## Saturday, April 30, 2005

### This is the photo to go with the GB/CA/1905 Springsharp report

### A British armored cruiser design

GB/CA/1905, Great Britain Armored Cruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1914) Displacement: 16,384 t light; 17,349 t standard; 19,602 t normal; 21,405 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 565.00 ft / 565.00 ft x 84.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 172.21 m / 172.21 m x 25.60 m x 7.92 m Armament: 16 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (8x2 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 6,742 lbs / 3,058 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 320.00 ft / 97.54 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 230.00 ft / 70.10 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m 15.00 ft / 4.57 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 87 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 320.00 ft / 97.54 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.50" / 64 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 52,378 shp / 39,074 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,056 tons Complement: 827 - 1,076 Cost: £1.564 million / $6.255 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 843 tons, 4.3 % Armour: 5,872 tons, 30.0 % - Belts: 2,040 tons, 10.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 426 tons, 2.2 % - Armament: 1,771 tons, 9.0 % - Armour Deck: 1,541 tons, 7.9 % - Conning Tower: 94 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 2,018 tons, 10.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,652 tons, 39.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,218 tons, 16.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 31,049 lbs / 14,084 Kg = 79.7 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 5.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.03 Metacentric height 4.1 ft / 1.2 m Roll period: 17.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 64 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.82 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.28 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.556 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.73 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.77 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (67 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 22.60 ft / 6.89 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 88.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 174.8 % Waterplane Area: 33,309 Square feet or 3,094 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 118 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 156 lbs/sq ft or 759 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.69 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### A Super Blonde light cruiser

### Updated photo of Colonel Cuniberti's "Ideal Battleship for the British Navy"

### Our "Alt Naval" friend has some of his work on a WesWorld forum

### A WesWorld-style drawing of the Super Lion

### My WesWorld-style drawing of Colonel Cuniberti's Ideal Battleship

### My WesWorld-style drawing of Colonel Cuniberti's Ideal Battleship

## Friday, April 29, 2005

### A Super Blonde design

Super Blonde, Great Britain Light Cruiser laid down 1912 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 3,922 t light; 4,058 t standard; 4,550 t normal; 4,945 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 435.84 ft / 435.00 ft x 41.00 ft x 19.00 ft (normal load) 132.84 m / 132.59 m x 12.50 m x 5.79 m Armament: 10 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 320 lbs / 145 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 285.00 ft / 86.87 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 2.00" / 51 mm 150.00 ft / 45.72 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 1.00" / 25 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 44,641 shp / 33,302 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 887 tons Complement: 276 - 360 Cost: £0.344 million / $1.376 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 40 tons, 0.9 % Armour: 1,017 tons, 22.4 % - Belts: 743 tons, 16.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 43 tons, 0.9 % - Armour Deck: 214 tons, 4.7 % - Conning Tower: 18 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 1,237 tons, 27.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,627 tons, 35.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 628 tons, 13.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 5,493 lbs / 2,492 Kg = 171.7 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 1.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.14 Metacentric height 1.7 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 13.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.35 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.22 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.470 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.61 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.86 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (37 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (14.00 ft / 4.27 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 17.12 ft / 5.22 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 95.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 108.6 % Waterplane Area: 11,570 Square feet or 1,075 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 119 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 69 lbs/sq ft or 338 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.24 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### A 1914 version of a fast British scout cruiser

GB/CS/1914 SS 1, Great Britain Enter ship type laid down 1914 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 3,029 t light; 3,151 t standard; 3,502 t normal; 3,782 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 415.84 ft / 415.00 ft x 41.00 ft x 21.00 ft (normal load) 126.75 m / 126.49 m x 12.50 m x 6.40 m Armament: 6 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 375 lbs / 170 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 8 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Conning tower: 2.00" / 51 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 87,839 shp / 65,528 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 630 tons Complement: 226 - 295 Cost: £0.543 million / $2.174 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 47 tons, 1.3 % Armour: 44 tons, 1.2 % - Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 34 tons, 1.0 % - Armour Deck: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Conning Tower: 10 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 2,011 tons, 57.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 927 tons, 26.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 472 tons, 13.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 686 lbs / 311 Kg = 11.0 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.40 Metacentric height 2.4 ft / 0.7 m Roll period: 11.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.37 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.14 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.343 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.12 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.37 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 65 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (38 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 17.82 ft / 5.43 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 196.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 99.8 % Waterplane Area: 10,346 Square feet or 961 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 72 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 41 lbs/sq ft or 202 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.45 - Longitudinal: 2.23 - Overall: 0.52 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### The Super Lion photo with Tiger-like funnels

### Actually, the Super Lion was Admiral Fisher's idea

## Thursday, April 28, 2005

### The Super Lion photo

### My new "Super Lion" design (1912)

Super Lion , Great Britain Enter ship type laid down 1912 (Engine 1931) Displacement: 36,964 t light; 38,744 t standard; 42,406 t normal; 45,335 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 812.00 ft / 812.00 ft x 102.00 ft x 32.00 ft (normal load) 247.50 m / 247.50 m x 31.09 m x 9.75 m Armament: 10 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (5x2 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority aft, all raised mounts - superfiring 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 14 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 18,387 lbs / 8,340 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 550.00 ft / 167.64 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 262.00 ft / 79.86 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Main Belt covers 104 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 550.00 ft / 167.64 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 7.00" / 178 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 149,111 shp / 111,237 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,591 tons Complement: 1,476 - 1,920 Cost: £3.849 million / $15.395 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,298 tons, 5.4 % Armour: 12,364 tons, 29.2 % - Belts: 4,386 tons, 10.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,099 tons, 2.6 % - Armament: 3,458 tons, 8.2 % - Armour Deck: 3,238 tons, 7.6 % - Conning Tower: 183 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 4,459 tons, 10.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,842 tons, 42.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,442 tons, 12.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 56,854 lbs / 25,788 Kg = 33.7 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 8.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.04 Metacentric height 5.5 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 18.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.97 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.14 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.560 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.96 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (67 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m (19.00 ft / 5.79 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 24.60 ft / 7.50 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 93.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 186.6 % Waterplane Area: 58,347 Square feet or 5,421 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 212 lbs/sq ft or 1,033 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.21 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, April 27, 2005

### Another photo of one of Churchill's "Super Swift" scout cruisers

### A photo of a "Super Swift" at speed

(Firefox is being balky, again, so I had a hard time copying and pasting the link. I had to paste it to Notepad and then copy and do CTRL-v)

## Tuesday, April 26, 2005

### Yet another Ger/CS/1905 photo update

### New version of photo of a Ger/CS/1905 running at high speed

## Monday, April 25, 2005

### A photo of one of the Ger/CB/1906 battlecruisers (Updated)

## Sunday, April 24, 2005

### I've started an "Ideal Battleship" paper model

### My very latest attempt at designing Colonel Cuniberti's Ideal Battleship

Colonel Cunibert's Ideal Battleship, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1903 (Engine 1912) Displacement: 19,187 t light; 20,122 t standard; 23,186 t normal; 25,637 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 521.50 ft / 521.50 ft x 91.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 158.95 m / 158.95 m x 27.74 m x 9.14 m Armament: 12 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (8 mounts), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1903 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Main guns limited to end-on fire 12 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm guns in single mounts, 13.50lbs / 6.12kg shells, 1903 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 12 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 6 - 1.85" / 47.0 mm guns in single mounts, 3.17lbs / 1.44kg shells, 1903 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 10,549 lbs / 4,785 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 141.50 ft / 43.13 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Upper: 6.00" / 152 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 112 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 7.00" / 178 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 52,127 shp / 38,887 Kw = 24.00 kts Range 9,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,515 tons Complement: 939 - 1,221 Cost: £2.070 million / $8.281 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,319 tons, 5.7 % Armour: 6,792 tons, 29.3 % - Belts: 2,163 tons, 9.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 759 tons, 3.3 % - Armament: 2,498 tons, 10.8 % - Armour Deck: 1,249 tons, 5.4 % - Conning Tower: 123 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 2,078 tons, 9.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,997 tons, 38.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,999 tons, 17.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 25,730 lbs / 11,671 Kg = 29.8 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 0.95 Metacentric height 3.9 ft / 1.2 m Roll period: 19.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 1.06 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.19 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.570 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.73 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 22.84 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (68 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 23.28 ft / 7.10 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 91.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 161.9 % Waterplane Area: 33,747 Square feet or 3,135 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 180 lbs/sq ft or 881 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.91 - Longitudinal: 2.27 - Overall: 1.00 Caution: Poor stability - excessive risk of capsizing Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, April 23, 2005

### Springsharp just can't handle certain ships well

Hull weight = Factor x 10-^3 x length x beam x hull depthThis is my Springsharp report for what I would consider a failed design, although it sort of "works":

Ger/CS/1914, Germany Scout Cruiser laid down 1914 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 2,761 t light; 2,855 t standard; 2,952 t normal; 3,029 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 372.84 ft / 372.00 ft x 38.00 ft x 21.00 ft (normal load) 113.64 m / 113.39 m x 11.58 m x 6.40 m Armament: 5 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 313 lbs / 142 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 200 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 220.00 ft / 67.06 m 10.00 ft / 3.05 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 91 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Conning tower: 1.00" / 25 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 84,984 shp / 63,398 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 2,500nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 174 tons Complement: 199 - 260 Cost: £0.478 million / $1.912 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 39 tons, 1.3 % Armour: 203 tons, 6.9 % - Belts: 184 tons, 6.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 14 tons, 0.5 % - Armour Deck: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Conning Tower: 4 tons, 0.2 % Machinery: 1,757 tons, 59.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 762 tons, 25.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 190 tons, 6.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 503 lbs / 228 Kg = 8.0 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.34 Metacentric height 2.0 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.40 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.348 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.79 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 19.29 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 68 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (30 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 17.26 ft / 5.26 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 202.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 106.3 % Waterplane Area: 8,584 Square feet or 798 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 61 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 39 lbs/sq ft or 188 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.43 - Longitudinal: 2.81 - Overall: 0.52 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is extremely poor Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### A nice photo of a Ger/CS/1905 scout cruiser

## Friday, April 22, 2005

### I'm considering making models to aid the photoart development

### Cruisers for the British navy

### Gun layouts for the Untakeable and Unapproachable designs

### Updated Ger/CS/1905 scout cruiser photo

## Thursday, April 21, 2005

### Improved version of the Ger/BB/1905 photo

### New version of one of the Ger/CS/1905 photos

### A nasty feature of the battlecruiser Tiger

### Winston Churchill's influence in 1911-1914

## Wednesday, April 20, 2005

### The role envisioned for the GB/CB/1905 battlecruisers and those like them

I am sure that when my friend Cliff conceived the GB/CB/1905 battlecruisers, he was influenced by knowing about the Glorious, Courageous, and Furious. We also knew about the later German "pocket battleships". Without that background, I suspect that we would not have designed ships that had only two turrets with heavy caliber guns. The first were the GB/CB/1905 ships. Having been involved in their design, I designed a smaller, less capable cruiser for the Germans, the Ger/CB/1905 that was built in parallel to the British ships. The British ships were definitely intended as fast scouts, able to run down lesser ships. They also could be used to "turn" an enemy battleline, and to hammer them, briefly.

Frank Fox didn't think much of these ships, as he would prefer thicker armor, more guns, and a slower speed. David K. Brown remarked that they could have used at least 6in side armor and the ability to fire at least four gun broadsides. I have thought that if you would accept a slower rate of fire, you could fire all four guns together. I suspect that is how the pre-dreadnoughts operated. I can't imagine that at the Battle of the Yellow Sea, at something like 14,000 yards, they were firing two gun broadsides. Who knows, but it seems unlikely at long range.

Frank Fox suggested that if these were "cruiser killers", they might have well had 9.2in guns instead of 12in guns. For the cruiser-killer role, that might be adequate, except against the largest ships.

I tend to be protective of these ships, as I had a hand in their development, back in 1971 and during refinement in 1973. They need to be placed in the context that they were conceived: a building program wargame that started from scratch in 1905 and continued to at least 1916, for planning purposes. An odd collection of ships were to be produced, in that they often followed Admiral Fisher's ideas closely. Fast battlecruisers for the large ships and nothing in between them and the large, fast destroyer-types. I particularly liked the "Super Swift" type considered for production in Britain in 1912. They ultimately went with the "Super Blonde" type, instead. That ultimately produced the modern light cruiser, so I guess that it was a good choice. The first ships in the series were the British Arethusa class, designed by Stanley Goodall, as a young, rising star.

## Tuesday, April 19, 2005

### A new photo of one of the GB/CB/1905 battlecruisers

### Improved photo of a Ger/CB/1911 battlecruiser

### My new Ger/BB/1905 photo

### I am working on a better photo of the Ger/BB/1905 ships

## Monday, April 18, 2005

### The Ger/CB/1911 and Ger/CB/1912 ships were part of a pattern

## Sunday, April 17, 2005

### A Ger/CB/1912 battlecruiser photo

### Photo of a Ger/CB/1911 battlecruiser

### Another view of one of Admiral Fisher's "Untakeable" battleships

This is a lighter "exposure":

### The "Untakeable" design in Springsharp

Untakeable, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1905 Displacement: 19,835 t light; 20,781 t standard; 23,330 t normal; 25,369 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 530.84 ft / 530.00 ft x 83.00 ft x 29.00 ft (normal load) 161.80 m / 161.54 m x 25.30 m x 8.84 m Armament: 16 - 10.00" / 254 mm guns (8x2 guns), 500.00lbs / 226.80kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread, 5 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 8,512 lbs / 3,861 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 6.00" / 152 mm 150.00 ft / 45.72 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Main Belt covers 110 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 10.0" / 254 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 10.00" / 254 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 31,118 shp / 23,214 Kw = 21.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,588 tons (100% coal) Complement: 943 - 1,227 Cost: £1.951 million / $7.804 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,064 tons, 4.6 % Armour: 8,347 tons, 35.8 % - Belts: 3,404 tons, 14.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 548 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 2,983 tons, 12.8 % - Armour Deck: 1,236 tons, 5.3 % - Conning Tower: 176 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 2,593 tons, 11.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,830 tons, 33.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,495 tons, 15.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 31,565 lbs / 14,318 Kg = 63.1 x 10.0 " / 254 mm shells or 4.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.03 Metacentric height 4.0 ft / 1.2 m Roll period: 17.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 58 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.88 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.50 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.640 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.39 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.02 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 48 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 39 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (50 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 22.16 ft / 6.75 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 93.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 148.4 % Waterplane Area: 33,393 Square feet or 3,102 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 158 lbs/sq ft or 770 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.76 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Saturday, April 16, 2005

### the "Untakeable" photo

### I figured out the "Untakeable" design's layout

### Admiral Fisher's "Unapproachable" armored cruiser

## Friday, April 15, 2005

### A different view of Colonel Cuniberti's Ideal Battleship

### Another view of Colonel Cuniberti's "Ideal Battleship for the British Navy"

## Thursday, April 14, 2005

### My photo the 1903 British semi-Dreadnought design

### My concept of the proposed British semi-Dreadnoughts

GB/BB/1903, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1903 (Engine 1907) Displacement: 19,175 t light; 20,074 t standard; 22,630 t normal; 24,675 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 482.00 ft / 482.00 ft x 82.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 146.91 m / 146.91 m x 24.99 m x 9.14 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1903 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts 12 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (1x12 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1903 Model Breech loading guns in a turret (on a barbette) on side amidships, all raised guns 16 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm guns (1x16 guns), 13.50lbs / 6.12kg shells, 1903 Model Quick firing guns in a deck mount with hoist on side, all raised guns Weight of broadside 8,344 lbs / 3,785 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 330.00 ft / 100.58 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 7.00" / 178 mm 95.00 ft / 28.96 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 57.00 ft / 17.37 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 105 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 330.00 ft / 100.58 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, complex reciprocating steam engines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 26,474 ihp / 19,750 Kw = 20.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,601 tons (100% coal) Complement: 922 - 1,199 Cost: £1.959 million / $7.836 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,043 tons, 4.6 % Armour: 6,937 tons, 30.7 % - Belts: 2,941 tons, 13.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 611 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 2,040 tons, 9.0 % - Armour Deck: 1,139 tons, 5.0 % - Conning Tower: 207 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 2,942 tons, 13.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,254 tons, 36.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,455 tons, 15.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 26,045 lbs / 11,814 Kg = 30.1 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.04 Metacentric height 4.0 ft / 1.2 m Roll period: 17.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.80 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.30 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.668 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.88 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 21.95 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 39 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forecastle (20 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Mid (50 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 19.32 ft / 5.89 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 102.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 120.8 % Waterplane Area: 30,779 Square feet or 2,859 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 184 lbs/sq ft or 899 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.17 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### Another unsatisfactory attempt to make the Ideal Battleship work in Springsharp

Ideal Battleship, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1903 (Engine 1909) Displacement: 18,872 t light; 19,767 t standard; 21,180 t normal; 22,310 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 521.50 ft / 521.50 ft x 87.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 158.95 m / 158.95 m x 26.52 m x 7.92 m Armament: 12 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (8 mounts), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1903 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 12 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm guns in single mounts, 13.50lbs / 6.12kg shells, 1903 Model Breech loading guns in deck mount on side amidships 12 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 6 - 1.85" / 47.0 mm guns in single mounts, 3.17lbs / 1.44kg shells, 1903 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 10,549 lbs / 4,785 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 350.00 ft / 106.68 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 6.00" / 152 mm 141.50 ft / 43.13 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.50" / 64 mm, Conning tower: 5.00" / 127 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 50,465 shp / 37,647 Kw = 24.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,543 tons Complement: 877 - 1,141 Cost: £2.089 million / $8.357 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,319 tons, 6.2 % Armour: 6,639 tons, 31.3 % - Belts: 2,467 tons, 11.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 2,514 tons, 11.9 % - Armour Deck: 1,576 tons, 7.4 % - Conning Tower: 82 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 2,294 tons, 10.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,620 tons, 40.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,308 tons, 10.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 25,634 lbs / 11,628 Kg = 29.7 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 2.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.00 Metacentric height 4.0 ft / 1.2 m Roll period: 18.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 47 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.99 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.08 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.628 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.99 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 22.84 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 40 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (37 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (50 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (19.00 ft / 5.79 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 23.65 ft / 7.21 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 81.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 158.6 % Waterplane Area: 34,072 Square feet or 3,165 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 97 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 175 lbs/sq ft or 855 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 2.04 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### Photo of Colonel Cuniberti's Ideal Battleship for the British Navy (1903)

## Wednesday, April 13, 2005

### Craig Burke's "Admiral Furashita's Fleet"

## Tuesday, April 12, 2005

### New version of the Ger/CS/1905 photo

### Updated GB/CB/1921 48000 tons photo

### Think of all the "very large" aircraft carriers that have been built in the last 15 years

## Monday, April 11, 2005

### A very large US AA Light Cruiser: US/CL/1941 AA Large

US/CL/1941 AA Large, United States AA Light Cruiser laid down 1941 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 11,276 t light; 11,660 t standard; 12,650 t normal; 13,442 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 642.89 ft / 640.00 ft x 65.00 ft x 25.00 ft (normal load) 195.95 m / 195.07 m x 19.81 m x 7.62 m Armament: 16 - 5.10" / 130 mm guns (8x2 guns), 66.33lbs / 30.08kg shells, 1941 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 36 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (9x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1941 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 1,132 lbs / 513 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 200 8 - 24.0" / 609.6 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 445.00 ft / 135.64 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 107 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 147,329 shp / 109,907 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,782 tons Complement: 596 - 775 Cost: £6.394 million / $25.576 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 141 tons, 1.1 % Armour: 2,741 tons, 21.7 % - Belts: 1,170 tons, 9.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 79 tons, 0.6 % - Armour Deck: 1,445 tons, 11.4 % - Conning Tower: 47 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 3,720 tons, 29.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 4,674 tons, 36.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,374 tons, 10.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 14,140 lbs / 6,414 Kg = 213.2 x 5.1 " / 130 mm shells or 1.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.27 Metacentric height 4.0 ft / 1.2 m Roll period: 13.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.23 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.426 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.85 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.30 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Mid (50 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 21.28 ft / 6.49 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 104.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 137.6 % Waterplane Area: 26,041 Square feet or 2,419 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 107 lbs/sq ft or 521 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.55 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, April 10, 2005

### My US/BB/1941 Large photo

### Converting ship pictures from perspective to side and deck views

## Saturday, April 09, 2005

### The US/CA/1941 Large heavy cruiser photo

## Friday, April 08, 2005

### Photo of the US/CL/1941 Large light cruiser

### Preview of the new US/CB/1941 Large photo

### An early view of the US/DL/1941 Large

## Thursday, April 07, 2005

### Super destroyer: US/DL/1941 Large

US/DL/1941 Large, United States Large Destroyer laid down 1941 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 5,412 t light; 5,622 t standard; 6,177 t normal; 6,621 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 479.45 ft / 475.00 ft x 48.00 ft x 22.00 ft (normal load) 146.14 m / 144.78 m x 14.63 m x 6.71 m Armament: 8 - 5.10" / 130 mm guns (4x2 guns), 66.33lbs / 30.08kg shells, 1941 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 28 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (7x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1941 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 585 lbs / 265 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 10 - 24.0" / 609.6 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 109,732 shp / 81,860 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,000 tons Complement: 347 - 452 Cost: £3.949 million / $15.796 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 73 tons, 1.2 % Machinery: 2,771 tons, 44.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,568 tons, 41.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 765 tons, 12.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 3,401 lbs / 1,543 Kg = 51.3 x 5.1 " / 130 mm shells or 0.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.29 Metacentric height 2.6 ft / 0.8 m Roll period: 12.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.36 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.11 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.431 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.90 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 21.79 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 65 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Mid (50 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 20.64 ft / 6.29 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 154.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 95.2 % Waterplane Area: 14,328 Square feet or 1,331 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 101 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 86 lbs/sq ft or 418 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.87 - Longitudinal: 3.51 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### An abnormally large light cruiser: US/CL/1941 Large

US/CL/1941 Large, United States Light Cruiser laid down 1941 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 21,829 t light; 22,699 t standard; 25,027 t normal; 26,890 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 718.89 ft / 715.00 ft x 78.00 ft (Bulges 80.00 ft) x 31.00 ft (normal load) 219.12 m / 217.93 m x 23.77 m (Bulges 24.38 m) x 9.45 m Armament: 15 - 6.69" / 170 mm guns (5x3 guns), 149.90lbs / 68.00kg shells, 1941 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 5.10" / 130 mm guns (8x2 guns), 66.33lbs / 30.08kg shells, 1941 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring 56 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (14x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1941 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 3,419 lbs / 1,551 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 112 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead and Bulges: 1.50" / 38 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 224,960 shp / 167,820 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,190 tons Complement: 994 - 1,293 Cost: £11.859 million / $47.435 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 427 tons, 1.7 % Armour: 6,747 tons, 27.0 % - Belts: 2,055 tons, 8.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 693 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 1,154 tons, 4.6 % - Armour Deck: 2,735 tons, 10.9 % - Conning Tower: 111 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 5,681 tons, 22.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,974 tons, 35.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,198 tons, 12.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 31,166 lbs / 14,136 Kg = 207.9 x 6.7 " / 170 mm shells or 3.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.09 Metacentric height 4.1 ft / 1.2 m Roll period: 16.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.45 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.494 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.94 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.74 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 60 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (50 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Stern: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Average freeboard: 26.80 ft / 8.17 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 118.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 184.1 % Waterplane Area: 36,957 Square feet or 3,433 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 141 lbs/sq ft or 689 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.66 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### A very large heavy cruiser design: US/CA/1941

US/CA/1941 large, United States Heavy Cruiser laid down 1941 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 26,053 t light; 27,135 t standard; 29,310 t normal; 31,049 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 768.78 ft / 765.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 29.00 ft (normal load) 234.32 m / 233.17 m x 25.91 m x 8.84 m Armament: 9 - 10.00" / 254 mm guns (3x3 guns), 500.00lbs / 226.80kg shells, 1941 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 5.10" / 130 mm guns (8x2 guns), 66.33lbs / 30.08kg shells, 1941 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring 56 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (14x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1941 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 5,671 lbs / 2,572 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 530.00 ft / 161.54 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 107 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 530.00 ft / 161.54 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 219,630 shp / 163,844 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 10,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,914 tons Complement: 1,119 - 1,456 Cost: £14.118 million / $56.471 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 709 tons, 2.4 % Armour: 8,547 tons, 29.2 % - Belts: 2,826 tons, 9.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 706 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 1,511 tons, 5.2 % - Armour Deck: 3,339 tons, 11.4 % - Conning Tower: 164 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 5,546 tons, 18.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,251 tons, 38.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,256 tons, 11.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 40,469 lbs / 18,356 Kg = 80.9 x 10.0 " / 254 mm shells or 5.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 4.6 ft / 1.4 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.59 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.544 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.66 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (50 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Stern: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Average freeboard: 26.64 ft / 8.12 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 105.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 199.7 % Waterplane Area: 45,126 Square feet or 4,192 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 159 lbs/sq ft or 774 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.38 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, April 06, 2005

### I'm working on more of an aerial view of the US/CB/1941 large

### Warship design

## Tuesday, April 05, 2005

### Another "Maximum" Battleship Design: US/BB/1943

US/BB/1943, United States Battleship laid down 1943 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 162,468 t light; 169,242 t standard; 177,915 t normal; 184,853 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 1,353.40 ft / 1,350.00 ft x 168.00 ft x 39.00 ft (normal load) 412.52 m / 411.48 m x 51.21 m x 11.89 m Armament: 9 - 24.00" / 610 mm guns (3x3 guns), 6,912.00lbs / 3,135.23kg shells, 1943 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 24 - 5.10" / 130 mm guns (12x2 guns), 66.33lbs / 30.08kg shells, 1943 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring 64 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (16x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1943 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 63,925 lbs / 28,996 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 875.00 ft / 266.70 m 19.00 ft / 5.79 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 5.00" / 127 mm 875.00 ft / 266.70 m 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 20.0" / 508 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 10.00" / 254 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 335,444 shp / 250,241 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 15,612 tons Complement: 4,330 - 5,630 Cost: £88.916 million / $355.664 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 7,991 tons, 4.5 % Armour: 63,893 tons, 35.9 % - Belts: 12,840 tons, 7.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 5,666 tons, 3.2 % - Armament: 10,410 tons, 5.9 % - Armour Deck: 33,750 tons, 19.0 % - Conning Tower: 1,227 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 8,471 tons, 4.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 82,114 tons, 46.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 15,447 tons, 8.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 381,015 lbs / 172,826 Kg = 55.1 x 24.0 " / 610 mm shells or 100.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 14.7 ft / 4.5 m Roll period: 18.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.60 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.26 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.704 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.04 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 36.74 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 39 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 40.00 ft / 12.19 m - Forecastle (20 %): 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Mid (50 %): 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Stern: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Average freeboard: 33.56 ft / 10.23 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 56.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 264.8 % Waterplane Area: 182,434 Square feet or 16,949 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 123 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 352 lbs/sq ft or 1,720 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.15 - Longitudinal: 0.95 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily Warning: Calibre too large - Main battery

## Monday, April 04, 2005

### The battleship analog to the very large battlecruiser

US/BB/1941 large, United States Battleship laid down 1941 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 102,922 t light; 107,375 t standard; 113,714 t normal; 118,785 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 1,153.33 ft / 1,150.00 ft x 145.00 ft x 36.00 ft (normal load) 351.53 m / 350.52 m x 44.20 m x 10.97 m Armament: 9 - 21.00" / 533 mm guns (3x3 guns), 4,630.50lbs / 2,100.36kg shells, 1941 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, all raised mounts - superfiring 24 - 5.10" / 130 mm guns (12x2 guns), 66.33lbs / 30.08kg shells, 1941 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 43,266 lbs / 19,625 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 565.00 ft / 172.21 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 76 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 565.00 ft / 172.21 m 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 20.0" / 508 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 9.00" / 229 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 259,618 shp / 193,675 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 11,410 tons Complement: 3,096 - 4,025 Cost: £56.026 million / $224.105 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 5,408 tons, 4.8 % Armour: 41,997 tons, 36.9 % - Belts: 8,302 tons, 7.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 3,010 tons, 2.6 % - Armament: 8,251 tons, 7.3 % - Armour Deck: 21,523 tons, 18.9 % - Conning Tower: 910 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 6,556 tons, 5.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 48,961 tons, 43.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 10,792 tons, 9.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 214,870 lbs / 97,463 Kg = 46.4 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 43.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.11 Metacentric height 10.7 ft / 3.3 m Roll period: 18.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 66 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.72 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.32 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.663 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.93 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 33.91 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 43 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Forecastle (20 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Mid (50 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Stern: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Average freeboard: 30.64 ft / 9.34 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 63.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 238.6 % Waterplane Area: 129,267 Square feet or 12,009 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 288 lbs/sq ft or 1,407 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.02 - Longitudinal: 0.99 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, April 03, 2005

### Photo of the very large battlecruiser: US/CB/1941 large

### My concept of the "ultimate gun", the 24in/45 BLR

Caliber = 24.0 inch (61.0 cm) Shell weight = 7472 lbs (3390 kg) Muzzle velocity = 2574 fps (785 m/s) Relative ballistic performance: 1.00 Muzzle energy = 1043.7 megajoules = 384592.8 foot-tons Relative muzzle energy: 0.87 Barrel length: 45 calibers Elevation Range Time Velocity Fall Angle 2.5 deg 5600 yards 6.9 sec 2358 fps 2.7 deg 5.0 deg 10700 yards 13.6 sec 2185 fps 5.6 deg 7.5 deg 15200 yards 20.1 sec 2049 fps 8.8 deg 10.0 deg 19200 yards 26.4 sec 1944 fps 12.1 deg 12.5 deg 22900 yards 32.5 sec 1864 fps 15.5 deg 15.0 deg 26300 yards 38.5 sec 1804 fps 18.9 deg 20.0 deg 32200 yards 50.0 sec 1734 fps 25.7 deg 25.0 deg 37100 yards 61.0 sec 1712 fps 32.0 deg 30.0 deg 41100 yards 71.5 sec 1721 fps 37.8 deg 35.0 deg 44200 yards 81.5 sec 1749 fps 43.0 deg 40.0 deg 46300 yards 91.0 sec 1787 fps 47.8 deg 45.0 deg 47300 yards 99.9 sec 1830 fps 52.2 deg 50.0 deg 47000 yards 108.2 sec 1873 fps 56.4 deg Armor Penetration - Vertical Belt Armor (Relative armor quality, 1.00) Maximum penetration: 44.56 inches Elevation Range Belt Deck 1.2 deg 2800 yards 42 in 2.3 deg 5100 yards 40 in 2.5 deg 5600 yards ... 1 in 3.4 deg 7600 yards 38 in 4.4 deg 9500 yards ... 2 in 4.7 deg 10100 yards 36 in 6.2 deg 12800 yards 34 in 6.3 deg 13000 yards ... 3 in 7.8 deg 15700 yards 32 in 8.2 deg 16400 yards ... 4 in 9.7 deg 18800 yards 30 in 10.3 deg 19700 yards ... 5 in 12.0 deg 22200 yards 28 in 12.6 deg 23100 yards ... 6 in 14.7 deg 25800 yards 26 in 15.4 deg 26700 yards ... 7 in 17.9 deg 29800 yards 24 in 18.7 deg 30700 yards ... 8 in 20.8 deg 33000 yards ... 9 in 22.0 deg 34200 yards 22 in 22.8 deg 35000 yards ... 10 in 24.8 deg 36900 yards ... 11 in 26.9 deg 38700 yards ... 12 in 27.1 deg 38900 yards 20 in 28.9 deg 40300 yards ... 13 in 31.0 deg 41800 yards ... 14 in 33.0 deg 43100 yards ... 15 in 33.4 deg 43300 yards 18 in 35.1 deg 44300 yards ... 16 in 37.2 deg 45300 yards ... 17 in 39.3 deg 46100 yards ... 18 in 40.5 deg 46500 yards 16 in 41.4 deg 46700 yards ... 19 in 43.6 deg 47200 yards ... 20 in 45.8 deg 47300 yards ... 21 in 47.5 deg 47300 yards 14 in 48.1 deg 47300 yards ... 22 in Maximum range = 47300 yards at 46.4 deg elevation

### The 21in/45 gun from Rick Robertson's Big Gun DOS program

Caliber = 21.0 inch (53.3 cm) Shell weight = 5006 lbs (2271 kg) Muzzle velocity = 2574 fps (785 m/s) Relative ballistic performance: 1.00 Muzzle energy = 699.2 megajoules = 257647.2 foot-tons Relative muzzle energy: 0.87 Barrel length: 45 calibers Elevation Range Time Velocity Fall Angle 2.5 deg 5600 yards 6.9 sec 2330 fps 2.7 deg 5.0 deg 10500 yards 13.6 sec 2139 fps 5.7 deg 7.5 deg 14900 yards 20.0 sec 1993 fps 8.9 deg 10.0 deg 18800 yards 26.2 sec 1882 fps 12.3 deg 12.5 deg 22300 yards 32.2 sec 1798 fps 15.8 deg 15.0 deg 25400 yards 38.1 sec 1736 fps 19.4 deg 20.0 deg 31000 yards 49.4 sec 1664 fps 26.3 deg 25.0 deg 35600 yards 60.2 sec 1642 fps 32.8 deg 30.0 deg 39400 yards 70.5 sec 1652 fps 38.7 deg 35.0 deg 42300 yards 80.3 sec 1680 fps 43.9 deg 40.0 deg 44300 yards 89.6 sec 1720 fps 48.7 deg 45.0 deg 45200 yards 98.4 sec 1764 fps 53.1 deg 50.0 deg 44900 yards 106.5 sec 1807 fps 57.2 deg Armor Penetration - Vertical Belt Armor (Relative armor quality, 1.00) Maximum penetration: 38.99 inches Elevation Range Belt Deck 1.4 deg 3300 yards 36 in 2.6 deg 5700 yards 34 in 2.8 deg 6200 yards ... 1 in 3.8 deg 8200 yards 32 in 5.0 deg 10500 yards ... 2 in 5.2 deg 10900 yards 30 in 6.9 deg 13800 yards 28 in 7.2 deg 14400 yards ... 3 in 8.8 deg 17000 yards 26 in 9.6 deg 18100 yards ... 4 in 11.1 deg 20300 yards 24 in 12.3 deg 21900 yards ... 5 in 13.9 deg 24100 yards 22 in 15.5 deg 26100 yards ... 6 in 17.5 deg 28300 yards 20 in 19.1 deg 30100 yards ... 7 in 21.6 deg 32500 yards ... 8 in 22.2 deg 33100 yards 18 in 23.9 deg 34700 yards ... 9 in 26.3 deg 36700 yards ... 10 in 28.2 deg 38200 yards 16 in 28.7 deg 38500 yards ... 11 in 31.1 deg 40200 yards ... 12 in 33.6 deg 41600 yards ... 13 in 36.1 deg 42800 yards 14 in 14 in 38.6 deg 43900 yards ... 15 in 41.2 deg 44600 yards ... 16 in 43.8 deg 45100 yards ... 17 in 44.8 deg 45200 yards 12 in 46.4 deg 45300 yards ... 18 in 49.3 deg 45100 yards ... 19 in Maximum range = 45300 yards at 46.4 deg elevation

### A British "super-destroyer" design

GB/DL/1941, Great Britain Large Destroyer laid down 1941 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 2,538 t light; 2,662 t standard; 3,004 t normal; 3,277 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 440.84 ft / 440.00 ft x 44.00 ft x 15.00 ft (normal load) 134.37 m / 134.11 m x 13.41 m x 4.57 m Armament: 8 - 5.10" / 130 mm guns (4x2 guns), 66.33lbs / 30.08kg shells, 1941 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns in single mounts, 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1941 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 16 - 0.79" / 20.0 mm guns in single mounts, 0.24lbs / 0.11kg shells, 1941 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 558 lbs / 253 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 200 10 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 68,837 shp / 51,353 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 614 tons Complement: 202 - 263 Cost: £2.202 million / $8.807 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 70 tons, 2.3 % Machinery: 1,491 tons, 49.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 977 tons, 32.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 466 tons, 15.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 887 lbs / 402 Kg = 13.4 x 5.1 " / 130 mm shells or 0.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.45 Metacentric height 2.8 ft / 0.8 m Roll period: 11.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.41 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.362 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.98 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 64 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (37 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (14.00 ft / 4.27 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 17.12 ft / 5.22 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 178.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 114.9 % Waterplane Area: 11,751 Square feet or 1,092 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 78 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 46 lbs/sq ft or 225 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.50 - Longitudinal: 1.55 - Overall: 0.56 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate