Ger/CB/1911, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1911 Displacement: 25,562 t light; 26,454 t standard; 30,840 t normal; 34,348 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 751.00 ft / 750.00 ft x 100.00 ft x 26.17 ft (normal load) 228.90 m / 228.60 m x 30.48 m x 7.98 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1911 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1911 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side ends, evenly spread Weight of broadside 6,048 lbs / 2,743 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 127,427 shp / 95,060 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 7,200nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 7,894 tons Complement: 1,163 - 1,512 Cost: £2.254 million / $9.015 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 756 tons, 2.5 % Armour: 8,848 tons, 28.7 % - Belts: 2,902 tons, 9.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 925 tons, 3.0 % - Armament: 978 tons, 3.2 % - Armour Deck: 3,873 tons, 12.6 % - Conning Tower: 169 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 5,172 tons, 16.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,787 tons, 35.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,277 tons, 17.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 49,847 lbs / 22,610 Kg = 57.7 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 7.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.45 Metacentric height 9.5 ft / 2.9 m Roll period: 13.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.19 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.14 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.550 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.50 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.39 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Mid (50 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 20.56 ft / 6.27 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 91.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 171.5 % Waterplane Area: 52,342 Square feet or 4,863 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 122 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 153 lbs/sq ft or 748 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.00 - Longitudinal: 1.06 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, August 31, 2005

### Why is the Ger/CB/1911 design so good?

I have a pencil drawing dating from September 2001 for the Ger/CB/1911 design. Unlike my 1971 efforts, this looks suitably German. What I don't understand is why the result is so good. It is especially perplexing, as it doesn't rely on lightweight machinery, unlike my latest efforts:

## Tuesday, August 30, 2005

### I have a very German-looking drawing of the Ger/CS/1909

In the Fall of 2001, I did a series of German-looking drawings for ship designs from the 1971 building program game. I just did a Springsharp design for the Ger/CS/1909 design that works out pretty well. Springsharp is challenged by destroyer-type ships, and I needed to do two things to make the design work. The main issue was seakeeping ability. To achieve adequate performance, I needed to lighten the machinery by advancing the date and I needed to increase the freeboard by several feet. That was sufficient. I had originally struggled with this ship and had lowered speed and increased the draft abnormally. An odd feature of Springsharp is that it looks at the armament settings for guns in the list that are set to zero and gives warning messages. Here is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CS/1909, Germany Scout Cruiser laid down 1909 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 1,574 t light; 1,631 t standard; 1,800 t normal; 1,935 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 350.45 ft / 350.00 ft x 37.00 ft x 12.00 ft (normal load) 106.82 m / 106.68 m x 11.28 m x 3.66 m Armament: 4 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1909 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline, evenly spread Aft Main mounts separated by engine room Weight of broadside 250 lbs / 113 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 2 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 52,349 shp / 39,052 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 4,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 305 tons Complement: 137 - 179 Cost: £0.221 million / $0.882 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 31 tons, 1.7 % Machinery: 994 tons, 55.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 549 tons, 30.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 226 tons, 12.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 459 lbs / 208 Kg = 7.3 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.47 Metacentric height 2.2 ft / 0.7 m Roll period: 10.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.27 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has raised forecastle, rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.405 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.46 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 18.71 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 70 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 1.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Mid (32 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (14.00 ft / 4.27 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 16.82 ft / 5.13 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 191.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 152.8 % Waterplane Area: 7,997 Square feet or 743 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 60 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 34 lbs/sq ft or 165 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.44 - Longitudinal: 2.42 - Overall: 0.52 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, August 29, 2005

### My ideas in the mid-to-late 1970's for a large battleship

In the 1970's, I was very interested in reducing the length of the armored citadel in battleships and battlecruisers. This is a design study that I did in the mid-to-late 1970's for a battleship with 27 knot speed and 8-20in/45 guns. The armor basis is only 16in. The dimensions are 935ft x 125ft x 35ft. There are two quadruple turrets forward, with the second superfiring the first. The secondary armament is at the upper deck level with 6-4in AA guns a level higher. The bridge structure is vaguely influenced byu the Richelieu, as is the armament layout. This is the Stringsharp report:

GB/BB/1927, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1927 Displacement: 60,794 t light; 63,666 t standard; 67,500 t normal; 70,567 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 930.52 ft / 925.00 ft x 125.00 ft x 35.00 ft (normal load) 283.62 m / 281.94 m x 38.10 m x 10.67 m Armament: 8 - 20.00" / 508 mm guns (2x4 guns), 4,000.00lbs / 1,814.37kg shells, 1927 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 1 raised mount 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (6 mounts), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1927 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread 6 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 33,920 lbs / 15,386 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 16.0" / 406 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 93 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 16.0" / 406 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 6.00" / 152 mm, Conning tower: 16.00" / 406 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 129,971 shp / 96,958 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 8,750nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,900 tons Complement: 2,093 - 2,722 Cost: £22.777 million / $91.109 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,240 tons, 6.3 % Armour: 21,805 tons, 32.3 % - Belts: 6,650 tons, 9.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 5,338 tons, 7.9 % - Armour Deck: 9,245 tons, 13.7 % - Conning Tower: 571 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 4,103 tons, 6.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 30,647 tons, 45.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,706 tons, 9.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 102,633 lbs / 46,554 Kg = 25.7 x 20.0 " / 508 mm shells or 6.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 8.1 ft / 2.5 m Roll period: 18.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 75 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.91 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.50 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.584 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.40 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.41 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 42 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Forecastle (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (50 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Stern: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Average freeboard: 27.72 ft / 8.45 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 66.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 204.7 % Waterplane Area: 83,292 Square feet or 7,738 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 267 lbs/sq ft or 1,304 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.43 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, August 28, 2005

### The very fast version of the GB/CB/1910 design

The GB/CB/1910 design is an updated version of the GB/CB/1905 and 1907 designs with thicker belt (8in) and 13.5in/45 guns. The secondary battery is too light with only 8-4in QF guns in twin mounts with shields. The length is slightly longer at 775ft. The displacement ballooned to 33,000 tons. By using lightweight machinery, the speed was still good for 36.5 knots. The 1973 version had hoped to make 44.3 knots with 300,000 SHP. That much power would need 6 shafts, due to the 75,000 SHP per shaft physical limit. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1910 Very Fast, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1910 (Engine 1931) Displacement: 29,503 t light; 30,396 t standard; 33,000 t normal; 35,083 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 775.00 ft / 775.00 ft x 92.00 ft x 29.00 ft (normal load) 236.22 m / 236.22 m x 28.04 m x 8.84 m Armament: 4 - 13.50" / 343 mm guns (2x2 guns), 1,230.19lbs / 558.00kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 8 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (4x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 5,177 lbs / 2,348 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 600.00 ft / 182.88 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 119 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 600.00 ft / 182.88 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 284,675 shp / 212,367 Kw = 36.50 kts Range 8,500nm at 16.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,687 tons Complement: 1,223 - 1,591 Cost: £2.768 million / $11.072 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 647 tons, 2.0 % Armour: 8,323 tons, 25.2 % - Belts: 3,357 tons, 10.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 866 tons, 2.6 % - Armament: 1,139 tons, 3.5 % - Armour Deck: 2,784 tons, 8.4 % - Conning Tower: 177 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 8,513 tons, 25.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 12,020 tons, 36.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,497 tons, 10.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 42,585 lbs / 19,316 Kg = 34.6 x 13.5 " / 343 mm shells or 4.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.28 Metacentric height 6.9 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 14.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.30 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.559 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.42 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.84 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 61 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forecastle (20 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Mid (67 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m (23.00 ft / 7.01 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 28.60 ft / 8.72 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 125.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 224.9 % Waterplane Area: 50,162 Square feet or 4,660 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 156 lbs/sq ft or 762 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.50 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### This is the very fast version of the GB/CB/1907 design

I also had minimal specifications for the very fast version of the GB/CB/1907 design. This had 4-12in/50 guns and slightly thicker armor (5in belt). It was planned to be extravagantly fast: 43.9 knots. In fact, only 36.5 knots is possible, and that only with very light machinery. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1907 Very Fast, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1907 (Engine 1931) Displacement: 24,778 t light; 25,532 t standard; 27,500 t normal; 29,075 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 87.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 26.52 m x 8.23 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 9 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, majority aft Weight of broadside 4,428 lbs / 2,009 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 5.00" / 127 mm 600.00 ft / 182.88 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 120 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 600.00 ft / 182.88 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 249,641 shp / 186,232 Kw = 36.50 kts Range 8,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,543 tons Complement: 1,067 - 1,388 Cost: £2.377 million / $9.509 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 554 tons, 2.0 % Armour: 6,409 tons, 23.3 % - Belts: 2,086 tons, 7.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 833 tons, 3.0 % - Armament: 822 tons, 3.0 % - Armour Deck: 2,552 tons, 9.3 % - Conning Tower: 118 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 7,465 tons, 27.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,350 tons, 37.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,722 tons, 9.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 33,579 lbs / 15,231 Kg = 38.9 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.30 Metacentric height 6.5 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 14.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.29 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.532 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.85 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (67 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 26.60 ft / 8.11 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 134.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 219.8 % Waterplane Area: 45,977 Square feet or 4,271 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 147 lbs/sq ft or 717 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.37 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### The very fast version of the GB/CB/1905 design

In 1973, I had redesigned the GB/CB/1905 and others into much faster ships. My system was faulty, in the sense that I had hoped that 218,000 SHP would produce 43.4 knots. With Springsharp, I was able to reach 35.5 knots with about that much power. The basic design was for a ship with 4-12in/45 and 9-6in QF guns. The armor belt was only 4in, although turrets and barbettes could be thicker. I did increase the deck armor to 3in. The displacement was 26,500 tons, instead of the original 25,000 tons. I also opted for lighter weight machinery. The dimensions are 770ft x 85ft x 26ft. This is the new Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1905 Very Fast, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1923) Displacement: 23,849 t light; 24,583 t standard; 26,500 t normal; 28,034 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 25.91 m x 7.92 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 9 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, majority aft Weight of broadside 4,428 lbs / 2,009 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 600.00 ft / 182.88 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 120 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 600.00 ft / 182.88 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 218,457 shp / 162,969 Kw = 35.50 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,451 tons Complement: 1,038 - 1,350 Cost: £2.322 million / $9.287 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 554 tons, 2.1 % Armour: 5,960 tons, 22.5 % - Belts: 1,667 tons, 6.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 833 tons, 3.1 % - Armament: 822 tons, 3.1 % - Armour Deck: 2,523 tons, 9.5 % - Conning Tower: 115 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 7,301 tons, 27.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,034 tons, 37.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,651 tons, 10.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 31,613 lbs / 14,339 Kg = 36.6 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.30 Metacentric height 6.3 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 14.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.33 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.12 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.545 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (67 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 26.60 ft / 8.11 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 137.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 223.5 % Waterplane Area: 45,465 Square feet or 4,224 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 144 lbs/sq ft or 703 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.31 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### A new Ger/BB/1916 design study

This design study is based on what seems to be the definitive specification for the Ger/BB/1916 battleship design. These are the values specified:

- Dimensions: 760ft x 132ft x 36.5ft
- Displacement: 65,000 tons
- Hull depth: 65ft
- Cp: 0.64
- Cm: 0.97
- Power: 81,250 SHP
- Armament: 9-18in/45 and 24-5in QF guns
- Hull weight: 22,171 tons
- Machinery (30SHP/ton): 2,700 tons
- Armament: 3,358 tons
- Protection: 34,663 tons
- Aux. Mach: 2,100 tons
- Fuel: 2,800 tons, maximum
- Feed Water: 420 tons

Ger/BB/1916, Germany Battleship laid down 1916 (Engine 1921) Displacement: 59,036 t light; 61,582 t standard; 65,000 t normal; 67,734 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 764.24 ft / 760.00 ft x 132.00 ft x 36.50 ft (normal load) 232.94 m / 231.65 m x 40.23 m x 11.13 m Armament: 9 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 27,744 lbs / 12,584 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 113 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 20.0" / 508 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 20.00" / 508 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 81,805 shp / 61,026 Kw = 23.50 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,152 tons Complement: 2,035 - 2,646 Cost: £8.793 million / $35.174 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,468 tons, 5.3 % Armour: 28,624 tons, 44.0 % - Belts: 7,369 tons, 11.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,901 tons, 4.5 % - Armament: 6,581 tons, 10.1 % - Armour Deck: 11,077 tons, 17.0 % - Conning Tower: 697 tons, 1.1 % Machinery: 2,817 tons, 4.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 24,127 tons, 37.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,964 tons, 9.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 114,835 lbs / 52,088 Kg = 39.4 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 26.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.11 Metacentric height 9.2 ft / 2.8 m Roll period: 18.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 82 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.60 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.64 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.621 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.76 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.57 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 25.56 ft / 7.79 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 64.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 175.1 % Waterplane Area: 74,842 Square feet or 6,953 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 105 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 242 lbs/sq ft or 1,182 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.70 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Saturday, August 27, 2005

### I have a sheet that must go with a drawing I have seen for an alternate GB/CB/1905 design

This is more like what Frank Fox and David K. Brown had recommended to me in 2001. They had actually recommended 8-12in guns and a 6in belt, with less speed than 32 or 33 knots. This seems to be an alternate specification that would accompany a drawing I have seen for an alternate GB/CB/1905 design with 6-12in and 8-6in guns. The belt would be 4-6in and the speed would be 31.2knots. To achieve adequate hull strength, I needed to cheat in Springsharp and use lighter-weight machinery. The ship is very pleasant three twin turrets, the second in a superfiring position, a tripod foremast and twin funnels with the fore funnel raised. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1905 Design Study, Enter country Enter ship type laid down 1905 (Engine 1910) Displacement: 22,796 t light; 23,601 t standard; 26,500 t normal; 28,819 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 25.91 m x 7.92 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 6,048 lbs / 2,743 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 108 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 130,202 shp / 97,130 Kw = 31.20 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,218 tons Complement: 1,038 - 1,350 Cost: £2.186 million / $8.744 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 756 tons, 2.9 % Armour: 5,948 tons, 22.4 % - Belts: 1,795 tons, 6.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 999 tons, 3.8 % - Armament: 1,318 tons, 5.0 % - Armour Deck: 1,682 tons, 6.3 % - Conning Tower: 153 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 5,380 tons, 20.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,711 tons, 40.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,704 tons, 14.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 38,534 lbs / 17,479 Kg = 44.6 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 5.2 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 15.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 74 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.64 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.48 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.545 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Mid (67 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m (22.00 ft / 6.71 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 27.60 ft / 8.41 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 114.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 231.8 % Waterplane Area: 45,465 Square feet or 4,224 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 152 lbs/sq ft or 743 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.37 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Friday, August 26, 2005

### A battlecruiser design study

I have a pencil drawing from the early 1970's for a battlecruiser with 6-12in/50 and 8-6.7in guns. Presumably, it was intended to be German, because of the 6.7in guns. It was not intended to have particularly lightweight machinery, and didn't specify a speed, but the power. These are the incomplete specifications:

Displacement=29,000 tons Length=730ft Cp=0.57 Cm=0.97 6-12in/50 and 8-6.7in BLR Power=140,000 SHP Machinery=8,750 tons Hull=12,180 tons Armament=975 tons Protection=5,750 tons Miscellaneous=2,320 tonsFrom that, I hypothesized a 90ft beam and a 27ft draft. The secondary armament is in twin turrets. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1910 Design Study, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1910 Displacement: 22,948 t light; 23,820 t standard; 29,000 t normal; 33,144 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 730.00 ft / 730.00 ft x 90.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 222.50 m / 222.50 m x 27.43 m x 8.23 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 8 - 6.70" / 170 mm guns (4x2 guns), 150.38lbs / 68.21kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 6,387 lbs / 2,897 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 460.00 ft / 140.21 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 97 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 460.00 ft / 140.21 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 140,428 shp / 104,760 Kw = 31.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 9,324 tons Complement: 1,110 - 1,444 Cost: £2.286 million / $9.145 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 798 tons, 2.8 % Armour: 5,754 tons, 19.8 % - Belts: 2,010 tons, 6.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 664 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 1,186 tons, 4.1 % - Armour Deck: 1,732 tons, 6.0 % - Conning Tower: 163 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 5,803 tons, 20.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,592 tons, 36.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,052 tons, 20.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 42,284 lbs / 19,180 Kg = 48.9 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 5.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.33 Metacentric height 7.0 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 14.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 65 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.39 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.31 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.572 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.11 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.02 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (65 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.52 ft / 7.78 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 110.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 205.2 % Waterplane Area: 46,816 Square feet or 4,349 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 122 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 153 lbs/sq ft or 747 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.40 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, August 25, 2005

### Apparently, the 26,000 ton battleship was supposed to have 12in guns

I have a sheet with some notes that the 26,000 ton battleship drawing had 8-12in guns and some notes about armor thickness on turret and barbette. The armor basis appears to have been only 10in, with oddly thin turret faces and thick tops. That is the sort of feature that my friend Cliff with have, as he was an experimenter. The dimensions were 570ft x 105ft x 25.7ft with a displacement of 26,000 tons. I treated that here as if it were normal, not standard. The benefit of a design like this is that they tend to have better seakeeping ability than the tighter designs. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1908 Design Study, Enter country Enter ship type laid down 1908 Displacement: 22,148 t light; 22,997 t standard; 26,000 t normal; 28,403 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 570.00 ft / 570.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 25.70 ft (normal load) 173.74 m / 173.74 m x 32.00 m x 7.83 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1908 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1908 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,296 lbs / 3,309 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 370.00 ft / 112.78 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 370.00 ft / 112.78 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 370.00 ft / 112.78 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 6.00" / 152 mm, Conning tower: 10.00" / 254 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 47,120 shp / 35,151 Kw = 23.00 kts Range 7,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,406 tons Complement: 1,023 - 1,330 Cost: £1.874 million / $7.498 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 912 tons, 3.5 % Armour: 9,700 tons, 37.3 % - Belts: 2,375 tons, 9.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 657 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 1,658 tons, 6.4 % - Armour Deck: 4,821 tons, 18.5 % - Conning Tower: 189 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 2,380 tons, 9.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,156 tons, 35.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,852 tons, 14.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 51,600 lbs / 23,405 Kg = 59.7 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 10.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.25 Metacentric height 8.0 ft / 2.5 m Roll period: 15.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 73 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.31 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.45 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, raised quarterdeck Block coefficient: 0.592 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.43 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.87 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (67 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m (0.00 ft / 0.00 m before break) - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 21.90 ft / 6.68 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 69.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 172.2 % Waterplane Area: 43,432 Square feet or 4,035 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 120 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 159 lbs/sq ft or 778 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.77 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Wednesday, August 24, 2005

### A better approach to more speed

A better way to reach higher speed is to increase the length. By doing that, I provided better protection, while achieving better seakeeping and slightly less draft, although too great at 38ft. The new dimensions were 950ft x 110ft x 38ft with a displacement of 47,500 tons. The speed was still 42 knots. The armament was the same with 6-18in and 12-5in QF guns. This is the final Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1916 Design Study Alt-2, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1916 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 43,592 t light; 46,075 t standard; 47,500 t normal; 48,640 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 951.99 ft / 950.00 ft x 110.00 ft x 38.00 ft (normal load) 290.17 m / 289.56 m x 33.53 m x 11.58 m Armament: 6 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (2x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 18,246 lbs / 8,276 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 640.00 ft / 195.07 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 104 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 535,448 shp / 399,444 Kw = 42.00 kts Range 4,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,565 tons Complement: 1,608 - 2,091 Cost: £8.566 million / $34.265 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,281 tons, 4.8 % Armour: 4,899 tons, 10.3 % - Belts: 960 tons, 2.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 1,362 tons, 2.9 % - Armour Deck: 2,408 tons, 5.1 % - Conning Tower: 170 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 12,810 tons, 27.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 23,602 tons, 49.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,908 tons, 8.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 38,157 lbs / 17,308 Kg = 13.1 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 2.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 7.8 ft / 2.4 m Roll period: 16.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 55 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.69 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.10 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.419 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.64 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.82 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Forecastle (20 %): 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Mid (50 %): 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Stern: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Average freeboard: 33.40 ft / 10.18 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 124.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 254.4 % Waterplane Area: 65,089 Square feet or 6,047 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 97 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 226 lbs/sq ft or 1,105 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 2.00 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### I wanted to see if I could get more speed

I wanted to see if I could get more speed from the design, while altering specifications as little as possible. I was able to achieve 42 knots, although at the expense of seakeeping and pretection. The displacement had to rise, and the draft is almost unmanageably great. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1916 Design Study-Alt1, Enter country Enter ship type laid down 1916 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 39,566 t light; 41,237 t standard; 42,650 t normal; 43,781 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 852.04 ft / 850.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 41.00 ft (normal load) 259.70 m / 259.08 m x 32.00 m x 12.50 m Armament: 6 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (2x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 18,246 lbs / 8,276 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 1.00" / 25 mm, Conning tower: 5.00" / 127 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 530,596 shp / 395,824 Kw = 42.00 kts Range 4,900nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,544 tons Complement: 1,483 - 1,929 Cost: £8.309 million / $33.236 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,281 tons, 5.3 % Armour: 3,194 tons, 7.5 % - Belts: 753 tons, 1.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 1,289 tons, 3.0 % - Armour Deck: 1,021 tons, 2.4 % - Conning Tower: 131 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 12,694 tons, 29.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 21,397 tons, 50.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,084 tons, 7.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 27,704 lbs / 12,566 Kg = 9.5 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 2.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 6.7 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 17.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 50 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.87 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.00 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.408 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 62 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 39.00 ft / 11.89 m - Forecastle (20 %): 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Mid (75 %): 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Stern: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Average freeboard: 34.40 ft / 10.49 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 135.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 241.1 % Waterplane Area: 55,199 Square feet or 5,128 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 91 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 229 lbs/sq ft or 1,118 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.90 - Longitudinal: 2.73 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### Fast battlecruisers, yet again

There is this page in the "Red Book" with specifications for a battlecruiser that could make (I hesistate to write it) 50 knots. It was to be 850ft x 105ft and 37,500 tons normal displacement. The armament was 6-18in/45 and 12-5in QF guns. It was to need 457,000 SHP to reach 50 knots, which is not possible. The hope was to be able to generate 548,000 SHP by pressing the machinery. I did a preliminary Springsharp design based on that, with a 40 knot speed. I had weights to work with from the specification:

- Hull=12,900 tons
- Aux. Mach.=1,500 tons
- Machinery=11,420 tons
- Armament=2,758 tons
- Protection=4,502 tons
- Misc.=2,880 tons

GB/CB/1916 Design Study, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1916 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 34,837 t light; 36,405 t standard; 37,500 t normal; 38,376 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 851.89 ft / 850.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 37.00 ft (normal load) 259.66 m / 259.08 m x 32.00 m x 11.28 m Armament: 6 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (2x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 18,246 lbs / 8,276 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 590.00 ft / 179.83 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 107 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 1.00" / 25 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 6 shafts, 397,020 shp / 296,177 Kw = 40.00 kts Range 4,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,971 tons Complement: 1,346 - 1,751 Cost: £7.306 million / $29.225 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,281 tons, 6.1 % Armour: 3,181 tons, 8.5 % - Belts: 883 tons, 2.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 1,139 tons, 3.0 % - Armour Deck: 1,015 tons, 2.7 % - Conning Tower: 145 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 9,498 tons, 25.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 19,878 tons, 53.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,663 tons, 7.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 28,420 lbs / 12,891 Kg = 9.7 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 2.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.14 Metacentric height 6.9 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.81 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.397 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Forecastle (20 %): 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Mid (75 %): 32.00 ft / 9.75 m (24.00 ft / 7.32 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Stern: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Average freeboard: 30.32 ft / 9.24 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 126.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 238.9 % Waterplane Area: 54,861 Square feet or 5,097 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 93 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 228 lbs/sq ft or 1,113 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.91 - Longitudinal: 2.30 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, August 23, 2005

### The Ger/BB/1916 design

I have this nice pencil drawing of the inboard profile of what is labelled as the Ger/BB/1916. I have attributed 20in guns to this ship in the past, and did so again. That gives the ship 9-20in/45 and 24-5in QF guns (in twin mounts). The length is rather short, being 760ft. The ship is flush-decked with two funnels. I did a Springsharp report based on what I believe to be the sort of specifications that I had intended:

Ger/BB/1916, Germany Battleship laid down 1916 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 63,597 t light; 66,677 t standard; 70,000 t normal; 72,659 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 761.68 ft / 760.00 ft x 130.00 ft x 35.00 ft (normal load) 232.16 m / 231.65 m x 39.62 m x 10.67 m Armament: 9 - 20.00" / 508 mm guns (3x3 guns), 4,000.00lbs / 1,814.37kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 37,500 lbs / 17,010 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 410.00 ft / 124.97 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 83 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 410.00 ft / 124.97 m 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 131,101 shp / 97,801 Kw = 26.00 kts Range 7,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,982 tons Complement: 2,151 - 2,797 Cost: £11.034 million / $44.134 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,688 tons, 6.7 % Armour: 27,384 tons, 39.1 % - Belts: 5,518 tons, 7.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,063 tons, 2.9 % - Armament: 7,336 tons, 10.5 % - Armour Deck: 11,809 tons, 16.9 % - Conning Tower: 659 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 4,138 tons, 5.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 27,387 tons, 39.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,403 tons, 9.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 97,531 lbs / 44,239 Kg = 24.4 x 20.0 " / 508 mm shells or 16.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.09 Metacentric height 8.7 ft / 2.7 m Roll period: 18.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.74 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.21 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.709 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.85 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.57 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (50 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Stern: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Average freeboard: 26.48 ft / 8.07 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 81.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 183.7 % Waterplane Area: 79,792 Square feet or 7,413 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 96 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 261 lbs/sq ft or 1,273 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.63 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Monday, August 22, 2005

### Another attempt at the GB/BB/1914 battleship design

My friend Cliff wanted to escalate the battleship race with an 18in design. Immediately on entering the design into Springsharp, I found that there was inadequate hull strength. The other weights are reasonable, but the overall displacement of 48,500 tons standard is too low. To obtain the speed, armor, and gunpower, on the order of 60,000 tons is required. The dimensions specificied are 800ft x 120ft with a hull depth of 55ft. that is quite inadequate for strength. The armament is 9-18in/45 and 20-5in QF guns. The armor basis is 18in. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1914, Enter country Enter ship type laid down 1914 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 55,945 t light; 58,421 t standard; 62,150 t normal; 65,133 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 801.57 ft / 800.00 ft x 120.00 ft x 34.00 ft (normal load) 244.32 m / 243.84 m x 36.58 m x 10.36 m Armament: 9 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 20 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (10x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 27,494 lbs / 12,471 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 450.00 ft / 137.16 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 87 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 450.00 ft / 137.16 m 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 99,570 shp / 74,280 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,713 tons Complement: 1,967 - 2,558 Cost: £6.817 million / $27.267 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,437 tons, 5.5 % Armour: 25,051 tons, 40.3 % - Belts: 6,223 tons, 10.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,131 tons, 3.4 % - Armament: 6,420 tons, 10.3 % - Armour Deck: 9,668 tons, 15.6 % - Conning Tower: 608 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 3,650 tons, 5.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 23,807 tons, 38.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,205 tons, 10.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 100,780 lbs / 45,713 Kg = 34.6 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 18.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 7.6 ft / 2.3 m Roll period: 18.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 77 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.82 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.55 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.666 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.67 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 46 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (50 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Stern: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Average freeboard: 26.32 ft / 8.02 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 72.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 188.0 % Waterplane Area: 74,654 Square feet or 6,936 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 235 lbs/sq ft or 1,147 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.45 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Sunday, August 21, 2005

### British battleship design study

I have a pencil drawing, dimensions, standard displacement, and armor weights. I believe that it was for a British battleship design study for my friend Cliff. By the gun barrel lengths, I have estimated that the guns were to be 15in/42. The secondary armament is not show, but Cliff usually opted for 6in guns. The dimensions were 570 x 105ft x 25.7ft. The standard displacement was specified as 26,000 tons. The actual normal displacement for Springsharp needed to be much greater. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1912, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1912 (Engine 1921) Displacement: 25,955 t light; 27,186 t standard; 28,750 t normal; 30,001 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 570.00 ft / 570.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 25.70 ft (normal load) 173.74 m / 173.74 m x 32.00 m x 7.83 m Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 10 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 14,580 lbs / 6,613 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 340.00 ft / 103.63 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 340.00 ft / 103.63 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 92 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 340.00 ft / 103.63 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 43,271 shp / 32,280 Kw = 22.00 kts Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,816 tons Complement: 1,103 - 1,435 Cost: £2.648 million / $10.592 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,823 tons, 6.3 % Armour: 10,713 tons, 37.3 % - Belts: 2,618 tons, 9.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 604 tons, 2.1 % - Armament: 3,052 tons, 10.6 % - Armour Deck: 4,257 tons, 14.8 % - Conning Tower: 182 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 1,490 tons, 5.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,929 tons, 41.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,795 tons, 9.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 47,313 lbs / 21,461 Kg = 28.0 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 8.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.09 Metacentric height 6.4 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 17.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 68 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.69 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.37 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.654 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.43 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.87 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (64 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 22.36 ft / 6.82 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 79.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 178.2 % Waterplane Area: 46,025 Square feet or 4,276 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 102 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 197 lbs/sq ft or 962 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.86 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Saturday, August 20, 2005

### A fast GB/CB/1915 design study

There is a page with sketch specifications for a fast battlecruiser design. The page is titled "Jeun Ecole". Below that, there are the words "high speed". The 4in-6in must refer to the side armor. To the left is 6-12in, which I assume is the main armament. then, there are the indications Cp=0.54 and Cm=0.90. The dimensions are those for the GB/CB/1905 design, with a heavier armament and armor. I tried the design in Springsharp for a 1915 very fast battlecruiser with lightweight machinery. This is the result:

GB/CB/1915 Design Study, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 22,819 t light; 23,578 t standard; 25,000 t normal; 26,138 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 25.91 m x 7.92 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 5,696 lbs / 2,584 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 108 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 174,301 shp / 130,028 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,559 tons Complement: 993 - 1,292 Cost: £3.015 million / $12.062 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 712 tons, 2.8 % Armour: 6,780 tons, 27.1 % - Belts: 1,793 tons, 7.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 999 tons, 4.0 % - Armament: 1,370 tons, 5.5 % - Armour Deck: 2,452 tons, 9.8 % - Conning Tower: 166 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 4,831 tons, 19.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,497 tons, 42.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,181 tons, 8.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 37,056 lbs / 16,808 Kg = 42.9 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 5.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.13 Metacentric height 5.0 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 16.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.55 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.21 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.514 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (67 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 26.60 ft / 8.11 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 110.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 227.0 % Waterplane Area: 44,179 Square feet or 4,104 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 154 lbs/sq ft or 751 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.37 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### An expansive view of the GB/BB/1905 fast battleship design

In 1973, I decided to see how far many of my friend Cliff's designs could be stretched, primarily by using lighter machinery. I have a page with a pencil sketch and specifications for a version with machinery that produced 30 SHP/ton. The original concept was to have a light armament, but good armor protection. That meant 6-12in/45 BLR and 8-6in QF guns. The armor basis was 13.4in and was in the "all-or-nothing" pattern. I used the citadel length from the drawing, even though Springsharp thinks that is short. The dimensions were 680ft x 87.7ft x 28ft with a displacement of 25,000 tons. I have assumed that meant normal, not standard displacement. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1905, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1905 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 22,756 t light; 23,532 t standard; 25,000 t normal; 26,175 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 680.00 ft / 680.00 ft x 87.70 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 207.26 m / 207.26 m x 26.73 m x 8.53 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (4x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 6,048 lbs / 2,743 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.4" / 340 mm 355.00 ft / 108.20 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 80 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.4" / 340 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 13.4" / 340 mm 2nd: 3.63" / 92 mm 3.63" / 92 mm 3.63" / 92 mm - Armour deck: 4.50" / 114 mm, Conning tower: 6.75" / 171 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, No drive to shaft, 4 shafts, 86,351 shp / 64,418 Kw = 28.00 kts Range 6,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,643 tons Complement: 993 - 1,292 Cost: £1.813 million / $7.252 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 756 tons, 3.0 % Armour: 9,297 tons, 37.2 % - Belts: 3,396 tons, 13.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 2,395 tons, 9.6 % - Armour Deck: 3,382 tons, 13.5 % - Conning Tower: 124 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 2,726 tons, 10.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,978 tons, 39.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,244 tons, 9.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 49,094 lbs / 22,269 Kg = 56.8 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.03 Metacentric height 4.4 ft / 1.3 m Roll period: 17.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 82 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.71 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.65 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.524 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.08 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Mid (64 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m (22.00 ft / 6.71 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 27.28 ft / 8.31 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 58.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 213.6 % Waterplane Area: 40,622 Square feet or 3,774 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 120 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 158 lbs/sq ft or 772 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.91 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Friday, August 19, 2005

### The other ship design: GB/PG/1915 (not 1914)

The fast gunboat that was to accompany the scout cruiser is actually designated GB/PG/1915. I have often called it GB/PG/1914. The armament is 4-4in QF guns, mounted on the centerline, but not superfiring. The hull is flush-decked, with dimensions intended to be 260ft x 27ft x 9.5ft. The standard displacement was intended to be 800 tons. The Springsharp design that I did tonight is 21 tons lighter, with greater freeboard and draft. Interestingly enough, the seakeeping improved with heavier machinery. I started with 1950 for the year, and decided that on the order of 60 SHP/ton was excessive. This is the report:

GB/PG/1914, Great Britain Fast Gunboat laid down 1914 (Engine 1932) Displacement: 748 t light; 779 t standard; 890 t normal; 979 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 263.26 ft / 260.00 ft x 27.00 ft x 12.00 ft (normal load) 80.24 m / 79.25 m x 8.23 m x 3.66 m Armament: 4 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread Weight of broadside 128 lbs / 58 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 26,478 shp / 19,752 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 201 tons Complement: 80 - 105 Cost: £0.133 million / $0.530 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 16 tons, 1.8 % Machinery: 461 tons, 51.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 271 tons, 30.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 142 tons, 16.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 235 lbs / 106 Kg = 7.3 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.39 Metacentric height 1.2 ft / 0.4 m Roll period: 10.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.40 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.370 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.63 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.12 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 71 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Forecastle (20 %): 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Mid (50 %): 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Stern: 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Average freeboard: 13.40 ft / 4.08 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 181.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 132.1 % Waterplane Area: 4,267 Square feet or 396 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 53 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 27 lbs/sq ft or 131 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.43 - Longitudinal: 3.67 - Overall: 0.53 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### A new attempt at the GB/CS/1914 scout cruiser design

I took a fresh look at my friend Cliff's GB/CS/1914 scout cruiser design, and was able to obtain a good result from Springsharp. Of course, that requires lightweight machinery. I also had to increase freeboard and draft to achieve adequate seakeeping, as well as hull strength. The result is pretty satisfactory. This is an unarmored cruiser, of course. It is a fast version of the Amphion class, with superfiring guns and a flush deck. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CS/1914, Great Britain Scout Cruiser laid down 1914 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 2,801 t light; 2,901 t standard; 3,200 t normal; 3,439 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 408.47 ft / 405.00 ft x 41.00 ft x 15.00 ft (normal load) 124.50 m / 123.44 m x 12.50 m x 4.57 m Armament: 4 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 432 lbs / 196 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 48,338 shp / 36,060 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 4,850nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 538 tons Complement: 212 - 276 Cost: £0.421 million / $1.685 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 54 tons, 1.7 % Machinery: 1,340 tons, 41.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,407 tons, 44.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 399 tons, 12.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 2,080 lbs / 944 Kg = 19.3 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 0.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.30 Metacentric height 2.1 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.38 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.450 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.88 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.12 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 64 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Forecastle (20 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Mid (50 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 16.40 ft / 5.00 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 148.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 127.0 % Waterplane Area: 10,589 Square feet or 984 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 71 lbs/sq ft or 347 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.90 - Longitudinal: 2.57 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Thursday, August 18, 2005

### An expansive version of the Ger/BB/1907 design

My version of the Ger/BB/1907 design that is "pushing the envelople" must have dated from 1973. I was trying to get the most performance out of designs, while in 1971, I was keeping more to moderate speeds and machinery weight. This version depends very much on lightweight machinery:

Ger/BB/1907, Germany Battleship laid down 1907 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 24,922 t light; 25,800 t standard; 27,500 t normal; 28,860 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 620.00 ft / 620.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 188.98 m / 188.98 m x 32.00 m x 7.92 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,296 lbs / 3,309 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 89 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 13.00" / 330 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 138,274 shp / 103,152 Kw = 30.20 kts Range 4,700nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,060 tons Complement: 1,067 - 1,388 Cost: £2.175 million / $8.700 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 912 tons, 3.3 % Armour: 8,798 tons, 32.0 % - Belts: 2,872 tons, 10.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 666 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 2,438 tons, 8.9 % - Armour Deck: 2,566 tons, 9.3 % - Conning Tower: 255 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 3,832 tons, 13.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,380 tons, 41.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,578 tons, 9.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 49,807 lbs / 22,592 Kg = 57.6 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 7.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.14 Metacentric height 6.9 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.38 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.569 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.90 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.90 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 61 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Mid (67 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 28.24 ft / 8.61 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 87.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 238.5 % Waterplane Area: 46,235 Square feet or 4,295 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 175 lbs/sq ft or 854 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.11 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, August 16, 2005

### A more expansive view of the Ger/BB/1905 design

In the summer of 1973, I had experimented with the Ger/BB/1905 design to see what might be achieved by using lighter machinery. The dimesions for this design are 580ft x 90ft x 26.6ft. The standard displacement is 22,000 tons. I apparently expected to use a 23,500 tons for normal load. The armament is 8-12in/45 and 12-4in QF guns. The armor basis was 11in. I had expected to obtain 26.5 knots with 95,400 SHP, but with 87,096 SHP, 27.5 knots can be achieved. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1905, Germany Battleship laid down 1905 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 20,893 t light; 21,692 t standard; 23,500 t normal; 24,947 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 580.00 ft / 580.00 ft x 90.00 ft x 26.60 ft (normal load) 176.78 m / 176.78 m x 27.43 m x 8.11 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,296 lbs / 3,309 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 385.00 ft / 117.35 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 195.00 ft / 59.44 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 385.00 ft / 117.35 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 11.00" / 279 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 87,096 shp / 64,974 Kw = 27.50 kts Range 8,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,255 tons Complement: 948 - 1,233 Cost: £1.882 million / $7.529 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 912 tons, 3.9 % Armour: 8,176 tons, 34.8 % - Belts: 3,141 tons, 13.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 534 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 2,202 tons, 9.4 % - Armour Deck: 2,104 tons, 9.0 % - Conning Tower: 194 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 2,749 tons, 11.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,056 tons, 38.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,607 tons, 11.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 39,461 lbs / 17,899 Kg = 45.7 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 6.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.07 Metacentric height 4.9 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 17.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.62 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.15 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.592 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.44 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.08 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (68 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.52 ft / 7.78 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 86.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 197.3 % Waterplane Area: 37,906 Square feet or 3,522 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 163 lbs/sq ft or 795 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 1.97 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, August 15, 2005

### The compact version of a Ger/BB/1915

This is the compact version of the Ger/BB/1915 design study. It is not an extreme design, however. This is 755ft x 110ft x 32ft, with a nominal standard displacement of 45,000 tons. The armament is 9-16.5in and 10-6in QF guns. I was not able to put as much armor into the design as I had originally anticipated. I allowed for 120,000 SHP, but underestimated what speed could be achieved with that. The planned SHP/ton was 30. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1915 Compact Version, Germany Battleship laid down 1915 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 42,259 t light; 44,143 t standard; 46,500 t normal; 48,385 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 756.57 ft / 755.00 ft x 110.00 ft x 32.00 ft (normal load) 230.60 m / 230.12 m x 33.53 m x 9.75 m Armament: 9 - 16.50" / 419 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,246.06lbs / 1,018.80kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 10 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 21,295 lbs / 9,659 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 16.5" / 419 mm 410.00 ft / 124.97 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 84 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 410.00 ft / 124.97 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 16.5" / 419 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 16.5" / 419 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm - - - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 16.00" / 406 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 119,805 shp / 89,375 Kw = 27.50 kts Range 6,700nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,242 tons Complement: 1,583 - 2,058 Cost: £6.174 million / $24.695 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,662 tons, 5.7 % Armour: 16,866 tons, 36.3 % - Belts: 4,897 tons, 10.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,365 tons, 2.9 % - Armament: 4,475 tons, 9.6 % - Armour Deck: 5,684 tons, 12.2 % - Conning Tower: 446 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 3,782 tons, 8.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 18,949 tons, 40.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,241 tons, 9.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 68,155 lbs / 30,915 Kg = 30.3 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 10.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.07 Metacentric height 6.6 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 18.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 64 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.80 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.28 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.612 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.86 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.48 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (64 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.28 ft / 7.71 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 84.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 187.9 % Waterplane Area: 61,448 Square feet or 5,709 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 102 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 222 lbs/sq ft or 1,082 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.52 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, August 14, 2005

### The alternative Ger/BB/1915 Design Study

Another alternative design study was for a Ger/BB/1915 battleship. This was 841ft x 120ft x 31.9ft. The intended standard displacement was 50,000 tons. That turns out to be rather low, as more displacement was needed to allow for adequate hull strength. The armament was 12-16 and 12-6in guns. I only had the planned weights, so I adjusted the protection to match. I scaled off the pencil drawing, which resembles that for the Ger/BB/1915-1916 design. I had expected that 170,000 SHP would be needed for 27.5 knots, but I was able to achieve 29.5 knots for slightly less power. I adjusted the machinery date to obtain the desired machinery weight. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1915 Design Study, Germany Battleship laid down 1915 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 51,332 t light; 53,622 t standard; 56,500 t normal; 58,803 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 842.57 ft / 841.00 ft x 120.00 ft x 31.90 ft (normal load) 256.82 m / 256.34 m x 36.58 m x 9.72 m Armament: 12 - 16.00" / 406 mm guns (4x3 guns), 2,048.00lbs / 928.96kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 25,872 lbs / 11,735 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 16.0" / 406 mm 435.00 ft / 132.59 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 80 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 435.00 ft / 132.59 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 16.0" / 406 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 16.0" / 406 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm - - - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 16.00" / 406 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 172,046 shp / 128,346 Kw = 29.50 kts Range 7,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,181 tons Complement: 1,832 - 2,382 Cost: £7.671 million / $30.682 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,234 tons, 5.7 % Armour: 19,061 tons, 33.7 % - Belts: 5,080 tons, 9.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 934 tons, 1.7 % - Armament: 5,621 tons, 9.9 % - Armour Deck: 6,919 tons, 12.2 % - Conning Tower: 508 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 5,431 tons, 9.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 23,606 tons, 41.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,168 tons, 9.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 77,793 lbs / 35,286 Kg = 38.0 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 11.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 7.8 ft / 2.4 m Roll period: 18.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 55 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.67 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.11 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.614 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.01 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 25.40 ft / 7.74 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 88.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 194.4 % Waterplane Area: 74,799 Square feet or 6,949 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 101 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 235 lbs/sq ft or 1,147 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.21 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### A quick photo of the Ger/BB/1915-1916 design study ship

This is a quick attempt at a photo for the Ger/BB/1915-1916 battleship design study:

## Saturday, August 13, 2005

### I assume that my Ger/BB/1915-1916 design study is larger than anticipated

I have several pages devoted to the "Ger/BB/15-16" (Ger/BB/1915-1916) design study. Of course, on these pages, the critical information is lacking. Therefore, I made up the missing specifications. I have an inboard profile that seems to have 12-18in and 16-6in guns. The vessel is 915ft long. The citadel is 500 ft long. On the next page, there is a cross section with armor indicated. There actually are two decks: the upper being 6.5in and the lower, sitting on the belt, is 5in. The A/T bulkhead is 3.5in. The belt is 18in. There is a triple bottom, and the hold is divided into thirds, longitudinally. The draft is only 32ft. To make this work, I had to go with a large displacement and had to increase freeboard and draft. This is the resulting Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1915-1916, Germany Battleship laid down 1915 (Engine 1931) Displacement: 83,132 t light; 86,833 t standard; 92,500 t normal; 97,034 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 916.83 ft / 915.00 ft x 130.00 ft x 35.00 ft (normal load) 279.45 m / 278.89 m x 39.62 m x 10.67 m Armament: 12 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (4x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (8x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 36,720 lbs / 16,656 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 84 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.50" / 89 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 11.50" / 292 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 225,247 shp / 168,034 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 10,900nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 10,201 tons Complement: 2,651 - 3,447 Cost: £11.212 million / $44.848 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,590 tons, 5.0 % Armour: 39,390 tons, 42.6 % - Belts: 6,527 tons, 7.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,007 tons, 2.2 % - Armament: 8,360 tons, 9.0 % - Armour Deck: 21,703 tons, 23.5 % - Conning Tower: 793 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 6,736 tons, 7.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 32,417 tons, 35.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 9,368 tons, 10.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 145,383 lbs / 65,945 Kg = 49.9 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 24.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 9.2 ft / 2.8 m Roll period: 18.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.65 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.12 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.778 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.04 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.25 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (50 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Stern: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Average freeboard: 26.72 ft / 8.14 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 72.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 190.6 % Waterplane Area: 102,011 Square feet or 9,477 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 244 lbs/sq ft or 1,190 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.00 - Longitudinal: 1.07 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

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