## Thursday, March 31, 2005

### This is a work in progress--UPDATED some more

This is a work in progress: a photo of the German flush-decked 1905 battleship of which I have previously written. The ship has 8-12in/45 BLR and 12-6in/45 QF guns. The belt is 12in. The dimensions are 490ft x 90ft x 28ft. I have worked on this some more, since I originally posted it. I fixed the perspective (hopefully) and added boats.

## Wednesday, March 30, 2005

### I keep making incremental improvements to photos

The latest piece of photoart to the improved treatment is the Ger/CS/1905 drawing that shows the ship in profile, steaming at moderate speed.

## Tuesday, March 29, 2005

### The new GB/BB/1906 fast battleship photo

I had tried to post this earlier, but Blogger was down for a good part of the day. This is my upgraded photoart piece of the GB/BB/1906 battleship steaming at high speed. There were perspective and proportion issues that I had wanted to fix, so the picture would match the outboard profile drawing.

## Monday, March 28, 2005

### The new, improved Ger/CS/1905 scout cruiser steaming

This is the revised scout cruiser (Ger/CS/1905 design) in profile.

### New GB/PG/1915 fast gunboat pictures

These are reworkings of what I have been working on previously. The bottom is closer to the original piece, an A-H torpedo boat.

### I had an alternate design for the GB/BB/1915 battleship

In 2002, I had an alternate design and look for the GB/BB/1915 battleship. The look was like the Hood, except for a flush deck and triple turrets. The displacement was planned to be 70,000 tons, but Springsharp doesn't think that much displacement is necessary, so it comes out considerably lighter:

GB/BB/1915 alternate 1, GB/BB/1915 Battleship laid down 1915 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 57,095 t light; 60,253 t standard; 63,410 t normal; 65,935 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 801.05 ft / 800.00 ft x 135.00 ft x 36.50 ft (normal load) 244.16 m / 243.84 m x 41.15 m x 11.13 m Armament: 9 - 20.00" / 508 mm guns (3x3 guns), 4,000.00lbs / 1,814.37kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 37,500 lbs / 17,010 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 85 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 18.0" / 457 mm - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 91,018 shp / 67,899 Kw = 24.50 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,683 tons Complement: 1,997 - 2,597 Cost: £9.219 million / $36.876 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,688 tons, 7.4 % Armour: 23,503 tons, 37.1 % - Belts: 6,185 tons, 9.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,709 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 5,112 tons, 8.1 % - Armour Deck: 9,880 tons, 15.6 % - Conning Tower: 617 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 2,873 tons, 4.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 26,031 tons, 41.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,315 tons, 10.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 88,362 lbs / 40,080 Kg = 22.1 x 20.0 " / 508 mm shells or 15.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 10.7 ft / 3.2 m Roll period: 17.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 73 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.56 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.46 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.563 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.93 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 44 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (50 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 23.83 ft / 7.26 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 82.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 169.1 % Waterplane Area: 76,297 Square feet or 7,088 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 95 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 259 lbs/sq ft or 1,266 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.58 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, March 27, 2005

### The Ger/CB/1905 design (the Bluecher)

This is my photoart for the German battlecruiser Blücher, built to the Ger/CB/1905 design. The ship is 700ft long with 4-12in/45 BLR and 12-4in QF guns. The side armor is just 4in. The speed is 31 knots. Only the one ship was to be built to this design. Here is the picture:

### New Ger/CS/1905 profile drawing

This is the too small version of the Ger/CS/1905 drawing, the outboard profile. This matches the recent photoart pieces better than what I had. Also, rigging really doesn't work in the 1 pixel to 6in scale, so I removed it. Flag hoists can't be 6in in diameter.

## Saturday, March 26, 2005

### Yet another Ger/CS/1905 photo

I have a new photoart piece for the Ger/CS/1905 design. This one sort of looks like an illustration from the 1894 Brassey's Naval Annual. I hope it looks more photographic than that, but I'm not sure it does. This one is from the side and is pretty accurately measured. The length, as you might know, is 370 ft, the armament is 5-4in QF and 2-18in TT and the speed is 36 knots. This is the picture:

### My newest photoart piece ended up more as a drawing: Ger/CS/1905

This is the current version of my new drawing of a Ger/CS/1905 scout cruiser. This is a 370ft vessel with 5-4in QF guns and 2-18in TT. The designed speed is 36 knots. There are patches of 2in armor over the machinery spaces. I'm still hoping that I can make it more photo-like, but this is the crurent state.

## Friday, March 25, 2005

### The new version of my GB/PG/1915 fast gunboat photo

I've not totally abandoned this picture, but it is such a low-resolution photo and I necesssarily had to do a great deal of drawing on it. This is what it looks like, so far:

### The tiny Ger/DD/1911 design

I was surprised that I could make the Ger/DD/1911 design work in Springsharp. The problem is that the destroyer is only 240ft long and nominally 800 tons. The speed is a moderate 32 knots. It carries 2-4in QF guns 4-21inTT and 20 mines. This was the first of my designs from 1971 to carry mines, and I continued that, as it is very much a part of German smallcraft. To make the design work in Springsharp, it has the usual exaggerated draft. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/DD/1911, Enter country Enter ship type laid down 1911 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 658 t light; 682 t standard; 770 t normal; 841 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 242.33 ft / 240.00 ft x 26.00 ft x 12.00 ft (normal load) 73.86 m / 73.15 m x 7.92 m x 3.66 m Armament: 2 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1911 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 64 lbs / 29 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 25,440 shp / 18,978 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 159 tons Complement: 73 - 95 Cost: £0.086 million / $0.344 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 8 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 401 tons, 52.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 223 tons, 29.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 112 tons, 14.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 25 tons, 3.2 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 191 lbs / 86 Kg = 6.0 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.29 Metacentric height 1.0 ft / 0.3 m Roll period: 10.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.15 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.360 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.23 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 15.49 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 72 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 1.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Forecastle (22 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Mid (22 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m (12.00 ft / 3.66 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Stern: 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Average freeboard: 13.41 ft / 4.09 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 180.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 66.2 % Waterplane Area: 3,787 Square feet or 352 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 51 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 24 lbs/sq ft or 117 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.42 - Longitudinal: 4.54 - Overall: 0.53 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is cramped

## Thursday, March 24, 2005

### Springsharp gives a glowing report to the Ger/BB/1910 design

The Ger/BB/1910 design was intended to be about a 32,000 ton vessel with 14in armor and 9-12in/50 BLR with 8-6in/50 QF guns. The designed speed was 23 knots. The Springsharp report is quite glowing, and was easy to finalize. I only had to raise the displacement to 33,350 tons normal displacement to achieve suffiicent structural strength.

Ger/BB/1910, Germany Battleship laid down 1910 (Engine 1921) Displacement: 29,717 t light; 31,116 t standard; 33,350 t normal; 35,137 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 645.00 ft / 645.00 ft x 106.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 196.60 m / 196.60 m x 32.31 m x 9.14 m Armament: 9 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 8,640 lbs / 3,919 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 435.00 ft / 132.59 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 104 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 435.00 ft / 132.59 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 6.00" / 152 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 51,219 shp / 38,209 Kw = 23.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,022 tons Complement: 1,233 - 1,604 Cost: £2.194 million / $8.777 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,080 tons, 3.2 % Armour: 13,852 tons, 41.5 % - Belts: 4,241 tons, 12.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 901 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 3,005 tons, 9.0 % - Armour Deck: 5,392 tons, 16.2 % - Conning Tower: 313 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 1,764 tons, 5.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 13,021 tons, 39.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,633 tons, 10.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 84,733 lbs / 38,434 Kg = 98.1 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 18.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.03 Metacentric height 5.8 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 18.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 100 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.76 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 2.00 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.569 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.08 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.40 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 46 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Mid (68 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m (23.00 ft / 7.01 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 27.92 ft / 8.51 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 53.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 211.4 % Waterplane Area: 48,577 Square feet or 4,513 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 128 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 186 lbs/sq ft or 911 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.21 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Wednesday, March 23, 2005

### The GB/PG/1915 photoart really looks drawn

You really can tell that the GB/PG/1915 fast gunboat photo looks drawn, not so much like a photograph. The design is nominally 800 tons, 265ft long, capable of 32 knots, and carries 4-4in/50 QF guns as its sole armament. This is the companion design to the GB/CS/1915 design.

### A new version of my super-fast battlecruiser photo

This is a new version of my super-fast battlecruiser photoart. I worked at trying to make the photo match my pencil drawing more closely. These are 800ft long and carry 4-17in/45 BLR and 16-4in/50 QF guns. The side armor is 8in and the designed speed is about 37 knots. I would lay down four of these in 1916 (Achilles, Swiftsure, Garland, and Bonaventure). They are intended to replace the original group of 12in-gunned 33 knot vessels built starting in 1905 (such as the Essex and Sussex, the original pair).

### The photo of the GB/CS/1915 scout cruiser

This is my photoart for the British scout cruiser type GB/CB/1915. As the war progressed, the type would be produced in numbers, and a few of a similar but larger type would be built as well. These would be used both with the fleet and with organizations such as the Harwich Force and Dover Patrol. The type is 405ft long and has 4-6in QF guns with 4-21in TT. The designed speed is 32 knots.

## Tuesday, March 22, 2005

### This just goes to show how critical SHP/ton is: GB/PG/1915

The GB/PG/1915 fast gunboat really works well with a high SHP/ton. High is a relative term, as in this case, it means 61.74 SHP/ton. The Swift from 1905-1907 could be pressed to 64 SHP/ton. This design was intended to be 800 tons, 260ft x 27ft x 9.5ft, 4-4in QF guns, and 32 knots. This is the resulting Springsharp report:

GB/PG/1915, Great Britain Fast Gunboat laid down 1915 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 790 t light; 819 t standard; 909 t normal; 981 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 261.70 ft / 260.00 ft x 27.00 ft x 10.00 ft (normal load) 79.77 m / 79.25 m x 8.23 m x 3.05 m Armament: 4 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline, evenly spread, all raised mounts Aft Main mounts separated by engine room Weight of broadside 128 lbs / 58 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 28,464 shp / 21,234 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 162 tons Complement: 82 - 107 Cost: £0.154 million / $0.614 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 16 tons, 1.8 % Machinery: 461 tons, 50.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 313 tons, 34.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 119 tons, 13.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 265 lbs / 120 Kg = 8.3 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.21 Metacentric height 1.0 ft / 0.3 m Roll period: 11.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.70 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.07 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.453 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.63 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.12 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 74 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Forecastle (20 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Mid (50 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Average freeboard: 15.54 ft / 4.74 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 177.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 158.4 % Waterplane Area: 4,489 Square feet or 417 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 58 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 27 lbs/sq ft or 132 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.41 - Longitudinal: 5.44 - Overall: 0.53 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### The GB/CS/1915 scout cruiser in Springsharp

I have a photoart piece showing Cliff's British scout cruiser design GB/CS/1915, so I thought I would try Springsharp to see if I could get a better result. The dimensions were 405ft x 41ft x 14ft, with a normal displacement of 3,200 tons. The armament was 4-6in QF guns with 4-21in TT. There was no protection except gun shields and splinter protection on the bridge structure. The intended power was 40,000 SHP with a desired speed of 32 knots. The machinery is built to destroyer standards, and the vessel is very much like a large destroyer with cruiser guns. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CS/1915, Great Britain Scout Cruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 3,284 t light; 3,395 t standard; 3,753 t normal; 4,039 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 406.84 ft / 405.00 ft x 41.00 ft x 14.00 ft (normal load) 124.00 m / 123.44 m x 12.50 m x 4.27 m Armament: 4 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 432 lbs / 196 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Conning tower: 1.00" / 25 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 57,137 shp / 42,624 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 644 tons Complement: 239 - 311 Cost: £0.527 million / $2.108 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 54 tons, 1.4 % Armour: 19 tons, 0.5 % - Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 14 tons, 0.4 % - Armour Deck: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Conning Tower: 5 tons, 0.1 % Machinery: 1,443 tons, 38.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,768 tons, 47.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 469 tons, 12.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 3,053 lbs / 1,385 Kg = 28.3 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 0.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 1.6 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 13.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 65 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.67 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.29 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, low quarterdeck Block coefficient: 0.565 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.88 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.12 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m before break) - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 20.86 ft / 6.36 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 135.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 160.1 % Waterplane Area: 11,753 Square feet or 1,092 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 70 lbs/sq ft or 342 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.84 - Longitudinal: 4.75 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Monday, March 21, 2005

### Another version of the GB/BB/1915 photoart

I have worked some more on the GB/BB/1915 battleship photoart, and have a slightly improved version. Mostly, I needed to do more Gimp work to fix the sky, water, and background. This is the photoart:

### A GB/PG/1914 riding at anchor

This is another view of a GB/PG/1914 fast gunboat with 3-5in/50 QF guns and a top speed of 36 knots. This gunboat is at anchor. They functioned much as destroyers in the anti-torpedo role, but lacked torpedoes of their own. They really fulfilled one typical British view from 1914 that the only important role for destroyers was to protect larger ships from attack. The attack role was de-emphasized for British destroyers.

## Sunday, March 20, 2005

### My first attempt at a photograph of a GB/PG/1914 fast gunboat

I have to give thanks to Mike at World War 2 Cruiser Operations for his fine site, with an amazing collection of photos. The photoart for the GB/PG/1914 fast gunboat at high speed is one of several that started with a picture from his site, and then I did a lot of drawing with MS Paint and Gimp (the Gnu Image Manipulation Program). The latter is an amazing free graphics tool that I increasingly rely upon. Anyway, this is my current version of a GB/PG/1914 gunboat. As I flesh things out, I intend to assign names to go with all the destroyer types that only have "hull numbers". This is a 275ft long ship (on the waterline) that carries 3-5in/50 QF guns and can make 36 knots:

### My latest photoart for the GB/BB/1908

I have been studying the original pencil drawing from 1971 for the GB/BB/1908, and used that to revise my photoart of the design. The primary differences are that the 8-6in guns should be all on the upper deck level, and distributed equally between fore and aft. The funnels and superstructure are also lower. I noticed, too, that there should be a deckhouse just aft the mainmast. This is how the revised picture looks:

### Another attempt to calculate the GB/PG/1914 fast gunboat

I have a (moderately) successful Springsharp report for the GB/PG/1914 design for a fast gunboat (36 knots). The proportions are somewhat strange, as the draft is too deep, but it is what is necessary to get an acceptable Springsharp report. The armament is 3-5in/50 QF guns, with two guns forward and one aft. The forecastle is raised and there are two funnels, with three boilers, with two trunked into the first funnel. I suspect that the strangeness is due to the inability of Springsharp to have a high-enough SHP/ton, plus the empirical power calculation equation wants to high a power for the speed. This is the report:

GB/PG/1914, Great Britain Fast Gunboat laid down 1914 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 1,087 t light; 1,137 t standard; 1,189 t normal; 1,231 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 275.80 ft / 275.00 ft x 29.00 ft x 15.00 ft (normal load) 84.06 m / 83.82 m x 8.84 m x 4.57 m Armament: 3 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward Weight of broadside 188 lbs / 85 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 51,135 shp / 38,147 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 2,500nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 95 tons Complement: 100 - 131 Cost: £0.194 million / $0.777 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 23 tons, 2.0 % Machinery: 678 tons, 57.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 386 tons, 32.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 102 tons, 8.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 213 lbs / 97 Kg = 3.4 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.27 Metacentric height 1.2 ft / 0.4 m Roll period: 11.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.47 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.348 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.48 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.58 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 74 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forecastle (34 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Mid (34 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m (13.00 ft / 3.96 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Stern: 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Average freeboard: 15.99 ft / 4.87 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 199.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 119.9 % Waterplane Area: 4,843 Square feet or 450 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 43 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 30 lbs/sq ft or 145 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.38 - Longitudinal: 5.81 - Overall: 0.50 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Saturday, March 19, 2005

### A British torpedo boat (GB/DT/1914) at high speed

This is my first attempt at depicting a torpedo boat of the GB/DT/1914 design. This piece of photoart shows one of the vessels at high speed, as if attacking. The GB/DT/1914 design was intended to be 900 tons normal displacement, to have a top speed of 32 knots, and to carry 1-4in QF gun and 9-21 inch torpedo tubes in triple mounts, aft. The gun is forward on the flush-decked hull, just forward of the enclosed pilot house with open bridge wings. There is a single, trunked stack, reminiscent of a German WWII torpedo boat.

## Friday, March 18, 2005

### My latest Springsharp attempt for the GB/CB/Super Fast Original design

I just played around with Springsharp to see what I might be able to achieve for a "super fast battlecruiser" of the "light" type, in that it only has 4 large caliber guns. I was able to have an 8in belt and 37 knots maximum speed. I was happy with that, as the displacement stayed low. The original intent was to have a normal displacement of 32,000 tons. I am embarrassed to say that intended maximum speed was 52 knots. That was based on a misunderstanding, back in 1973, of the effects of friction, in particular. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/Super Fast Original Concept A0, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1921 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 30,839 t light; 31,932 t standard; 32,866 t normal; 33,613 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 800.58 ft / 800.00 ft x 102.00 ft x 38.00 ft (normal load) 244.02 m / 243.84 m x 31.09 m x 11.58 m Armament: 4 - 17.00" / 432 mm guns (2x2 guns), 2,456.50lbs / 1,114.25kg shells, 1921 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (8x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1921 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 10,338 lbs / 4,689 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 75 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.50" / 64 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 271,218 shp / 202,329 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,681 tons Complement: 1,219 - 1,586 Cost: £7.951 million / $31.805 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,292 tons, 3.9 % Armour: 7,330 tons, 22.3 % - Belts: 2,799 tons, 8.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 808 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 1,428 tons, 4.3 % - Armour Deck: 2,295 tons, 7.0 % - Conning Tower: 0 tons, 0.0 % Machinery: 6,849 tons, 20.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 15,367 tons, 46.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,027 tons, 6.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 32,537 lbs / 14,758 Kg = 13.2 x 17.0 " / 432 mm shells or 4.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.06 Metacentric height 5.8 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 17.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.48 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.371 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.84 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 53 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (40 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Mid (40 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 24.48 ft / 7.46 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 120.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 155.0 % Waterplane Area: 49,612 Square feet or 4,609 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 105 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 202 lbs/sq ft or 984 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.84 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### Draft photoart for the GB/CB/Super Fast Battlecruiser (original concept)

These evening, I started a photoart piece for the British Superfast Battlecruiser, as I have called it. The original concept was for a speed beyond what is feasible. With Springsharp, it seems like a speed of as much as 40 knots would be possible. For those who don't remember, this type has 4-17in/45 BLR and 16-4in/50 QF guns. The armor is on the order of 8in on the belt. The whole purpose was to explore the limits of speed and striking power. I will probably continue to tweak and refine the drawing. I say that, because that is the pattern I have been following, as I learn the art of drawing on photographs.

### The Ger/BB/1905 photoart

I liked this one photograph,mostly due to the water. The ship is too much a silhouette, but I used it anyway, partly because I didn't realize just how dark it was. This is my current version, much hacked upon.

## Thursday, March 17, 2005

### One BBX underway (the GB/BB/1915)

I created my initial photoart version of a battleship of the BBX type (GB/BB/1915). I keep using the same basic ingredients, as I like the contrast and shades of gray that are involved. The BBX is an expansion of the GB/BB/1914 type, except with more beam and 9-20in/45 and 24-5in/50 QF guns. The armor and speed are comparable. They are also both 800 feet long.

## Wednesday, March 16, 2005

### My new GB/CB/1905 photoart

I reconsidered the proportions on my photoart for the GB/CB/1905 design (the Essex and Sussex). I thought that what I had was too long and low, with too small a turret. This is my revision:

### I finally have my new picture of the Macbeth class (GB/BB/1912) battleships

My friend Cliff named his battleships in the big 1912 estimates after Shakespearian characters. The lead ship was the MacBeth. The ships were 700 feet long, were intended for 22 knots, but could make something more like 25 knots. They armament was 9-15in/42 and 12-6in/50 QF guns. The belt was 14in with a 7in deck. They turned out to be larger than Cliff had hoped. He had hoped for 32,500 tons, but they were much bigger. They ended up 42,620 tons normal displacement. Considering what they were trying to be, that is not unreasonable.

### The "BBX" design revisited yet again: GB/BB/1915

I was looking at the specification for the GB/BB/1915, which my friend Cliff called the "BBX". I noticed that the intended SHP/ton was 30, so I took that and started working in Springsharp. I kept lowering the date, as the SHP/ton was "too good" for later dates. I finally ended up with 1921, which actually produced too low a number, but not too bad, either. The final figure was 29.04 SHP/ton. The specifications that I started with were:

- Displacement: 70,000 tons
- Length: 800 ft
- Beam: 135 ft
- Draft: 36.5 ft
- Belt: 18 inches
- Deck: 7 inches
- Speed: 20 knots, but expecting to reach 24 knots
- SHP: 90,000
- Armament: 9-20in/45, 24-5in/45 QF

GB/BB/1915 (BBX), Great Britain Enter ship type laid down 1915 (Engine 1921) Displacement: 64,918 t light; 68,245 t standard; 71,879 t normal; 74,785 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 803.01 ft / 800.00 ft x 135.00 ft x 38.00 ft (normal load) 244.76 m / 243.84 m x 41.15 m x 11.58 m Armament: 9 - 20.00" / 508 mm guns (3x3 guns), 4,000.00lbs / 1,814.37kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 37,500 lbs / 17,010 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 535.00 ft / 163.07 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 535.00 ft / 163.07 m 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 11.00" / 279 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 92,297 shp / 68,853 Kw = 24.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,540 tons Complement: 2,194 - 2,853 Cost: £9.679 million / $38.718 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,688 tons, 6.5 % Armour: 26,673 tons, 37.1 % - Belts: 7,185 tons, 10.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,019 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 6,706 tons, 9.3 % - Armour Deck: 10,354 tons, 14.4 % - Conning Tower: 410 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 3,178 tons, 4.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 30,379 tons, 42.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,961 tons, 9.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 102,978 lbs / 46,710 Kg = 25.7 x 20.0 " / 508 mm shells or 19.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.03 Metacentric height 8.3 ft / 2.5 m Roll period: 19.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 73 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.85 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.45 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.613 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.93 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 44 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 25.32 ft / 7.72 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 74.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 173.5 % Waterplane Area: 79,953 Square feet or 7,428 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 102 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 285 lbs/sq ft or 1,394 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.64 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Tuesday, March 15, 2005

### The GB/BB/1908 battleship photoart (Updated)

This is my first attempt at the GB/BB/1908 battleship photoart (although slightly updated this evening). The ship has 9-12in/50 and 8-6in/50 QF guns. The belt is 13in and I believe that the deck armor is 4in. The nominal top speed is 25 knots. I had hoped to have the GB/BB/1912 photoart done tonight, but the image did not get sent "home".

## Monday, March 14, 2005

### How about "The World's Warships" for an annual name

I have long wanted to make a naval annual for imaginery ships. It seems pretty obvious that the real name can't be used, but how about "The World's Warships 1919".

## Sunday, March 13, 2005

### The GB/BB/1914 photoart-first draft

This is my first cut (well, a slightly improved version) of a photograph of the GB/BB/1914 design that has the last Springsharp report posted. I worked from the original pencil drawing from 1971 when I did the grapic editing. I worked from one of my favorite starting points, and did a whole lot of drawing to get to this point. I probably could have posted a slightly
larger picture, and the higher resolution picture is availble in the usual directory on the server.

### Another run at the GB/BB/1914 design in Springsharp

Cliff's GB/BB/1914 design was supposed to be somewhere between 45,000 and 48,500 tons normal displacement. To make it work in Springsharp, with the sort of minimal specs I used, the design ended more on the order of 60,000 tons, except with a greater draft (35ft). I was able to make the 18in belt work. I just found the original drawing, and it shows a flush deck, probably with a transom stern, a single, trunked funnel, and a tower mast (very anachronistic, but that's the breaks). I keep wanting to recalculate ships, for better or worse. This is the new Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1914, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1914 (Engine 1921) Displacement: 55,114 t light; 57,560 t standard; 60,672 t normal; 63,161 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 801.08 ft / 800.00 ft x 120.00 ft x 35.00 ft (normal load) 244.17 m / 243.84 m x 36.58 m x 10.67 m Armament: 9 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 20 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (10x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 27,494 lbs / 12,471 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 104 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 15.0" / 381 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 85,368 shp / 63,685 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,601 tons Complement: 1,932 - 2,512 Cost: £6.653 million / $26.612 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,437 tons, 5.7 % Armour: 23,915 tons, 39.4 % - Belts: 7,154 tons, 11.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,618 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 5,074 tons, 8.4 % - Armour Deck: 9,769 tons, 16.1 % - Conning Tower: 299 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 2,940 tons, 4.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 24,822 tons, 40.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,558 tons, 9.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 98,124 lbs / 44,508 Kg = 33.7 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 17.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.02 Metacentric height 6.9 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 19.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 74 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.94 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.48 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.632 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.67 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 32.89 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (18 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (0 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (24.00 ft / 7.32 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (18 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 25.01 ft / 7.62 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 70.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 181.2 % Waterplane Area: 75,437 Square feet or 7,008 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 249 lbs/sq ft or 1,213 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.49 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### The GB/BB/1908 battleship design (Hindustan)

My friend Cliff's 1908 battleship design had three triple 12in gun turrets. The maximum speed was 25 knots with the armor basis being 13in. The ship was intended to fill the battleship-cruiser role. Hopefully, there are no glaring errors that I'm not seeing. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1908, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1908 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 25,937 t light; 27,011 t standard; 29,298 t normal; 31,128 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 650.00 ft / 650.00 ft x 100.00 ft x 29.00 ft (normal load) 198.12 m / 198.12 m x 30.48 m x 8.84 m Armament: 9 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1908 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1908 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 8,640 lbs / 3,919 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 430.00 ft / 131.06 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 430.00 ft / 131.06 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 63,971 shp / 47,722 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,117 tons Complement: 1,119 - 1,455 Cost: £2.143 million / $8.573 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,080 tons, 3.7 % Armour: 11,160 tons, 38.1 % - Belts: 4,118 tons, 14.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 859 tons, 2.9 % - Armament: 2,660 tons, 9.1 % - Armour Deck: 3,338 tons, 11.4 % - Conning Tower: 184 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 2,345 tons, 8.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,352 tons, 38.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,361 tons, 11.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 50,076 lbs / 22,714 Kg = 58.0 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 10.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.03 Metacentric height 5.3 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 18.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 83 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.54 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.66 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.544 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.50 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 48 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (67 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (67 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (19.00 ft / 5.79 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 25.83 ft / 7.87 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 68.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 145.9 % Waterplane Area: 45,109 Square feet or 4,191 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 120 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 174 lbs/sq ft or 850 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.83 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Saturday, March 12, 2005

### A new photoart piece of the GB/CB/1905 from the side

I have been working on a broadside view of one of the GB/CB/1905 battlecruisers. My wife liked this the best of the three that I have just posted. This is either the Essex or Sussex at anchor, and viewed from directly broadside. I have been working to get this and the other GB/CB/1905 photoart piece to match as closely as I could achieve.

### My latest version of the GB/CB/1905 photoart

I have been revising my original photoart piece for the GB/CB/1905 design (Essex and Sussex). The intermediate versions are largely online at Graphic-Artist-2.com. The higher resolution version is also there. I have been trying my hand at photoart for just over two weeks, after reading mail from David Briedis at Wolf's Den. He told me that he only uses MS Paint, and I was impressed that he could do so well with so simple a tool.

### New GB/DL/1906 photoart

This is the lower resolution picture for the GB/DL/1906 design. Thanks to Mike, at World War 2 Cruiser Operations, for the picture of the W-class destroyer Windsor, which was what I used as grist for my photo-manipulation to produce this picture. My friend Cliff didn't name the ships. They only had "hull numbers" (the 1906 program ships were DL-100 to DL-103). You can see the higher-resolution version at Graphic-Artist-2.com/images/shipart/.

### HMS Swift in Springsharp

The main problem with the existing Springsharp program is that SHP/ton is too low for destroyers, regardless of where you set the date. That may not be universally a problem, but for HMS Swift, it certainly is an issue. The real ship, launched in 1907, could generate 50,000 SHP from machinery weighing about 781 tons (boilers weighed 420 tons and engines weighed 361 tons). With the machinery year set to 1950, all I could get was 53.08 SHP/ton. The real ship could generate about 64 SHP/ton when pressed. I don't have the guns specified right, but I don't think it affects the outcome by much. By reducing the displacement to 1,853 tons normal, the design "worked" in Springsharp:

Swift, Great Britain Destroyer Leader laid down 1906 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 1,668 t light; 1,722 t standard; 1,853 t normal; 1,957 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 345.40 ft / 345.00 ft x 34.10 ft x 12.50 ft (normal load) 105.28 m / 105.16 m x 10.39 m x 3.81 m Armament: 4 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 128 lbs / 58 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 2 - 18.0" / 457.2 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 54,519 shp / 40,671 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 3,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 235 tons Complement: 140 - 183 Cost: £0.215 million / $0.859 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 16 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 1,020 tons, 55.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 631 tons, 34.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 185 tons, 10.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 535 lbs / 243 Kg = 16.7 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.35 Metacentric height 1.7 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 11.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.22 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.441 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.12 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 18.57 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 71 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 1.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forecastle (34 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (34 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (14.00 ft / 4.27 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 16.86 ft / 5.14 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 184.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 129.7 % Waterplane Area: 7,450 Square feet or 692 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 68 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 38 lbs/sq ft or 185 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.54 - Longitudinal: 3.25 - Overall: 0.65 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, March 11, 2005

### I have new pictures that I will post tomorrow

I have a new GB/DL/1906 picture that is derived, thanks to Mike at World War 2 Cruiser Operations, from a W-class destroyer photo. I have radically altered it, of course, to be a three-stack vessel with higher freeboard, less bow flare, and less bow rake. The armament is now 4-2opdr (88mm) guns and 2-21in TT. I have also revised my GB/CB/1905 photoart picture and have new picture derived from an Indomitable photo, again of the GB/CB/1905 battlecruiser. It is a port side view, anchored.

## Thursday, March 10, 2005

### Another run at the GB/PGL/1906

I thought I would try again to produce an acceptable design for the GB/PGL/1906. This was my friend Cliff's idea of a large, fast, destroyer-like vessel armed with 3-5in QF guns with no torpedo tubes. The ship would be able to make a top speed of 36 knots and would be 340ft long. I tried cranking the year for the machinery out to 1937, but could only muster a power to weight ratio of not quite 56 SHP/ton. Remember that the real British super-destroyer Swift could do as much as 64 SHP/ton, when pressed. That was in 1907! Here is the Springsharp report:

GB/PGL/1906, Great Britain Fast Large Gunboat laid down 1906 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 1,504 t light; 1,552 t standard; 1,627 t normal; 1,687 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 340.87 ft / 340.00 ft x 35.00 ft x 15.00 ft (normal load) 103.90 m / 103.63 m x 10.67 m x 4.57 m Armament: 3 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1906 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 188 lbs / 85 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 52,813 shp / 39,398 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 2,750nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 134 tons Complement: 127 - 166 Cost: £0.205 million / $0.818 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 23 tons, 1.4 % Machinery: 944 tons, 58.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 536 tons, 33.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 123 tons, 7.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 311 lbs / 141 Kg = 5.0 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.40 Metacentric height 1.9 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 10.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.20 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, raised quarterdeck Block coefficient: 0.319 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.71 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 18.44 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Forecastle (36 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (36 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m (3.00 ft / 0.91 m before break) - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 15.23 ft / 4.64 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 198.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 99.4 % Waterplane Area: 7,367 Square feet or 684 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 52 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 36 lbs/sq ft or 176 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.50 - Longitudinal: 2.70 - Overall: 0.59 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Wednesday, March 09, 2005

### I'm working on photoart for the GB/DL/1906

It has an anachronistic look, but it fits my friend Cliff's vision for the class of large, fast destroyers. The GB/DL/1906 design was edgy, in that it could make 35 knots, was big, 326ft long, and had a light armament (4-20pdrs) arranged with superfiring guns before it was in vogue. I started with a "V" class ship, and started hacking. I should have it posted by tomorrow night, if not before. I'm still amazed at how good hacked photos can look.

## Tuesday, March 08, 2005

### I had not realized that the cruiser Exeter originally had raked funnels

I only realized definitively, from viewing the pictures on World War 2 Cruiser Operations, that the British cruiser Exeter had raked funnels. You can see, from the picture at Port Stanley, in late 1939, that her funnels were raked. In the picture after the long repair and modernization up to March 1941, that she seems to have emerged with vertical funnels (or else the steam pipes make it appear that way). The almost dark silhouette picture from earlier really makes the superstructure look light and the funnels seem slim and raked. If she really did have raked funnels, it must have been slight, compared to the York, her half-sister.

## Monday, March 07, 2005

### World War Two Cruiser Operations

Mike, who has the World War 2 Cruiser Operations site, has assembled a very impressive collection of photographs. I have always found the site to be a bit quirky, as it is very dynamic, and works against my natural way of operating. Still, it is worth wading through, as he is probably leading the competition for the best WWII ship pictures still available. A lot has evaporated in the last two years, so I am grateful that his site is still available. The site is very protective of its content, as it is the best thing still left. The reason that others have been driven out of the picture business that people will either rip off the pictures, directly, or almost worse, link directly to pictures, and not give credit. That is sort of the worst of both worlds, in that you get hit for bandwidth charges, but no one knows that they are seeing content from your site.

### I have my high-res GIF drawings online

It isn't pretty, but I have my high-resolution (one pixel=6 inches) GIF drawings online at Graphic-Artist-2.com. You have to go to the directory, and they are all there, including the composite sheets. I realized that this was the quickest way to get the color GIFs available for download. These could easily be made into wargame pieces. The composite sheets are not in that form, but could easily be modified to have pieces in the form of "tents" (to fold in half). All my photoart is there, as well, in a different directory, including earlier versions of my first drawing. There should be Springsharp reports for everything on this blog (Dreadnought Cruisers), so that should be enough to prepare data sheets for a wargame. Sorry about things being slow, but I have been putting a good deal of time in the last few days into drawing, especially photoart.

## Sunday, March 06, 2005

### A German scout cruiser of the Ger/CS/1905 type

The Frankfurt was one of the first scout cruisers built to the Ger/CS/1905 design in the 1905 building program. This is a picture of the Frankfurt in a seaway, which limits the maximum speed to about 28 knots, instead of the still-water maximum of 36 knots. The type was capable of 36 knots, had 5-4in QF guns and 2-18in TT. They had patches of 2in armor over the machinery spaces. They were 370ft long on the waterline, to reduce the power needed to make 36 knots.

(of course, this was in our Anglo-German naval race game played in 1971)

## Saturday, March 05, 2005

### More "photoart" at Graphic-Artist-2.com

I have another altered photograph at Graphic-Artist-2.com. This time it is the Britannia, the lead ship of the GB/BB/1906 type. The ship is show steaming at top speed, something in excess of 24 knots. 24 knots was the original specified top speed, but the design was clearly able to exceed that figure by several knots.

### My first attempt at "PhotoArt" (GB/CB/1905)

I just finished my first attempt at "Photo Art" (meaning art derived from photographic sources). I did a drawing of one of the GB/CB/1905 battlecruisers (Essex and Sussex, as my friend Cliff named them). The ships have 4-12in/45 BLR and 9-6in/50 QF guns. They have 4in side armor and have a maximum speed of 33 knots at normal load. This is my slightly updated first attempt.

## Friday, March 04, 2005

### "Alt Naval" is another really good site

The proprietor of "Alt Naval" has done some really good "Photoshop work" (whether he actually used Photoshop or another tool). His photoart of never completed and never laid down ships is excellent. Where else could you see a "photograph" of a French Normandie class battleship from right before WWI? It's all good stuff, but I really liked the American battlecruiser, as well (Lexington class).

## Thursday, March 03, 2005

### How about "photographs" of our own ship designs?

After I saw this example, today, of photo-art, I resolved to do the same:
"Queen Victoria class battleship". I would like to not only have high-quality drawings, but have always wanted the accompanying photographs, as well.

## Wednesday, March 02, 2005

### I made a failed attempt to implement Colonel Cuniberti's Ideal Battleship in Springsharp

I'm sorry to say that my attempt to implement Colonel Cuniberti's Ideal Battleship for the British Navy did not work so well in Springsharp. I cheated and modified the specifications until the design "worked" to my idea of what such a ship would be. What I ended up with was a "Battleship-Cruiser" along the lines proposed by William Hovgaard. The main shortcoming is that the belt is too thin (9in). I recklessly increased dimensions, as 521.5ft x 82ft x 28ft was too small for ship that could make 24 knots and had 12-12in guns. This is the Springsharp report:

Colonel Cuniberti's Ideal Battleship, Enter country Enter ship type laid down 1903 (Engine 1914) Displacement: 19,965 t light; 20,885 t standard; 21,800 t normal; 22,532 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 567.00 ft / 567.00 ft x 90.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 172.82 m / 172.82 m x 27.43 m x 8.23 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1903 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns in single mounts, 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1903 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 12 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm guns in single mounts, 13.50lbs / 6.12kg shells, 1903 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread 12 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 6 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm guns in single mounts, 1.55lbs / 0.70kg shells, 1903 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 10,539 lbs / 4,781 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: 9.00" / 229 mm 90.00 ft / 27.43 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m 57.00 ft / 17.37 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 114 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 9.00" / 229 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 3rd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 47,906 shp / 35,738 Kw = 24.00 kts Range 5,000nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,647 tons Complement: 896 - 1,166 Cost: £2.064 million / $8.255 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,317 tons, 6.0 % Armour: 7,500 tons, 34.4 % - Belts: 2,282 tons, 10.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,212 tons, 5.6 % - Armament: 2,532 tons, 11.6 % - Armour Deck: 1,322 tons, 6.1 % - Conning Tower: 151 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 1,845 tons, 8.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,302 tons, 42.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,835 tons, 8.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 26,454 lbs / 11,999 Kg = 30.6 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 5.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.02 Metacentric height 4.4 ft / 1.3 m Roll period: 18.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 48 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.65 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.554 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.30 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.81 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 43 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (36 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (36 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 19.38 ft / 5.91 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 93.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 121.6 % Waterplane Area: 35,740 Square feet or 3,320 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 100 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 186 lbs/sq ft or 908 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.55 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, March 01, 2005

### More than ever, I see a need for a family of 3D modeling tools

What I would like to have is a family of 3D modeling tools, each optimized for doing a specific era and type. I would like to do 3d models of sailing ships, Dreadnought-era ships, and armoured fighting vehicles. I want to be able to drag and drop components. If I don't have a component, I want to be able to loft that component, and then reuse it in the future.

### One decision we made was to use "oil fuel only"

When we decided on the ground rules for our naval race game in 1971, we opted for oil fuel only, even though in 1905, it was only starting to be adopted, and the first ships, outside of the Black Sea, with oil fuel only were generally destroyers. I suspect that the decision was in part due to our desire to "push the limits" on what could be done with warship design. Remember that in 1971, we preceded the widespread use of calculators, and all our design work needed to be calculated by hand, with pencil on paper. We lived with my copies of the Jane's Fighting Ships reprints from Arco for 1906-7, 1914, and 1919. Considering what we had to work with, we did pretty well in usually coming within 10% on power to reach a speed for ships in the normal ranges.

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