably only of interest to those who want to design their own destroyers and minelayers: people like me.

## Saturday, February 26, 2005

### Again, the GB/BB/1908 design is an amazing ship (to me)

Apparently, since the GB/BB/1908 is benefitting from a better SHP/ton figure than you might have otherwise allowed, it has become a supership. I actually had allowed 80,000 SHP for 25 knots, but Springsharp is only requiring 65,544 SHP to reach 25 knots. This is fast enough to be suitable for the "Battleship-Cruiser" role. The armament is 9-12in/50 BLR and 8-6in/50 QF guns. The belt is a respectable 13in, which is also the maximum turret face and barbette thicknesses, as well. The deck is unnaturally thick at 4in. Anyway, this is the ship that my friend Cliff designed for production, starting in 1908. I had though there were more, but the Hindustan was to be laid down in 1908, and the Falklands, Sandwich, and New Zealand in 1909.

GB/BB/1908, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1908 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 26,783 t light; 27,826 t standard; 30,160 t normal; 32,027 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 650.00 ft / 650.00 ft x 100.00 ft x 29.00 ft (normal load) 198.12 m / 198.12 m x 30.48 m x 8.84 m Armament: 9 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1908 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1908 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 8,640 lbs / 3,919 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 425.00 ft / 129.54 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 425.00 ft / 129.54 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 65,544 shp / 48,896 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,202 tons Complement: 1,143 - 1,487 Cost: £2.181 million / $8.724 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,080 tons, 3.6 % Armour: 11,620 tons, 38.5 % - Belts: 4,327 tons, 14.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 849 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 2,868 tons, 9.5 % - Armour Deck: 3,388 tons, 11.2 % - Conning Tower: 188 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 2,403 tons, 8.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,681 tons, 38.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,377 tons, 11.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 54,293 lbs / 24,627 Kg = 62.8 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 10.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.02 Metacentric height 5.2 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 18.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 84 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.61 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.68 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.560 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.50 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (67 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (67 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 26.90 ft / 8.20 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 66.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 160.2 % Waterplane Area: 45,790 Square feet or 4,254 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 120 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 175 lbs/sq ft or 856 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.90 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

### I've finally made some progress on "Graphic-Artist-2.com"

I've finally fixed the HTML and added content on Graphic-Artist-2.com. I will be filling in both the German and British building programs from our 1971 Anglo-German Naval Race game. I will have drawings of the ships and the associated Springsharp reports. I may, occasionally, have power curve information from my Warship General Design program.

### My friend Cliff's design for a large, fast gunboat: GB/PGL/1906

I have been battling Springsharp again, because it would not use a sufficiently great SHP/ton figure. I kept having to up the date for the engines until the SHP/ton reached 52.2, which is much lower than was achieved on the Swift (about 64 SHP/ton in 1907). The GB/PGL/1906 was intended to be a 36-knot, 1600 ton destroyer-like vessel with 3-5in QF guns. Here is the Springsharp report:

GB/PGL/1906, Great Britain Large Fast Gunboat laid down 1906 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 1,746 t light; 1,810 t standard; 1,913 t normal; 1,996 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 340.80 ft / 340.00 ft x 35.00 ft x 17.00 ft (normal load) 103.88 m / 103.63 m x 10.67 m x 5.18 m Armament: 3 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 188 lbs / 85 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 240 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 59,409 shp / 44,319 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 3,500nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 186 tons Complement: 144 - 188 Cost: £0.240 million / $0.961 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 23 tons, 1.2 % Machinery: 1,138 tons, 59.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 585 tons, 30.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 167 tons, 8.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 375 lbs / 170 Kg = 6.0 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.41 Metacentric height 1.9 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 10.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 55 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.27 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.10 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.331 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.71 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 18.44 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 68 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forecastle (36 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Mid (36 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m (13.00 ft / 3.96 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Stern: 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Average freeboard: 16.17 ft / 4.93 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 201.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 125.2 % Waterplane Area: 7,280 Square feet or 676 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 55 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 36 lbs/sq ft or 176 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.46 - Longitudinal: 3.24 - Overall: 0.56 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is extremely poor Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, February 25, 2005

### My latter day armored cruiser: GB/CA/1921 x1

I just tried my fast armored cruiser design that I did on May 21, 2002. Frank Fox had encouraged me to look at 9.2in gunned armored cruisers, as he thought that was a better choice than something heavier. I had to work just a little bit to get it to work in Springsharp. Mostly, that was because I had underspecified the design in 2002. The ship has a very long forecastle and a high freeboard, which makes it a very good seaboat. Here is the Springsharp report:

GB/CA/1921 x1, Great Britain Heavy Cruiser laid down 1921 (Engine 1933) Displacement: 19,407 t light; 20,122 t standard; 22,483 t normal; 24,372 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 726.94 ft / 725.00 ft x 75.00 ft x 24.00 ft (normal load) 221.57 m / 220.98 m x 22.86 m x 7.32 m Armament: 9 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (3x3 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1921 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1921 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 3,888 lbs / 1,764 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 430.00 ft / 131.06 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 91 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 430.00 ft / 131.06 m 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.50" / 64 mm, Conning tower: 5.00" / 127 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 150,805 shp / 112,501 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,250 tons Complement: 917 - 1,193 Cost: £4.334 million / $17.336 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 486 tons, 2.2 % Armour: 5,446 tons, 24.2 % - Belts: 1,975 tons, 8.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 366 tons, 1.6 % - Armament: 1,097 tons, 4.9 % - Armour Deck: 1,922 tons, 8.6 % - Conning Tower: 86 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 4,394 tons, 19.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,081 tons, 40.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,076 tons, 13.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 30,751 lbs / 13,949 Kg = 79.0 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 3.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.04 Metacentric height 3.5 ft / 1.1 m Roll period: 16.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 78 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.69 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.56 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.603 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.67 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.48 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 37.00 ft / 11.28 m - Forecastle (78 %): 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Mid (78 %): 32.00 ft / 9.75 m (22.00 ft / 6.71 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 31.36 ft / 9.56 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 109.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 190.0 % Waterplane Area: 41,567 Square feet or 3,862 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 124 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 126 lbs/sq ft or 617 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.10 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Thursday, February 24, 2005

### The nice thing is that I can include Springsharp reports with documents

I can produce vastly superior documents about the Anglo-German Naval Race building program game, in that I have been generating Springsharp reports for them. I also have the ability to run my Warship General Design program on the designs. The advantage of my program is that I can generate pretty good power curves for a design. I believe Springsharp is using an empirical equation to compute SHP for a speed. For fast destroyers, it seems to be too inaccurate to be useful. Springsharp is generally superior in other ways, particularly with respect to strength calculations and seakeeping ability.

### I have Dreadnought Cruisers in a Word document and am adding an index

I don't know if anyone else would be interested, but I would like to have a table of contents, table of figures, and an index for Dreadnought Cruisers. Probably mainly from having so many Springsharp reports, the current size in a Word document with no annotations is 451 pages! While I build the Anglo-German Building Program Game section of Graphic-Artist-2.com, I thought that having the index, in particular, would be helpful. I also hope to recreate Word documents with pictures for the British and German building programs for that game. I had them in 2002, until I lost a hard disk that had no backup.

## Wednesday, February 23, 2005

### Where Springsharp is known to be weak: an example is the GB/PG/1915

Springsharp inherited some of the issues from Springstyle, in that Springsharp has a problem with very fast destroyer-type ships. From the real world, the Thornycroft "Special" S-class ship Speedy made 37.511 knots at a displacement of 1,034 tons with power of 33,020 SHP. The waterline length was nominally 272ft-9in. Compare that with my friend Cliff's design for the GB/PG/1915 destroyer-like fast gunboat. The nominal waterline length there is 275ft with an intended displacement of 900 tons. The armament was intended to be 3-5in/50 QF guns with no torpedo tubes. The speed was intended to be 36 knots. that should be possible, even if the displacement needed to rise some. Now look at the Springsharp report. The power is too great for the length and displacement:

GB/PG/1915, Great Britain Fast Gunboat laid down 1915 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 1,016 t light; 1,049 t standard; 1,085 t normal; 1,114 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 275.70 ft / 275.00 ft x 27.00 ft x 15.00 ft (normal load) 84.03 m / 83.82 m x 8.23 m x 4.57 m Armament: 3 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 188 lbs / 85 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 47,382 shp / 35,347 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 2,500nm at 10.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 66 tons Complement: 93 - 122 Cost: £0.206 million / $0.822 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 23 tons, 2.2 % Machinery: 615 tons, 56.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 378 tons, 34.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 69 tons, 6.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 186 lbs / 84 Kg = 3.0 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.13 Metacentric height 0.9 ft / 0.3 m Roll period: 12.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.92 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.341 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.19 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.58 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 72 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 54 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Forecastle (36 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Mid (36 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m (13.00 ft / 3.96 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Stern: 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Average freeboard: 15.30 ft / 4.66 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 198.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 120.3 % Waterplane Area: 4,518 Square feet or 420 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 40 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 30 lbs/sq ft or 146 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.38 - Longitudinal: 5.80 - Overall: 0.50 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### Graphic Artist 2

I am working on new content for Graphic-Artist2.com that shows the beginnings of the building programs for the Anglo-German naval race game that I played with my friend Cliff in 1971. I have many new drawings, such as the GB/CB/1907, GB/BB/1907 (Hibernia), GB/BB/1906, and GB/DL/1906. I will be incrementally added content over time, and should have some new pages ready, no later than the end of the weekend. The original artwork is all done as 8-bit palette GIF files to scale where one pixel equals 6 inches. That scale makes for a detailed and accurate drawing, although the size is too large to be feasible on the web. They have to be converted to JPEG, with the attending loss in detail, and resampled to thumbnail and larger picture as a popup. Anyway, that will be coming soon, perhaps as soon as the end of the evening, tonight.

## Tuesday, February 22, 2005

### The GB/CB/1907 design (Kent class)

My friend Cliff's extension of the GB/CB/1905 design for 1907 was intended to have 12in/50 caliber guns, although there doesn't seem to be any way in Springsharp to provide for that. For better or worse, I went with a machinery weight basis of 27.28 SHP/ton. The resulting ship is superior to the original design. The main thing that could be improved, but wasn't, would be to have more 12in guns. I didn't want to violate the spirit of Cliff's itent, so I left the design with 4-12in guns. The primary improvement was vastly superior protection. This is the resulting Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1907 (Kent class), Great Britain Battle Cruiser laid down 1907 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 26,676 t light; 27,541 t standard; 30,522 t normal; 32,906 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 92.00 ft x 29.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 28.04 m x 8.84 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts 9 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, majority aft, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 4,428 lbs / 2,009 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 535.00 ft / 163.07 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 107 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 545.00 ft / 166.12 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.50" / 89 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 177,042 shp / 132,073 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 9,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,365 tons Complement: 1,153 - 1,500 Cost: £2.307 million / $9.229 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 554 tons, 1.8 % Armour: 8,466 tons, 27.7 % - Belts: 2,821 tons, 9.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,089 tons, 3.6 % - Armament: 1,275 tons, 4.2 % - Armour Deck: 3,113 tons, 10.2 % - Conning Tower: 168 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 6,490 tons, 21.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,167 tons, 36.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,846 tons, 12.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 39,409 lbs / 17,875 Kg = 45.6 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 5.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 5.9 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 15.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 69 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.32 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.38 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.520 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.37 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forecastle (74 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Mid (74 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m (22.00 ft / 6.71 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 29.55 ft / 9.01 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 106.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 174.7 % Waterplane Area: 48,074 Square feet or 4,466 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 118 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 149 lbs/sq ft or 725 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.49 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### My wife called the GB/BB/19906 design "sleek"

I was caught by surprise when my wife described my drawing for the GB/BB/1906 "Britannia" class ships as "sleek". It is a fast battleship 680ft long with 6-12in/45 guns in the initial version and capable of 24 knots and more. The ship has heavy armor. As usual, my main criticism is that we tended to assume that we would need to sacrifice either armor, number of guns, or both to obtain high speed. That isn't necessarily true.

## Monday, February 21, 2005

### Lessons learned from using Springsharp

Lessons learned:

- The biggest lesson learned from having run Springsharp a good deal is that back in 1971, we were too quick to sacrifice side armor to get high speed. We actually didn't need to go as thin as 4 inches. That is true, at least, if we were willing to let the displacement grow, without materially changing dimensions.
- Another lesson is that we often underestimated the displacement that would be required to achieve the design characteristics we desired.
- At least with Springsharp, very high speeds are difficult to achieve and have sufficient strength and adequate seakeeping ability. Partly, this is an artificat of Springsharp having trouble with small, high-speed ships. This is partly manifested in having to move the date of machinery out into the future to achieve SHP/ton figures that were achieved much earlier. For example, the British super-destroyer Swift could be pressed to 64 SHP/ton.

## Sunday, February 20, 2005

### I had to do some really bizarre things to get the GB/PG/1915 to work in Springsharp

My friend Cliff had this concept for a 36-knot fast gunboat that was really a destroyer without torpedoes. The length he set was 275 ft and he hoped it could be done on 900 tons. I am guessing that the armament was something like 3-4.7in QF guns. It had to be better than 3-4in guns. The 36 knot speed created big problems in Springsharp. I did the usual things to make it work, even though they produce a strange ships (too deep a draft for a destroyer of this size). The existence proof that this design should work is the British S-class destroyers, some of which made 40 knots on trials, and were specified to be 36-knot ships. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/PG/1915, Great Britain Fast Gunboat laid down 1915 (Engine 1932) Displacement: 1,092 t light; 1,115 t standard; 1,171 t normal; 1,216 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 275.66 ft / 275.00 ft x 27.00 ft x 16.00 ft (normal load) 84.02 m / 83.82 m x 8.23 m x 4.88 m Armament: 3 - 4.70" / 119 mm guns in single mounts, 51.91lbs / 23.55kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 156 lbs / 71 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 0 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 50,061 shp / 37,346 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 3,500nm at 10.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 101 tons Complement: 99 - 130 Cost: £0.222 million / $0.887 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 19 tons, 1.7 % Machinery: 699 tons, 59.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 373 tons, 31.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 79 tons, 6.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 189 lbs / 86 Kg = 3.6 x 4.7 " / 119 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 1.0 ft / 0.3 m Roll period: 11.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 55 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.69 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.345 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.19 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.58 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 72 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 54 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Forecastle (36 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Mid (36 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m (13.00 ft / 3.96 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Stern: 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Average freeboard: 14.94 ft / 4.55 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 204.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 112.9 % Waterplane Area: 4,512 Square feet or 419 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 38 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 30 lbs/sq ft or 145 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.39 - Longitudinal: 5.38 - Overall: 0.50 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is extremely poor Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### My friend Cliff's 1910 battlecruiser design is pretty amazing

I just entered my friend Cliff's design for the GB/CB/1910 battle cruiser design into Springsharp, and I was pleasantly surprised at just how good it proved to be. The basics are a speed of 33 knots, 4-13.5in BLR and 8-4in QF guns. The belt is 9in and the turrets are 12in on the face and 11in barbettes. The deck is 4in with a 2in A/T bulkhead. I must admit that the information that I had is sketchy. About the most solid thing I have on the design is a drawing with some specs. The armor thicknesses are indicated using the old Jane's Fighting Ship system (different textures indicate different armor thicknesses). Of course, the machinery is 27.28 SHP/ton of machinery. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1910, Great Britain Battle Cruiser laid down 1910 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 30,110 t light; 30,782 t standard; 33,599 t normal; 35,853 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 780.00 ft / 780.00 ft x 95.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 237.74 m / 237.74 m x 28.96 m x 9.14 m Armament: 4 - 13.50" / 343 mm guns (2x2 guns), 1,230.19lbs / 558.00kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts 8 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (4x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 5,177 lbs / 2,348 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 0 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 545.00 ft / 166.12 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 107 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 545.00 ft / 166.12 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 188,139 shp / 140,352 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,071 tons Complement: 1,240 - 1,613 Cost: £2.563 million / $10.252 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 647 tons, 1.9 % Armour: 10,306 tons, 30.7 % - Belts: 3,699 tons, 11.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,129 tons, 3.4 % - Armament: 1,524 tons, 4.5 % - Armour Deck: 3,752 tons, 11.2 % - Conning Tower: 202 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 6,897 tons, 20.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 12,260 tons, 36.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,489 tons, 10.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 43,420 lbs / 19,695 Kg = 35.3 x 13.5 " / 343 mm shells or 6.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 6.0 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 16.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 66 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.33 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.31 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.529 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.21 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.93 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forecastle (69 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Mid (69 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m (22.00 ft / 6.71 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 29.04 ft / 8.85 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 102.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 171.4 % Waterplane Area: 50,709 Square feet or 4,711 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 115 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 157 lbs/sq ft or 766 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.47 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### My latest attempt at the Ger/CB/1912 design

My building program for 1912 in the Anglo-German building program game was for fast battlecruisers armored along the "all or nothing" scheme and with a very thick deck. The 6-15in guns were to be all forward in two triple, turrets with one superfiring. The secondary armament was too light: 8-6in QF guns. The side armor was only 6in while the turrets and barbettes had a maximum thickness of 10in. The freeboard forward was high, with the forecastle extending 62% of the length. That makes for a good seaboat. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1912, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1912 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 36,716 t light; 38,169 t standard; 41,750 t normal; 44,614 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 822.00 ft / 820.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 32.00 ft (normal load) 250.55 m / 249.94 m x 32.00 m x 9.75 m Armament: 6 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (2x3 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 10,989 lbs / 4,985 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 6.00" / 152 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 188,043 shp / 140,280 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 9,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,445 tons Complement: 1,459 - 1,898 Cost: £3.404 million / $13.616 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,374 tons, 3.3 % Armour: 12,303 tons, 29.5 % - Belts: 2,482 tons, 5.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,079 tons, 2.6 % - Armament: 2,039 tons, 4.9 % - Armour Deck: 6,548 tons, 15.7 % - Conning Tower: 156 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 6,893 tons, 16.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 16,146 tons, 38.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,034 tons, 12.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 51,128 lbs / 23,191 Kg = 30.3 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 7.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.14 Metacentric height 6.9 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 67 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.44 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.35 Hull form characteristics: Hull has raised forecastle, rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.530 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.81 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.64 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Forecastle (62 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m (29.00 ft / 8.84 m aft of break) - Mid (62 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 27.81 ft / 8.48 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 97.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 154.0 % Waterplane Area: 58,995 Square feet or 5,481 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 186 lbs/sq ft or 906 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.50 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Saturday, February 19, 2005

### I've modified the template so that all the Springsharp reports are immediately visible

While the old paper effect is damaged, I thought it more important to fix the width problem was that was obscuring the wide Springsharp reports. I hacked on the blog template, and widened the main body, so that everything is in the paper and not hidden in the brown background.

## Friday, February 18, 2005

### Why does this work so well?: the GB/FG/1913

I just tried my friend Cliff's "frigate gunboat" design: GB/FG/1913 in Springsharp, and was amazed at how easy it was to make work, and just how good it was, without any substantial changes. His original specs were:

The specs were: Displacement: 1200 tons legend Dimensions: 315ft x 30ft x 10ft Armament: 5-4in/50 QF, 2-21in TT SHP: 25,000 speed: 32 knots Fuel: 300 tons oiland the Springsharp report is as follows:

GB/FG/1913, Great Britain Frigate Gunboat laid down 1913 (Engine 1921) Displacement: 1,048 t light; 1,095 t standard; 1,204 t normal; 1,292 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 315.77 ft / 315.00 ft x 30.00 ft x 10.00 ft (normal load) 96.25 m / 96.01 m x 9.14 m x 3.05 m Armament: 5 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1913 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 160 lbs / 73 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 2 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 29,572 shp / 22,060 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 4,500nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 197 tons Complement: 101 - 132 Cost: £0.157 million / $0.628 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 20 tons, 1.7 % Machinery: 645 tons, 53.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 383 tons, 31.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 156 tons, 12.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 312 lbs / 141 Kg = 9.7 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.37 Metacentric height 1.4 ft / 0.4 m Roll period: 10.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 55 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.42 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.11 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.446 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.50 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 17.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 68 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forecastle (32 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Mid (32 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m (12.00 ft / 3.66 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Stern: 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Average freeboard: 14.62 ft / 4.46 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 186.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 116.1 % Waterplane Area: 6,008 Square feet or 558 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 55 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 30 lbs/sq ft or 144 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.48 - Longitudinal: 2.44 - Overall: 0.57 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Wednesday, February 16, 2005

### With my program: GB/PG/1906

I have the best ship power calculations, better than Springsharp, and I have 47,005.8 SHP required for 36 knots at a displacement of 1,376.4 tons for the GB/PG/1906 design. I decided that I needed to do a check on Springsharp, since I was having so much trouble.

### There is something really wrong with how Springsharp dealt with this design: GB/PG/1906

My friend Cliff had a design for a fast gunboat that was essentially a purely gun-armed destroyer. The first ships were to be built in series to the GB/PG/1906 design. The speed was high, being 36 knots. That seems to have really bothered Springsharp, as I had to do bad things to get it to work. When you consider that the British S-class ships could reach 40 knots on trial in 1917, you have to think that this ship could have been able to make 36 knots with less trouble:

GB/PG/1906, Great Britain Destroyer laid down 1906 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 1,282 t light; 1,318 t standard; 1,376 t normal; 1,423 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 275.77 ft / 275.00 ft x 28.00 ft x 16.00 ft (normal load) 84.05 m / 83.82 m x 8.53 m x 4.88 m Armament: 3 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 62 lbs / 28 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 57,928 shp / 43,215 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 3,200nm at 10.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 105 tons Complement: 112 - 146 Cost: £0.176 million / $0.704 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 8 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 890 tons, 64.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 385 tons, 27.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 94 tons, 6.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 213 lbs / 97 Kg = 10.2 x 3.5 " / 88 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.37 Metacentric height 1.3 ft / 0.4 m Roll period: 10.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.22 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.391 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.82 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.58 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 75 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forecastle (33 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Mid (33 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m (14.00 ft / 4.27 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 16.44 ft / 5.01 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 212.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 112.3 % Waterplane Area: 4,717 Square feet or 438 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 37 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 28 lbs/sq ft or 135 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.38 - Longitudinal: 6.11 - Overall: 0.51 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is extremely poor Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### I don't understand why this is so "good": GB/CB/1907

I really don't understand why this design is so "good" in Springsharp, or why it was so easy to optimize. This is the 12in/50 gunned version of the basic light British battlecruiser type that my friend Cliff designed in 1971. The original two ships were to have 4-12in/45 guns while the follow-on ships were to have 12in/50 guns. I had assumed that they would be larger and could have had better protection.

GB/CB/1907, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1907 (Engine 1914) Displacement: 23,503 t light; 24,248 t standard; 25,780 t normal; 27,005 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 90.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 27.43 m x 8.53 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts 9 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all aft, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 4,428 lbs / 2,009 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 93 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 7.00" / 178 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 155,110 shp / 115,712 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,757 tons Complement: 1,016 - 1,322 Cost: £2.124 million / $8.496 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 554 tons, 2.1 % Armour: 6,371 tons, 24.7 % - Belts: 2,024 tons, 7.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 645 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 1,085 tons, 4.2 % - Armour Deck: 2,484 tons, 9.6 % - Conning Tower: 132 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 5,975 tons, 23.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,604 tons, 41.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,277 tons, 8.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 31,393 lbs / 14,240 Kg = 36.3 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.14 Metacentric height 5.5 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 16.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 72 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.38 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.45 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.465 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.56 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (72 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Mid (72 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m (22.00 ft / 6.71 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 28.62 ft / 8.72 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 117.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 184.6 % Waterplane Area: 44,763 Square feet or 4,159 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 151 lbs/sq ft or 735 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.53 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Tuesday, February 15, 2005

### The British plan

My friend Cliff's intent was to use large destroyers (such as his GB/DL/1906 design) and the fast battlecruisers (like the GB/CB/1905 design) as scouts. They would also provide backup to the destroyer and fast gunboat flotillas. The initial group of battleships were fast and well-armored, but lightly armed (6-12in BLR and 8-6in QF guns). Speed was a very important factor in Cliff's tactical plans. Closer to the start of the war, he started building slower battleships and even built some scout cruisers (in 1914). Both the British and German wartime building programs included extremely large battleships. This was to be a purely naval war, and both sides intended to immediately dispute the control of the seas through battle. The sides were pretty evenly matched, despite some strange design decisions.

## Monday, February 14, 2005

### Cliff's GB/DL/1906 design

My friend Cliff wanted a big fast destroyer leader that he actually planned as using as large destroyers in groups, rather than as true leaders. Again, he liked the 88mm QF gun (20pdr) because of its rate of fire and easy handling. These were the second fastest ships we designed, having a maximum speed of 35 knots (52.3 SHP/ton).

GB/DL/1906, Great Britain Enter ship type laid down 1906 (Engine 1916) Displacement: 1,249 t light; 1,288 t standard; 1,368 t normal; 1,432 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 326.77 ft / 326.00 ft x 30.00 ft x 12.00 ft (normal load) 99.60 m / 99.36 m x 9.14 m x 3.66 m Armament: 4 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 83 lbs / 38 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 2 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 44,873 shp / 33,475 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 3,750nm at 10.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 145 tons Complement: 112 - 146 Cost: £0.173 million / $0.690 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 10 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 858 tons, 62.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 380 tons, 27.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 119 tons, 8.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 250 lbs / 114 Kg = 12.0 x 3.5 " / 88 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.49 Metacentric height 1.6 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 9.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.18 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.408 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.87 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 18.06 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 70 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forecastle (31 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Mid (31 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m (12.00 ft / 3.66 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Stern: 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Average freeboard: 14.73 ft / 4.49 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 208.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 106.1 % Waterplane Area: 6,049 Square feet or 562 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 40 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 28 lbs/sq ft or 135 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.44 - Longitudinal: 2.40 - Overall: 0.52 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is extremely poor Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Sunday, February 13, 2005

### My friend Cliff's GB/DD/1906 design

My friend Cliff designed the British destroyer he intended to mass produce. It had these oddities, in that the ship had 2-88mm QF guns (20pdr) and 2-21in TT, which were anacronistic. The main benefit of the 88mm was that it had a high rate of fire and the shell was easy to manhandle. The designed speed was 32 knots. In Springsharp, the design came out with a very low displacement, in order to obtain adequate seakeeping ability. The machinery was 55.7 SHP/ton of machinery.

GB/DD/1906, Great Britain Destroyer laid down 1906 (Engine 1916) Displacement: 683 t light; 702 t standard; 754 t normal; 796 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 265.66 ft / 265.00 ft x 27.00 ft x 10.00 ft (normal load) 80.97 m / 80.77 m x 8.23 m x 3.05 m Armament: 2 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 42 lbs / 19 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 2 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 23,346 shp / 17,416 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,600nm at 10.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 95 tons Complement: 71 - 93 Cost: £0.087 million / $0.348 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 5 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 419 tons, 55.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 259 tons, 34.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 71 tons, 9.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 214 lbs / 97 Kg = 10.3 x 3.5 " / 88 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.38 Metacentric height 1.2 ft / 0.4 m Roll period: 10.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.15 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.369 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.81 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 70 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Forecastle (27 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Mid (27 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m (11.00 ft / 3.35 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 11.00 ft / 3.35 m - Stern: 11.00 ft / 3.35 m - Average freeboard: 13.00 ft / 3.96 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 184.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 103.6 % Waterplane Area: 4,348 Square feet or 404 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 42 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 27 lbs/sq ft or 132 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.48 - Longitudinal: 3.30 - Overall: 0.59 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### The drawing of the Ger/CB/1906 design

## Saturday, February 12, 2005

### My original concept for the Ger/BB/1907 design

I just tried my original concept for the Ger/BB/1907 design where the speed was just 24 knots. I had estimated in 1971 that 54,000 SHP was be sufficient. The Springsharp calculation is 56,740 SHP, which is pretty close, considering the methods I was using for estimation in 1971. I had to increase the draft to get sufficient hull strength, but otherwise, I was able to get a good result with Springsharp without much effort. The machinery basis was 25 SHP/ton:

Ger/BB/1907, Germany Battleship laid down 1907 (Engine 1912) Displacement: 25,231 t light; 26,180 t standard; 28,977 t normal; 31,215 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 620.00 ft / 620.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 188.98 m / 188.98 m x 32.00 m x 8.23 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 7,296 lbs / 3,309 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 94 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 56,740 shp / 42,328 Kw = 24.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,035 tons Complement: 1,109 - 1,443 Cost: £1.966 million / $7.864 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 912 tons, 3.1 % Armour: 11,208 tons, 38.7 % - Belts: 4,843 tons, 16.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 675 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 2,941 tons, 10.2 % - Armour Deck: 2,586 tons, 8.9 % - Conning Tower: 163 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 2,262 tons, 7.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,849 tons, 37.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,746 tons, 12.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 58,810 lbs / 26,676 Kg = 68.1 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 12.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.07 Metacentric height 6.1 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 17.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 85 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.42 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.70 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.577 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.90 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.90 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (72 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (72 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 27.34 ft / 8.33 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 61.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 168.1 % Waterplane Area: 46,598 Square feet or 4,329 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 126 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 166 lbs/sq ft or 810 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.95 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

### The start of my building program for the Germans

In my building program wargame with my friend Cliff, we started off from a standing start in 1905, with no ships on hand. We started a purely naval war in 1914 using what had been completed by then. My building program started off as follows:

- 1905

- 3-battleships 8-12in/45 and 12-4in QF speed 23 knots 10in belt
- 1-battlecruiser 4-12in/45 and 12-4in QF speed 31 knots 4in belt
- 6-scouts 5-4in QF 2-18in TT patch of 2in armor speed 36 knots
- 12-destroyers 2-4in QF 2-18in TT speed 32 knots

- 1906

- 1-battleship 8-12in/45 and 12-4in QF speed 23 knots 10in belt
- 2-battlecruisers 8-12in/45 and 12-4in QF speed 33 knots 4in belt
- 6-scouts 5-4in QF 2-18in TT patch of 2in armor speed 36 knots
- 32-destroyers 2-4in QF 2-18in TT speed 32 knots

- 1907

- 3-battleships 8-12in/50 and 12-4in QF speed 24 knots 13in belt 3in deck
- 6-scouts 5-4in QF 2-18in TT patch of 2in armor speed 36 knots
- 16-destroyers 2-4in QF 2-18in TT speed 32 knots

- 1908

- 4-battleships 8-12in/50 and 12-4in QF speed 24 knots 13in belt 3in deck
- 6-scouts 5-4in QF 2-18in TT patch of 2in armor speed 36 knots
- 4-destroyers 2-4in QF 2-18in TT speed 32 knots

## Friday, February 11, 2005

### More ship drawings

I have finished a number of ship drawings done in this high-resolution GIF style. What I have done are all German ships from my designs done in 1971 for the warship design and building program game. To date, these are what I have done:

- Ger/BB/1905
- Ger/BB/1907
- Ger/CB/1905
- Ger/CB/1906
- Ger/CS/1905
- Ger/DD/1905

## Thursday, February 10, 2005

### My friend Cliff's British Destroyer design: GB/DD/1906

I had to make a few adjustments, but my friend Cliff's design for a British destroyer worked fairly well in Springsharp. The main issue, as always, was achieving acceptable seakeeping ability. I increased the draft and decreased the block coefficient until the seakeeping was over 1.0. The odd features of the design are the 88mm (20pdr QF) guns and the 21in TT. Cliff thought that is the 88mm was good for landwarfare, it should be as good at sea, even for the British:

GB/DD/1906, Great Britain Destroyer laid down 1906 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 715 t light; 736 t standard; 779 t normal; 813 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 265.66 ft / 265.00 ft x 27.00 ft x 10.00 ft (normal load) 80.97 m / 80.77 m x 8.23 m x 3.05 m Armament: 2 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1906 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 42 lbs / 19 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 2 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 24,051 shp / 17,942 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,500nm at 10.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 77 tons Complement: 73 - 95 Cost: £0.089 million / $0.354 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 5 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 422 tons, 54.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 287 tons, 36.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 64 tons, 8.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 244 lbs / 110 Kg = 11.7 x 3.5 " / 88 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.32 Metacentric height 1.2 ft / 0.4 m Roll period: 10.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 50 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.16 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.381 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.81 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 70 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Forecastle (30 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Mid (30 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m (11.00 ft / 3.35 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 11.00 ft / 3.35 m - Stern: 11.00 ft / 3.35 m - Average freeboard: 13.22 ft / 4.03 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 180.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 101.1 % Waterplane Area: 4,364 Square feet or 405 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 50 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 29 lbs/sq ft or 144 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.53 - Longitudinal: 3.72 - Overall: 0.64 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Wednesday, February 09, 2005

### I firmly believe in Frank Fox's dictum to draw the inboard profile first, before drawing the ship was it was sit at the waterline (outboard profile)

Right now, I am working on an inboard profile of the Ger/CS/1905 design. I have a new domain, which is not up and active, where I will be posting ship drawings and data for my ship designs. I have long had the concept of putting together Janes Fighting Ships-type presentations. Ideally, you would have photograph like pictures of the imaginery ships, as well.

## Tuesday, February 08, 2005

### My latest attempt at the GB/BB/1906 design

I just tried my friend Cliff's design for a fast battleship with light armament, the GB/BB/1906. It really went together easily, once I went for a SHP/ton of 29 SHP/ton of machinery. The ship has 6-12in BLR and 8-6in QF guns, all in twin turrets. The ship has a long forecastle with twin funnels. The armor is thick, with a belt and turret faces of 13.4 inches. The revised speed that I had hoped for in 1973 is easily attained, as I did not want a very great range.

GB/BB/1906, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1906 (Engine 1921) Displacement: 25,211 t light; 26,113 t standard; 27,862 t normal; 29,261 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 680.00 ft / 680.00 ft x 87.70 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 207.26 m / 207.26 m x 26.73 m x 8.53 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1906 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (4x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 6,048 lbs / 2,743 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.4" / 340 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 86 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.4" / 340 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 13.4" / 340 mm 2nd: 3.38" / 86 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.38" / 86 mm - Armour deck: 4.50" / 114 mm, Conning tower: 6.75" / 171 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 108,782 shp / 81,152 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,149 tons Complement: 1,077 - 1,401 Cost: £2.042 million / $8.167 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 756 tons, 2.7 % Armour: 10,602 tons, 38.1 % - Belts: 3,820 tons, 13.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 527 tons, 1.9 % - Armament: 2,544 tons, 9.1 % - Armour Deck: 3,577 tons, 12.8 % - Conning Tower: 134 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 3,746 tons, 13.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,108 tons, 36.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,650 tons, 9.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 40,400 lbs / 18,325 Kg = 46.8 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 6.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.01 Metacentric height 4.2 ft / 1.3 m Roll period: 18.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.53 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.25 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.584 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.08 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (63 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (63 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.80 ft / 7.86 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 84.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 152.0 % Waterplane Area: 42,968 Square feet or 3,992 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 115 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 156 lbs/sq ft or 761 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.46 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Monday, February 07, 2005

### The German scout Ger/CS/1909

This was my scout design for 1909 for the Germans. It was inspired by the large Italian destroyers. The armament is 4-5in QF and 2-21in TT. The speed is very high, being 36 knots. That made achieving a balanced design all the more difficult, although it could be done (SHP/ton of machinery weight being 48.76):

Ger/CS/1909, Germany Scout laid down 1909 (Engine 1933) Displacement: 2,010 t light; 2,079 t standard; 2,173 t normal; 2,248 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 350.84 ft / 350.00 ft x 37.00 ft x 16.00 ft (normal load) 106.94 m / 106.68 m x 11.28 m x 4.88 m Armament: 4 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1909 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 250 lbs / 113 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 2 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 65,096 shp / 48,561 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 4,200nm at 10.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 169 tons Complement: 158 - 206 Cost: £0.283 million / $1.134 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 31 tons, 1.4 % Machinery: 1,335 tons, 61.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 644 tons, 29.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 162 tons, 7.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 404 lbs / 183 Kg = 6.5 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.39 Metacentric height 2.0 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.35 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.367 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.46 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 18.71 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 70 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 54 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forecastle (28 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (28 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 17.18 ft / 5.24 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 209.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 127.1 % Waterplane Area: 7,867 Square feet or 731 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 54 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 37 lbs/sq ft or 181 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.45 - Longitudinal: 2.99 - Overall: 0.54 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is extremely poor Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, February 06, 2005

### OK, so the scale is actually 2pixels to the foot

I see that my actual drawing scale is two pixels to the foot, for my GIF drawings. I am currently working on a drawing for my German Ger/DD/1905 design. I am starting, as Frank Fox advocates, with an inboard profile, so that I know that I have the internal layout correctly depicted. Do an inboard profile, as Frank says you should do first, regardless if you are drawing an early 20th Century Dreadnought or a 17th Century sailing warship. That assures that decks are the right height and that ports and so one are placed reasonably. Otherwise, you run into what most of the artists on the Springsharp forums, do: they just draw, and disregard the internal layout (seemingly).

### To really see the drawing in the last post, you have to work at it, I'm sorry to say

The obvious downside to the drawing I just posted, is that you have to click the picture to see the larger size drawing, and then view at a larger size, because the one-pixel lines disappear, until you see it at full size (nasty thing).

### Cross-published with Former-Naval-Person

This is my first attempt at a higher resolution GIF drawing that is done to scale. I was amazed at how readily I was able to produce something that I thought looked good. I had been inspired by the GIF drawing on a Springsharp related forum showing the USS Texas rebuilt along the lines of the Italian Conte di Cavour. While I thought the drawing didn't account for the internal layout required, I still thought that the drawing was technically well-executed, and I realized that I could do something similar.

### The main problem with posting Springsharp reports are that they are so wide

The most bothersome thing about posting Springsharp reports is that they "go off the edge" into the dark background. The good news is that you can copy and paste the whole text, for those who are interested. I may end putting my new high-res drawings on Kentishknock.com, as it where I have most of my more formal drawings. I have thought about putting the whole building program from the game in 1971 there, with specs and drawings.

## Saturday, February 05, 2005

### Another try at my Ger/DL/1914 design

The design of the Ger/DL/1914 was inspired by the German ships, some built for Russia, that had three stacks and 4-4.1in guns, with 6-TT. By taking care of the SHP/ton issue, the design works well. A drawback of the basic concept is that it is low-volume, above and below the waterline.

Ger/DL/1914, Germany Destroyer Leader laid down 1914 (Engine 1933) Displacement: 1,214 t light; 1,262 t standard; 1,404 t normal; 1,518 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 322.73 ft / 320.00 ft x 32.00 ft x 12.00 ft (normal load) 98.37 m / 97.54 m x 9.75 m x 3.66 m Armament: 4 - 4.13" / 105 mm guns in single mounts, 35.32lbs / 16.02kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 141 lbs / 64 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 6 - 23.6" / 600.0001 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 31,614 shp / 23,584 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 256 tons Complement: 114 - 149 Cost: £0.201 million / $0.804 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 18 tons, 1.3 % Machinery: 719 tons, 51.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 478 tons, 34.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 190 tons, 13.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 463 lbs / 210 Kg = 13.1 x 4.1 " / 105 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.34 Metacentric height 1.5 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 10.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.31 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has raised forecastle, rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.400 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 17.89 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m (12.00 ft / 3.66 m aft of break) - Mid (35 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m (12.00 ft / 3.66 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Stern: 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Average freeboard: 14.21 ft / 4.33 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 175.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 66.0 % Waterplane Area: 6,303 Square feet or 586 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 71 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 37 lbs/sq ft or 180 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.57 - Longitudinal: 2.52 - Overall: 0.66 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is cramped

### I just finished the raw drawing for the Ger/BB/1907 design

I have my initial drawing, done as a high-resolution GIF file, to scale (1 pixel = 1 foot). I hope that I will be able to color the drawing, much as the example drawing that inspired me to try drawing this way. I just started the coloring process, and can see that it will work. I just have to fix these odd light blue and green pixels that are artifacts of converting to GIF format and then resizing the drawing to the 1 pixel to the foot scale.

## Friday, February 04, 2005

### I've been working on improving my ship drawings

The drawings in the forums associated with Springsharp are invaluable to me. I've switched to GIF format and thinner lines. It really helps the quality. I'm working on a drawing for the Ger/BB/1907, based on a sketch I did from last year. I hope to have it ready to post by tomorrow, sometime.

### Yet another run at the Ger/DD/1905 design

So, by going to higher power output machinery, I can make my F-class like design for a German destroyer for 1905 work. The ship was intended to make 32 knots and have 2-4in QF and 2-18in TT. That should be a pretty conservative design, only marginally edgy on speed.

Ger/DD/1905, Germany Destroyer laid down 1905 (Engine 1933) Displacement: 711 t light; 736 t standard; 797 t normal; 846 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 270.33 ft / 270.00 ft x 28.00 ft x 10.00 ft (normal load) 82.40 m / 82.30 m x 8.53 m x 3.05 m Armament: 2 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 64 lbs / 29 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 2 - 18.0" / 457.2 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 23,972 shp / 17,883 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,600nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 110 tons Complement: 74 - 97 Cost: £0.090 million / $0.361 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 8 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 420 tons, 52.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 283 tons, 35.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 86 tons, 10.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 233 lbs / 106 Kg = 7.3 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.24 Metacentric height 1.1 ft / 0.3 m Roll period: 11.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.25 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.369 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.64 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.43 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 70 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 62 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 1.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Forecastle (31 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Mid (31 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m (11.00 ft / 3.35 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 11.00 ft / 3.35 m - Stern: 11.00 ft / 3.35 m - Average freeboard: 13.29 ft / 4.05 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 178.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 112.7 % Waterplane Area: 4,594 Square feet or 427 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 55 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 29 lbs/sq ft or 140 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.49 - Longitudinal: 3.28 - Overall: 0.59 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### The Swift achieved something like 64 SHP/ton in trials

When the British large destroyer Swift in trials, circa 1907, she produced about 50,000 SHP on a machinery weight of about 781 tons (420 tons boilers and 361 tons turbines). That comes out to about 64 SHP/ton. Admittedly, she was pressed to produce that much power, and she was so overweight that she was only good for 35 knots, maximum. I wanted to point this out, though, so that if you had concerns about high power output per ton of weight, it is not out of line.

### Back to the bizarre: the super fast (Alternative-2) battlecruiser

So, what is the best I could do, with a relatively short fast battlecruiser? I took my "Alternative-2" design for the 192x super fast battlecruiser, which has a high-freeboard, flush deck, with a modest clipper bow, with a good deal of flare. I was able to achieve 40 knots, but had to make some sacrifices to do it.

GB/CB/1927 Super Fast-Alt2, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1927 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 37,494 t light; 38,752 t standard; 40,000 t normal; 40,998 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 838.99 ft / 836.00 ft x 108.00 ft x 40.00 ft (normal load) 255.72 m / 254.81 m x 32.92 m x 12.19 m Armament: 4 - 17.00" / 432 mm guns (2x2 guns), 2,456.50lbs / 1,114.25kg shells, 1927 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1927 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 10,210 lbs / 4,631 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 99 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 7.00" / 178 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 6 shafts, 345,860 shp / 258,011 Kw = 40.00 kts Range 7,000nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,247 tons Complement: 1,413 - 1,838 Cost: £13.117 million / $52.466 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,276 tons, 3.2 % Armour: 8,674 tons, 21.7 % - Belts: 2,714 tons, 6.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 959 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 1,644 tons, 4.1 % - Armour Deck: 3,180 tons, 8.0 % - Conning Tower: 176 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 8,734 tons, 21.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 18,810 tons, 47.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,506 tons, 6.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 48,101 lbs / 21,818 Kg = 19.6 x 17.0 " / 432 mm shells or 5.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.06 Metacentric height 6.2 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 18.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.56 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.388 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.74 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 34.30 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 52 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Forecastle (20 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Mid (50 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Stern: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Average freeboard: 30.64 ft / 9.34 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 116.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 231.7 % Waterplane Area: 57,303 Square feet or 5,324 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 110 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 210 lbs/sq ft or 1,027 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.91 - Longitudinal: 2.24 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### There has been discussion about rebuilding the Tiger in the 1920's

At the NavWarGames Yahoo group, there has been a lot of dicussion about rebuilding the Tiger and upgunning to 8-15in guns in the process. I experimented in Springsharp with a 1927 Tiger-like battlecruiser. I was impressed with what could be done:

GB/CB/1927 Tiger style, Great Britain Enter ship type laid down 1927 Displacement: 31,191 t light; 32,662 t standard; 35,091 t normal; 37,033 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 714.00 ft / 714.00 ft x 102.00 ft x 31.00 ft (normal load) 217.63 m / 217.63 m x 31.09 m x 9.45 m Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1927 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1927 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread 12 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 6 - 4.70" / 119 mm guns in single mounts, 51.91lbs / 23.55kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 15,107 lbs / 6,853 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 570.00 ft / 173.74 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 140.00 ft / 42.67 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m 4.00 ft / 1.22 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 123 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 570.00 ft / 173.74 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 3.50" / 89 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 122,686 shp / 91,524 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,371 tons Complement: 1,281 - 1,666 Cost: £11.710 million / $46.838 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,888 tons, 5.4 % Armour: 11,065 tons, 31.5 % - Belts: 3,860 tons, 11.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 886 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 2,839 tons, 8.1 % - Armour Deck: 3,273 tons, 9.3 % - Conning Tower: 208 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 3,873 tons, 11.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 14,365 tons, 40.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,900 tons, 11.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 41,829 lbs / 18,973 Kg = 24.8 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 6.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.04 Metacentric height 5.6 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 18.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.65 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.20 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.544 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.72 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (67 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (67 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m (19.00 ft / 5.79 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 25.70 ft / 7.83 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 94.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 142.8 % Waterplane Area: 50,541 Square feet or 4,695 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 196 lbs/sq ft or 955 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.56 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

Subscribe to:
Posts (Atom)