GB/CA/1910, Great Britain Armoured Cruiser laid down 1910 Displacement: 17,401 t light; 18,048 t standard; 19,800 t normal; 21,202 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 605.00 ft / 605.00 ft x 84.00 ft x 25.00 ft (normal load) 184.40 m / 184.40 m x 25.60 m x 7.62 m Armament: 8 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (4x2 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread, 4 raised mounts Weight of broadside 3,627 lbs / 1,645 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 107 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 91,854 shp / 68,523 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,154 tons Complement: 833 - 1,084 Cost: £1.521 million / $6.085 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 453 tons, 2.3 % Armour: 6,229 tons, 31.5 % - Belts: 2,426 tons, 12.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 536 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 1,181 tons, 6.0 % - Armour Deck: 1,960 tons, 9.9 % - Conning Tower: 126 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 3,796 tons, 19.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 6,923 tons, 35.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,399 tons, 12.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 29,460 lbs / 13,363 Kg = 75.7 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 4.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.23 Metacentric height 5.6 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 14.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 59 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.30 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.19 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.545 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.20 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.60 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 57 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (67 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 22.68 ft / 6.91 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 105.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 184.0 % Waterplane Area: 35,316 Square feet or 3,281 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 133 lbs/sq ft or 652 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.54 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, October 31, 2005

### A 1910 fast British armoured cruiser

This morning I wondered what a 1910 fast British armoured cruiser would be like. I ran a Springsharp design that increased the armour and speed, but not the armament. At almost 20,000 tons, a ship with 8-9.2in and 16-4in guns seems underarmed. The speed is nice, at 29 knots. The range is 5,400 nm, which should be adequate. This is the Springsharp report:

### How about a fast 1906 Armoured Cruiser?

I thought that a fast 1906 armoured cruiser might be a way to better explore the ship design space. This is a 27-knot ship with 7in side armour and 8-9.2in guns. I lapsed back into my usual mode, so the ends are unarmoured and the side armour is a uniform 7in, 17ft high. I increased the length over my initial 545ft to 565ft. I am assuming that the main armament is in echelon, as sort of Indefatigable-like arrangement. I would think that there would be an 8-gun broadside possible, at least on some bearings. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CA/1906, Great Britain Armoured Cruiser laid down 1906 Displacement: 14,600 t light; 15,186 t standard; 16,800 t normal; 18,091 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 565.00 ft / 565.00 ft x 78.00 ft x 24.00 ft (normal load) 172.21 m / 172.21 m x 23.77 m x 7.32 m Armament: 8 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (4x2 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1906 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread, 4 raised mounts Weight of broadside 3,627 lbs / 1,645 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 370.00 ft / 112.78 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 370.00 ft / 112.78 m 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 7.00" / 178 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 64,156 shp / 47,860 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 4,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,904 tons Complement: 737 - 959 Cost: £1.475 million / $5.900 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 453 tons, 2.7 % Armour: 4,358 tons, 25.9 % - Belts: 1,893 tons, 11.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 315 tons, 1.9 % - Armament: 907 tons, 5.4 % - Armour Deck: 1,144 tons, 6.8 % - Conning Tower: 99 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 4,166 tons, 24.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 5,623 tons, 33.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,200 tons, 13.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 19,774 lbs / 8,969 Kg = 50.8 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 2.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.33 Metacentric height 5.7 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 13.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.30 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.26 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.556 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.24 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.77 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (67 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 20.60 ft / 6.28 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 136.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 155.7 % Waterplane Area: 30,928 Square feet or 2,873 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 124 lbs/sq ft or 604 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.49 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, October 30, 2005

### My smaller, faster 1912 British Light Cruiser design

I wanted to see what might done on a smaller displacement that could reach 28 knots. I armed the resulting design with 6-5in QF guns, 2-3in AA guns, and 4-21in TT above water. The armour basis is 3in with a 1in deck. The gun shields are 3in, as well. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CL/1912 Fast, Great Britain Light Cruiser laid down 1912 Displacement: 4,167 t light; 4,305 t standard; 4,850 t normal; 5,286 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 443.75 ft / 440.00 ft x 44.00 ft x 15.00 ft (normal load) 135.25 m / 134.11 m x 13.41 m x 4.57 m Armament: 6 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm guns in single mounts, 13.50lbs / 6.12kg shells, 1912 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread Weight of broadside 402 lbs / 182 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 310.00 ft / 94.49 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 108 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 37,013 shp / 27,611 Kw = 28.00 kts Range 4,250nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 981 tons Complement: 289 - 377 Cost: £0.395 million / $1.579 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 50 tons, 1.0 % Armour: 1,046 tons, 21.6 % - Belts: 460 tons, 9.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 51 tons, 1.0 % - Armour Deck: 516 tons, 10.6 % - Conning Tower: 19 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 1,476 tons, 30.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,595 tons, 32.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 683 tons, 14.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 5,442 lbs / 2,468 Kg = 87.1 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 1.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.32 Metacentric height 2.4 ft / 0.7 m Roll period: 11.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 59 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.21 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.18 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.585 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.98 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Forecastle (20 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Mid (37 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m (13.00 ft / 3.96 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Stern: 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Average freeboard: 16.28 ft / 4.96 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 107.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 119.1 % Waterplane Area: 13,956 Square feet or 1,297 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 110 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 68 lbs/sq ft or 333 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.51 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

### My (lame) attempt at a 1912 British Light Cruiser

This is my British Light Cruiser design for 1912. It seems rather lame, but I insisted on 4in side armour with a 2in deck. The armament is the archaic layout with a gun at each end with 3 on each side for a total of 8-6in QF guns. The speed is a semi-acceptable 27 knots. That seemed to be the minimum that would be a reasonable scout for the battlefleet. Of course, if the battlefleet consists of 27 knot ships, perhaps 27 knots is insufficient! In any case, this class is really intended for use in distant waters with cruiser squadrons. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CL/1912, Great Britain Light Cruiser laid down 1912 Displacement: 5,159 t light; 5,382 t standard; 6,125 t normal; 6,719 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 473.75 ft / 470.00 ft x 48.00 ft x 17.00 ft (normal load) 144.40 m / 143.26 m x 14.63 m x 5.18 m Armament: 2 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread 6 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread 2 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm guns in single mounts, 13.50lbs / 6.12kg shells, 1912 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread Weight of broadside 891 lbs / 404 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 310.00 ft / 94.49 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm - - 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 35,534 shp / 26,508 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 5,100nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,337 tons Complement: 346 - 450 Cost: £0.472 million / $1.890 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 111 tons, 1.8 % Armour: 1,349 tons, 22.0 % - Belts: 621 tons, 10.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 112 tons, 1.8 % - Armour Deck: 587 tons, 9.6 % - Conning Tower: 29 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 1,417 tons, 23.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,282 tons, 37.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 966 tons, 15.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 9,103 lbs / 4,129 Kg = 84.3 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 1.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 2.3 ft / 0.7 m Roll period: 13.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 85 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.60 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.69 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.559 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.79 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 21.68 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (67 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (14.00 ft / 4.27 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 19.60 ft / 5.97 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 90.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 172.9 % Waterplane Area: 15,877 Square feet or 1,475 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 121 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 79 lbs/sq ft or 386 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.91 - Longitudinal: 2.26 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

### A 1910 British Light Cruiser

This is my attempt at a fairly fast 1910 British ocean-going light cruiser. I went with a 4in belt and a 2in deck. The speed is just 26 knots, but faster than the ships that were nominally 25 knots. The armament is 8-6in guns. I punted in that I did not do a detailed breakdown with guns and the ends and then guns on the beam. The size had to balloon more than I liked in order to achieve the proper composite strength. Apparently, for smallish ships, we accept a shorter roll period, and are happy that it is as long as it is. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CL/1910, Great Britain Light Cruiser laid down 1910 Displacement: 4,839 t light; 5,046 t standard; 5,825 t normal; 6,448 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 463.75 ft / 460.00 ft x 47.00 ft x 16.00 ft (normal load) 141.35 m / 140.21 m x 14.33 m x 4.88 m Armament: 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on side ends, evenly spread 2 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm guns in single mounts, 13.50lbs / 6.12kg shells, 1910 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 891 lbs / 404 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 300.00 ft / 91.44 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 30,277 shp / 22,586 Kw = 26.00 kts Range 5,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,403 tons Complement: 333 - 433 Cost: £0.438 million / $1.752 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 111 tons, 1.9 % Armour: 1,322 tons, 22.7 % - Belts: 602 tons, 10.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 112 tons, 1.9 % - Armour Deck: 579 tons, 9.9 % - Conning Tower: 28 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 1,251 tons, 21.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,155 tons, 37.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 986 tons, 16.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 9,334 lbs / 4,234 Kg = 86.4 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 1.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 2.2 ft / 0.7 m Roll period: 13.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 91 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.69 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.82 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.589 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.79 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 21.45 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (67 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (14.00 ft / 4.27 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 19.60 ft / 5.97 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 85.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 177.2 % Waterplane Area: 15,656 Square feet or 1,454 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 124 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 76 lbs/sq ft or 371 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.29 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Saturday, October 29, 2005

### How about a 1921-style British Battleship-Cruiser?

The obvious next step is to design a 1921-style British battleship-cruiser. We are almost required to have a 31-knot speed, so that and the 15in armour basis greatly increase the displacement. I wanted 9-16.5in guns as the main armament with the obligatory 16-6in QF guns in twin turrets. The AA armament is 6-4.7in AA and 32-40mm (2pdr) AA guns. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1921 Battleship-Cruiser, Great Britain Battleship-Cruiser laid down 1921 Displacement: 53,730 t light; 56,108 t standard; 58,500 t normal; 60,414 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 865.00 ft / 865.00 ft x 108.00 ft x 33.00 ft (normal load) 263.65 m / 263.65 m x 32.92 m x 10.06 m Armament: 9 - 16.50" / 419 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,425.00lbs / 1,099.96kg shells, 1921 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (8x2 guns), 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 1921 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring 6 - 4.70" / 119 mm guns in single mounts, 50.00lbs / 22.68kg shells, 1921 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 32 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (8x4 guns), 2.00lbs / 0.91kg shells, 1921 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread Weight of broadside 23,789 lbs / 10,791 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 15.0" / 381 mm 565.00 ft / 172.21 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 565.00 ft / 172.21 m 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 15.0" / 381 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 15.0" / 381 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - - 4th: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 6.00" / 152 mm, Conning tower: 15.00" / 381 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 185,028 shp / 138,031 Kw = 31.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,306 tons Complement: 1,880 - 2,445 Cost: £13.022 million / $52.088 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,790 tons, 4.8 % Armour: 22,198 tons, 37.9 % - Belts: 6,166 tons, 10.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,007 tons, 3.4 % - Armament: 5,140 tons, 8.8 % - Armour Deck: 8,398 tons, 14.4 % - Conning Tower: 487 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 6,371 tons, 10.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 22,370 tons, 38.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,770 tons, 8.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 80,466 lbs / 36,499 Kg = 35.8 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 12.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.09 Metacentric height 6.6 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 17.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.76 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.664 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.01 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 33.59 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (50 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Stern: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Average freeboard: 24.80 ft / 7.56 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 87.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 184.0 % Waterplane Area: 75,656 Square feet or 7,029 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 102 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 219 lbs/sq ft or 1,068 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.00 - Longitudinal: 1.13 - Overall: 1.01 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### A pretty conventional, if large, 1916 British battleship-cruiser

I was looking at the Queen Victoria class page, and thought about my 1912 design for a battleship-cruiser. The next obvious step would be to design a 1916 battleship-cruiser. The layout is pretty conventional with 8-16in guns in twin turrets in the usual arrangement. The secondary battery is 16-5.5in QF guns. I am not looking for extreme speeds (in this case), but I wanted an advance over the 1912 ships. I chose a maximum speed of 29 knots. As usual, the ships are large. The armour basis is 14in, so the design is well-protected. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1916 Battleship-Cruiser, Great Britain Battleship-Cruiser laid down 1916 Displacement: 41,176 t light; 43,002 t standard; 45,800 t normal; 48,038 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 814.31 ft / 812.00 ft x 104.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 248.20 m / 247.50 m x 31.70 m x 9.14 m Armament: 8 - 16.00" / 406 mm guns (4x2 guns), 2,048.00lbs / 928.96kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 5.50" / 140 mm guns in single mounts, 83.19lbs / 37.73kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring 4 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1916 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 24 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (2x12 guns), 2.00lbs / 0.91kg shells, 1916 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 17,891 lbs / 8,115 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 530.00 ft / 161.54 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm - - - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 141,818 shp / 105,796 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,037 tons Complement: 1,564 - 2,034 Cost: £6.643 million / $26.570 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,236 tons, 4.9 % Armour: 15,711 tons, 34.3 % - Belts: 5,407 tons, 11.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 4,029 tons, 8.8 % - Armour Deck: 5,890 tons, 12.9 % - Conning Tower: 386 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 5,284 tons, 11.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,945 tons, 39.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,624 tons, 10.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 63,605 lbs / 28,851 Kg = 31.1 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 4.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 6.2 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 17.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 62 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.80 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.24 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.633 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.81 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (67 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m (19.00 ft / 5.79 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 24.84 ft / 7.57 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 74.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 192.2 % Waterplane Area: 63,672 Square feet or 5,915 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 202 lbs/sq ft or 987 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.20 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### A 1912 British Battleship-Cruiser

I thought that I might try a 1912 British Battleship-Cruiser next. In many ways, it is not very capable, considering the displacement. I suspect that the reasons are:

- 17ft high 13in belt
- Direct-drive turbines

GB/BB/1912 Battleship-cruiser, Great Britain Battleship-Cruiser laid down 1912 Displacement: 36,468 t light; 38,142 t standard; 41,200 t normal; 43,647 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 745.00 ft / 745.00 ft x 102.00 ft x 29.00 ft (normal load) 227.08 m / 227.08 m x 31.09 m x 8.84 m Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1,920.00lbs / 870.90kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 16,760 lbs / 7,602 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 490.00 ft / 149.35 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 255.00 ft / 77.72 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 490.00 ft / 149.35 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 13.00" / 330 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 105,189 shp / 78,471 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,505 tons Complement: 1,445 - 1,879 Cost: £3.440 million / $13.759 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,877 tons, 4.6 % Armour: 14,655 tons, 35.6 % - Belts: 5,475 tons, 13.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 979 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 3,542 tons, 8.6 % - Armour Deck: 4,325 tons, 10.5 % - Conning Tower: 334 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 4,194 tons, 10.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 15,742 tons, 38.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,732 tons, 11.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 64,290 lbs / 29,162 Kg = 38.1 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 9.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.13 Metacentric height 6.5 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 16.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.75 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.26 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.654 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.30 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.29 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (67 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 24.35 ft / 7.42 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 84.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 188.8 % Waterplane Area: 58,445 Square feet or 5,430 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 195 lbs/sq ft or 950 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.26 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Friday, October 28, 2005

### A 1906 British Battleship-Cruiser

So, why don't we give another try to a 1906 British Battleship-Cruiser. William Hovgaard's idea was to build these instead of battleships or armoured cruisers. The aging process would automatically create the slower battleline, as the newer ships got better. This design is probably handicapped by my insistence on a deep belt. That has required a greater displacement, in order to achieve adequate hull strength. I had wanted an 11in armour basis, but was not able to achieve that on this size ship. The idea is that this would have 8-12in guns in echelon, with 16-4in QF guns in casemates at the upper deck level and above. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1906 Battleship-Cruiser, Great Britain Battleship-Cruiser laid down 1906 Displacement: 20,610 t light; 21,463 t standard; 23,800 t normal; 25,669 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 590.00 ft / 590.00 ft x 88.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 179.83 m / 179.83 m x 26.82 m x 8.53 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1906 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 7,424 lbs / 3,367 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 10.5" / 267 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 190.00 ft / 57.91 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m 10.00 ft / 3.05 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.5" / 267 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 10.5" / 267 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.50" / 64 mm, Conning tower: 10.50" / 267 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 58,478 shp / 43,625 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 5,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,206 tons Complement: 957 - 1,245 Cost: £2.032 million / $8.130 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 928 tons, 3.9 % Armour: 7,775 tons, 32.7 % - Belts: 3,492 tons, 14.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 563 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 1,820 tons, 7.6 % - Armour Deck: 1,712 tons, 7.2 % - Conning Tower: 187 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,797 tons, 16.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,110 tons, 34.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,190 tons, 13.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 31,609 lbs / 14,338 Kg = 36.6 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 5.8 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 15.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 67 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.47 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.35 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.573 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.70 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.29 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (67 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 21.68 ft / 6.61 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 105.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 160.5 % Waterplane Area: 37,025 Square feet or 3,440 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 151 lbs/sq ft or 736 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.60 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, October 27, 2005

### How about a 1909 British Battleship-Cruiser

I thought that it would be interesting to try again to design a British "Battleship-Cruiser" (William Hovgaard-style) where the ship was fast, but had battleship armour. For 1909, a 13.5in-gun armament seemed appropriate. The secondary battery necessarily needed to be 16-4in QF guns for this date. I went with an armour basis of 12in with a 27-knot speed. It is so much more capable than the Lion class ships. Partly, this ship is larger, and partly, the all-oil fuel is a factor. The machinery is normal weight. I could not justify "all-or-nothing" in 1909, so the ends are armoured. From my perspective, this seems the ideal capital ship to be laid down in 1909. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1909 Battleship-Cruiser, Great Britain Battleship-Cruiser laid down 1909 Displacement: 29,004 t light; 30,193 t standard; 33,250 t normal; 35,696 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 680.00 ft / 680.00 ft x 95.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 207.26 m / 207.26 m x 28.96 m x 8.53 m Armament: 8 - 13.50" / 343 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1,230.19lbs / 558.00kg shells, 1909 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1909 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 10,354 lbs / 4,696 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 490.00 ft / 149.35 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 190.00 ft / 57.91 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Main Belt covers 111 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 490.00 ft / 149.35 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 94,822 shp / 70,738 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,503 tons Complement: 1,230 - 1,600 Cost: £2.706 million / $10.823 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,294 tons, 3.9 % Armour: 11,501 tons, 34.6 % - Belts: 4,840 tons, 14.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 979 tons, 2.9 % - Armament: 2,685 tons, 8.1 % - Armour Deck: 2,730 tons, 8.2 % - Conning Tower: 267 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 4,310 tons, 13.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,899 tons, 35.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,246 tons, 12.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 49,661 lbs / 22,526 Kg = 40.4 x 13.5 " / 343 mm shells or 7.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.14 Metacentric height 5.9 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 16.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.59 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.21 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.643 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.16 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.08 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (67 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 23.60 ft / 7.19 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 90.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 181.2 % Waterplane Area: 49,188 Square feet or 4,570 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 172 lbs/sq ft or 838 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.33 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Wednesday, October 26, 2005

### A different approach to an anachronistic armoured cruiser

This is my attempt at an anachronistic design using HMS Drake dimensions and displacement. Probably simply due to newer technology and date, the result is much more capable. I settled for a 6in armour basis. The armament is 8-9.2in guns in superfiring turrets and 12-4in QF guns in turrets amidships. The maximum speed is 27 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

HMS Drake, Great Britain Armoured Cruiser laid down 1910 Displacement: 12,204 t light; 12,786 t standard; 14,150 t normal; 15,241 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 537.39 ft / 533.50 ft x 71.33 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 163.80 m / 162.61 m x 21.74 m x 7.92 m Armament: 8 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (4x2 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 3,499 lbs / 1,587 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 110 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.50" / 64 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 57,171 shp / 42,650 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 5,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,454 tons Complement: 648 - 843 Cost: £1.125 million / $4.501 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 437 tons, 3.1 % Armour: 4,271 tons, 30.2 % - Belts: 1,627 tons, 11.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 352 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 1,044 tons, 7.4 % - Armour Deck: 1,173 tons, 8.3 % - Conning Tower: 76 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 2,362 tons, 16.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 5,133 tons, 36.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,946 tons, 13.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 18,900 lbs / 8,573 Kg = 48.5 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 3.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 3.5 ft / 1.1 m Roll period: 16.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.56 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.22 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.501 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.48 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.10 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Mid (50 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 20.56 ft / 6.27 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 109.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 149.1 % Waterplane Area: 25,367 Square feet or 2,357 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 128 lbs/sq ft or 624 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.83 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Tuesday, October 25, 2005

### A 1942-style British armoured cruiser (UPDATED)

I have thought about what a British armoured cruiser might have been like, if it were laid down in 1942. It has 9-9.2in BLR, 12-4.5in DP, 48-40mm AA, and 28-20mm AA guns. The armour basis is now 8in. The speed is a modest 32 knots. I initially underestimated the displacement that would be necessary. I also gave too long of an armoured citadel. I have shortened the armoured length. This allowed the armour basis to increase to 8in, instead of 7in. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CA/1942, Great Britain Armoured Cruiser laid down 1942 Displacement: 17,687 t light; 18,366 t standard; 19,750 t normal; 20,857 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 718.89 ft / 715.00 ft x 78.00 ft x 25.00 ft (normal load) 219.12 m / 217.93 m x 23.77 m x 7.62 m Armament: 9 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (3x3 guns), 380.00lbs / 172.37kg shells, 1942 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 4.50" / 114 mm guns (6x2 guns), 45.56lbs / 20.67kg shells, 1942 Model Dual purpose guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships 48 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (12x4 guns), 2.00lbs / 0.91kg shells, 1942 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts on side ends, evenly spread, 7 raised mounts - superfiring 28 - 0.79" / 20.0 mm guns in single mounts, 0.24lbs / 0.11kg shells, 1942 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts on side ends, evenly spread, 18 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 4,070 lbs / 1,846 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 490.00 ft / 149.35 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 105 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 490.00 ft / 149.35 m 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - - 4th: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 120,428 shp / 89,839 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 7,800nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,492 tons Complement: 832 - 1,082 Cost: £9.516 million / $38.064 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 519 tons, 2.6 % Armour: 6,557 tons, 33.2 % - Belts: 2,770 tons, 14.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 381 tons, 1.9 % - Armament: 1,226 tons, 6.2 % - Armour Deck: 2,054 tons, 10.4 % - Conning Tower: 126 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 3,146 tons, 15.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,464 tons, 37.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,063 tons, 10.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 29,889 lbs / 13,558 Kg = 76.8 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 4.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 4.7 ft / 1.4 m Roll period: 15.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.35 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.07 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.496 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.17 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.74 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forecastle (20 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Mid (50 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 19.64 ft / 5.99 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 97.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 161.0 % Waterplane Area: 37,016 Square feet or 3,439 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 136 lbs/sq ft or 663 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.00 - Longitudinal: 1.05 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### Torpedoes on WWII-era cruisers

For Frank Fox, the loss of the Mikuma at the Battle of Midway emphasized the need to remove above-water torpedo tubes from major cruisers. He might say "all cruisers", but I am not sure. The US Navy had reached that conclusion after the Battle of Santiago Bay in 1898, when the Spanish belted cruisers suffered from hits on torpedoes in the above-water tubes. The US Navy had decided that above water torpedo tubes were acceptable in light cruisers. For some reason, they originally included the first 8in-gunned cruisers in that category and gave them torpedo tubes. They were removed, and no new large cruisers included them. Only smaller light cruisers retained torpedo tubes. The opposing argument was that the Japanese heavy cruisers inflicted enough damage with their Long Lance torpedoes that the risk was worthwhile.

## Monday, October 24, 2005

### A pretty good GB/CA/1910 armoured cruiser

A purpose-built British armoured cruiser with guns in echelon works quite well. The armament is 8-9.2in BLR and 16-4in QF guns. The armour basis is 9in with a 3in deck. The speed is an acceptable 27 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CA/1910, Great Britain Armoured Cruiser laid down 1910 Displacement: 13,402 t light; 13,973 t standard; 16,000 t normal; 17,622 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 538.36 ft / 535.00 ft x 70.00 ft x 25.00 ft (normal load) 164.09 m / 163.07 m x 21.34 m x 7.62 m Armament: 8 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (4x2 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on centreline, all forward, 8 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 3,627 lbs / 1,645 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 112 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 64,143 shp / 47,851 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 7,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,649 tons Complement: 710 - 924 Cost: £1.221 million / $4.884 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 453 tons, 2.8 % Armour: 5,416 tons, 33.8 % - Belts: 2,227 tons, 13.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 498 tons, 3.1 % - Armament: 1,064 tons, 6.6 % - Armour Deck: 1,518 tons, 9.5 % - Conning Tower: 109 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 2,651 tons, 16.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 4,883 tons, 30.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,598 tons, 16.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 21,724 lbs / 9,854 Kg = 55.8 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 3.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.21 Metacentric height 4.2 ft / 1.3 m Roll period: 14.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.37 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.598 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.64 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.13 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 57 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (35 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 18.96 ft / 5.78 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 106.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 130.9 % Waterplane Area: 27,342 Square feet or 2,540 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 118 lbs/sq ft or 576 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.49 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, October 23, 2005

### My anachronistic design for the Cressy class

My 1910 version of the Cressy class greatly outperforms the original. That seems to be largely due to the later building date and newer technology. I kept the dimensions and displacement, but went with a somewhat heavier armament (4-9.2in and 12-6in guns). The layout is very similar to my other anachronistic designs. This is the Springsharp report:

HMS Cressy, Great Britain Armoured Cruiser laid down 1910 Displacement: 10,101 t light; 10,582 t standard; 12,000 t normal; 13,135 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 475.54 ft / 472.00 ft x 69.50 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 144.94 m / 143.87 m x 21.18 m x 7.92 m Armament: 4 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (2x2 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (6x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 8 - 2.24" / 57.0 mm guns in single mounts, 5.65lbs / 2.56kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 3,283 lbs / 1,489 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 350.00 ft / 106.68 m 19.00 ft / 5.79 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 114 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 350.00 ft / 106.68 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 3rd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4th: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 34,121 shp / 25,454 Kw = 24.00 kts Range 6,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,553 tons Complement: 573 - 745 Cost: £0.896 million / $3.582 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 410 tons, 3.4 % Armour: 4,264 tons, 35.5 % - Belts: 1,672 tons, 13.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 486 tons, 4.0 % - Armament: 834 tons, 7.0 % - Armour Deck: 1,205 tons, 10.0 % - Conning Tower: 68 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 1,410 tons, 11.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 4,016 tons, 33.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,899 tons, 15.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 17,959 lbs / 8,146 Kg = 46.1 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 3.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.14 Metacentric height 3.7 ft / 1.1 m Roll period: 15.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.43 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.22 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.492 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.79 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 21.73 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forecastle (20 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Mid (50 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 16.48 ft / 5.02 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 91.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 115.5 % Waterplane Area: 21,707 Square feet or 2,017 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 121 lbs/sq ft or 591 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.91 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Saturday, October 22, 2005

### The color sketch of HMS Warrior (anachronistic 3rd Class Battleship version)

This is my sketch of the my HMS Warrior, anachronistic 3rd Class Battleship design. As usual, it resembles a pocket WWII battleship with a tower mast. I realized that the Warrior was fast enough to fill the armoured cruiser role and would be able to scout for the battlefleet in 1916 at 22 knots. It certainly is better protected than the ships that were actually used at Jutland in the armoured cruiser role.

### This is my anachronistic 3rd Class Battleship Warrior

Yes, this is the anachronistic design of a ship that uses the displacement and dimensions of the original British ironclad, the Warrior. The length allows the ship to have a slightly higher speed than might otherwise be the case. I toyed with the idea of using 10in guns for the main armament, but settled for the 9.2in guns, instead. There are also 8-6in QF, 12-4in QF, and 8-6pdr QF guns. The armour basis is just 8in. This is the Springsharp report:

HMS Warrior, Great Britain 3rd Class Battleship laid down 1910 Displacement: 7,551 t light; 7,942 t standard; 9,137 t normal; 10,093 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 423.47 ft / 420.00 ft x 58.33 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 129.07 m / 128.02 m x 17.78 m x 7.92 m Armament: 4 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (2x2 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (4x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 8 - 2.24" / 57.0 mm guns in single mounts, 5.65lbs / 2.56kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 2,851 lbs / 1,293 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 300.00 ft / 91.44 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 110 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 300.00 ft / 91.44 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3rd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4th: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.50" / 64 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 21,321 shp / 15,906 Kw = 22.00 kts Range 5,900nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,152 tons Complement: 466 - 607 Cost: £0.687 million / $2.748 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 356 tons, 3.9 % Armour: 3,190 tons, 34.9 % - Belts: 1,212 tons, 13.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 416 tons, 4.6 % - Armament: 749 tons, 8.2 % - Armour Deck: 756 tons, 8.3 % - Conning Tower: 56 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 881 tons, 9.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 3,124 tons, 34.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,586 tons, 17.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 13,491 lbs / 6,119 Kg = 34.7 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 3.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.01 Metacentric height 2.3 ft / 0.7 m Roll period: 16.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 68 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.82 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.37 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.502 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.20 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.49 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Forecastle (20 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Mid (50 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 16.40 ft / 5.00 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 94.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 107.0 % Waterplane Area: 16,354 Square feet or 1,519 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 117 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 115 lbs/sq ft or 560 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.91 - Longitudinal: 2.37 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### My 3rd Class Battleship Defence sketch

This is my sketch, somewhat cleaned up graphically, of my anachronistic design for HMS Defence. The drawing, as you can see, is almost diagrammatic, not a detailed, to scale, drawing. The look is that of my pocket WWII battleship genre. Admittedly, it is a pretty goofy idea, but I think it is a fun diversion.

### My anachronisitic 3rd Class Battleship design for the Defence (Revised)

This is my anachronistic 3rd Class Battleship design for a ship built to the dimensions and displacement of the early British ironclad Defence. My greatest problem was achieving adequate stability. There are tradeoffs between the various parameters to achieve an adequate composite strength in Springsharp, along with adequate stability and seakeeping ability. Considering that the displacement is only 6,150 tons, the design does quite well. It has 9in side armour, but restricted in height. There is a 3in protective deck and a 1.5in anti=torpedo bulkhead. The armament is 4-9.2in BLR, 10-4.7in QF, and 12-6pdr QF guns. The maximum speed is 19 knots with a 15 knot cruising speed for a range of 5,750 nm. This is the Springsharp report:

HMS Defence, Great Britain 3rd Class Battleship laid down 1910 Displacement: 5,118 t light; 5,343 t standard; 6,150 t normal; 6,796 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 305.26 ft / 302.00 ft x 54.17 ft x 25.00 ft (normal load) 93.04 m / 92.05 m x 16.51 m x 7.62 m Armament: 4 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (2x2 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 - 4.70" / 119 mm guns (1x2 guns), 51.91lbs / 23.55kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in a turret (on a barbette) on centreline forward, all raised guns - superfiring 8 - 4.70" / 119 mm guns (4x2 guns), 51.91lbs / 23.55kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread 12 - 2.24" / 57.0 mm guns in single mounts, 5.65lbs / 2.56kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, 10 raised mounts Weight of broadside 2,144 lbs / 973 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 197.00 ft / 60.05 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 197.00 ft / 60.05 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3rd: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4th: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 13,563 shp / 10,118 Kw = 20.00 kts Range 4,700nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,453 tons Complement: 346 - 451 Cost: £0.483 million / $1.931 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 268 tons, 4.4 % Armour: 2,379 tons, 38.7 % - Belts: 938 tons, 15.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 262 tons, 4.3 % - Armament: 515 tons, 8.4 % - Armour Deck: 620 tons, 10.1 % - Conning Tower: 43 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 560 tons, 9.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,911 tons, 31.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,032 tons, 16.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 8,334 lbs / 3,780 Kg = 21.4 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 2.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.01 Metacentric height 2.0 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 16.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.64 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.526 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.58 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 17.38 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Forecastle (20 %): 13.50 ft / 4.11 m - Mid (50 %): 13.50 ft / 4.11 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 13.50 ft / 4.11 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 13.90 ft / 4.24 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 99.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 83.0 % Waterplane Area: 11,167 Square feet or 1,037 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 104 lbs/sq ft or 510 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.87 - Longitudinal: 3.49 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is cramped

## Friday, October 21, 2005

### One of Walker's big frigates as an anachronistic cruiser

This is my anachronistic design for the Diadem, using the dimensions of one of Walker's big frigates laid down in 1855. Admittedly, it is a strange concept. I was surprised, again, how much good could be done within the scope of Springsharp. I was able to make a 20 knot convoy cruiser with a 3in protective deck. The cruising speed is a substantial 15 knots with a cruising range of 5,250 nm. The armament is 4-7.5in BLR, 12-4.7in QF, and 8-6pdr QF guns. There is a 1in anti-torpedo bulkhead. The ship would seem to be an adequate convoy surface escort. We might like a higher top end speed, but otherwise, it is acceptable. Others may not have a taste for such a thing, and I can understand that. This is the Springsharp report:

HMS Diadem, Great Britain Cruiser laid down 1910 Displacement: 2,998 t light; 3,168 t standard; 3,880 t normal; 4,450 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 258.47 ft / 255.00 ft x 48.00 ft x 20.50 ft (normal load) 78.78 m / 77.72 m x 14.63 m x 6.25 m Armament: 4 - 7.50" / 191 mm guns (2x2 guns), 210.94lbs / 95.68kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 12 - 4.70" / 119 mm guns (6x2 guns), 51.91lbs / 23.55kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 8 - 2.24" / 57.0 mm guns in single mounts, 5.65lbs / 2.56kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 1,512 lbs / 686 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Ends: Unarmoured - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 200.00 ft / 60.96 m 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 5.00" / 127 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 11,199 shp / 8,355 Kw = 20.00 kts Range 5,250nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,282 tons Complement: 245 - 319 Cost: £0.328 million / $1.314 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 189 tons, 4.9 % Armour: 965 tons, 24.9 % - Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 141 tons, 3.6 % - Armament: 327 tons, 8.4 % - Armour Deck: 470 tons, 12.1 % - Conning Tower: 27 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 463 tons, 11.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,382 tons, 35.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 882 tons, 22.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 5,126 lbs / 2,325 Kg = 24.3 x 7.5 " / 191 mm shells or 1.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.01 Metacentric height 1.7 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 15.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.92 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.541 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.31 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 15.97 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 64 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Forecastle (20 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Mid (50 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 16.40 ft / 5.00 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 130.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 105.4 % Waterplane Area: 8,472 Square feet or 787 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 114 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 95 lbs/sq ft or 464 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.85 - Longitudinal: 4.72 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Thursday, October 20, 2005

### My anachronistic Inconstant cruiser

I took the dimensions and the displacement for HMS Inconstant, laid down in 1866, and entered them into Springsharp. I gave the ship some armour, rather than leaving her unarmoured, and was able to achieve some speed and a good deal of range. Perhaps the armament is too heavy at 4-9.2in BLR, 10-6in QF, 8-4in QF, and 12-6pdr QF guns. The deck is 2in thick. I suspect that I could have had a better ship with 4-8in guns instead of the 9.2in. This is the Springsharp report:

HMS Inconstant, Great Britain 1st Class Cruiser (Unarmoured) laid down 1910 Displacement: 4,188 t light; 4,573 t standard; 5,780 t normal; 6,745 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 340.59 ft / 337.33 ft x 50.25 ft x 25.50 ft (normal load) 103.81 m / 102.82 m x 15.32 m x 7.77 m Armament: 4 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (2x2 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread Main guns limited to end-on fire 10 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (5x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 12 - 2.24" / 57.0 mm guns in single mounts, 6.00lbs / 2.72kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 2,965 lbs / 1,345 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Ends: Unarmoured - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 260.00 ft / 79.25 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3rd: 2.00" / 51 mm - 2.00" / 51 mm 4th: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 14,500 shp / 10,817 Kw = 21.00 kts Range 7,700nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,172 tons Complement: 330 - 430 Cost: £0.541 million / $2.165 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 370 tons, 6.4 % Armour: 1,096 tons, 19.0 % - Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 231 tons, 4.0 % - Armament: 431 tons, 7.5 % - Armour Deck: 406 tons, 7.0 % - Conning Tower: 28 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 599 tons, 10.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,122 tons, 36.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,592 tons, 27.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 5,717 lbs / 2,593 Kg = 14.7 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 1.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.01 Metacentric height 1.8 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 15.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 1.02 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.468 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.71 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 18.37 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Forecastle (20 %): 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Mid (50 %): 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Stern: 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Average freeboard: 12.48 ft / 3.80 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 139.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 76.0 % Waterplane Area: 10,977 Square feet or 1,020 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 110 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 113 lbs/sq ft or 553 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.89 - Longitudinal: 2.79 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is crampedI did some experimentation, and the result is that we might have achieved 22 knots, if we accepted 8in guns.

### My anachronistic version of the 3rd Class Battleship Warrior

I have played around with anachronistic versions of HMS Warrior since I was a teenager. This one works moderately well, as a 3rd Class Battleship or Armoured Cruiser laid down in 1910. It is suitable for service in distant waters or as a convoy escort. The armament is mixed, with 4-8in BLR, 10-6in QF, 8-4in QF, and 12-6pdr QF guns. The belt is 8in with the main and secondary armaments in twin turrets. The dimensions are those of the original ship from 1860, but laid down in 1910:

HMS Warrior, Great Britain 3rd Class Battleship laid down 1910 Displacement: 7,737 t light; 8,144 t standard; 9,210 t normal; 10,062 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 421.47 ft / 418.00 ft x 58.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 128.46 m / 127.41 m x 17.68 m x 7.92 m Armament: 4 - 8.00" / 203 mm guns (2x2 guns), 250.00lbs / 113.40kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 10 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (5x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 12 - 2.24" / 57.0 mm guns in single mounts, 5.65lbs / 2.56kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 2,404 lbs / 1,090 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 280.00 ft / 85.34 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 280.00 ft / 85.34 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 2.00" / 51 mm - - 4th: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 21,531 shp / 16,062 Kw = 22.00 kts Range 5,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,918 tons Complement: 469 - 611 Cost: £0.650 million / $2.601 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 303 tons, 3.3 % Armour: 3,696 tons, 40.1 % - Belts: 1,529 tons, 16.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 389 tons, 4.2 % - Armament: 797 tons, 8.6 % - Armour Deck: 906 tons, 9.8 % - Conning Tower: 76 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 890 tons, 9.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,848 tons, 30.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,473 tons, 16.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 13,672 lbs / 6,201 Kg = 53.4 x 8.0 " / 203 mm shells or 3.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.01 Metacentric height 2.3 ft / 0.7 m Roll period: 16.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.57 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.21 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.511 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.21 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.45 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Forecastle (20 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Mid (50 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 14.56 ft / 4.44 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 88.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 92.8 % Waterplane Area: 16,322 Square feet or 1,516 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 117 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 107 lbs/sq ft or 525 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 2.01 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Wednesday, October 19, 2005

### HMS Imperiuse and Warspite, anachronistic design

I have my HMS Imperiuse design for an anachronistic belted cruiser. The originals were laid down in 1881, but mine would be laid down in 1910. My design works pretty well. I am using Springsharp techniques that I learned from the Red Admiral, from Wesworld. This design has the same calibers and numbers of guns as the original, except they are of newer vintage. The dimensions and displacement is also that of the original. The resulting design is, of course, much more capable:

HMS Imperiuse, Great Britain Belted Cruiser laid down 1910 Displacement: 6,954 t light; 7,361 t standard; 8,500 t normal; 9,411 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 328.15 ft / 325.00 ft x 62.00 ft x 26.75 ft (normal load) 100.02 m / 99.06 m x 18.90 m x 8.15 m Armament: 4 - 9.20" / 234 mm guns (2x2 guns), 389.34lbs / 176.60kg shells, 1910 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (1x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in a turret (on a barbette) on centreline forward, all raised guns - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (4x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships 4 - 2.24" / 57.0 mm guns in single mounts, 6.00lbs / 2.72kg shells, 1910 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 2,661 lbs / 1,207 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 220.00 ft / 67.06 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 104 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 220.00 ft / 67.06 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 3rd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4th: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 20,013 shp / 14,930 Kw = 21.00 kts Range 5,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,049 tons Complement: 442 - 575 Cost: £0.638 million / $2.554 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 332 tons, 3.9 % Armour: 3,202 tons, 37.7 % - Belts: 1,163 tons, 13.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 204 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 739 tons, 8.7 % - Armour Deck: 1,043 tons, 12.3 % - Conning Tower: 54 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 827 tons, 9.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,592 tons, 30.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,546 tons, 18.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 11,976 lbs / 5,432 Kg = 30.8 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 2.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.02 Metacentric height 2.5 ft / 0.8 m Roll period: 16.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.56 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.552 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.24 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 18.03 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 61 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forecastle (20 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Mid (50 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 16.48 ft / 5.02 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 92.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 97.1 % Waterplane Area: 14,088 Square feet or 1,309 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 115 lbs/sq ft or 559 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.86 - Longitudinal: 3.67 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Tuesday, October 18, 2005

### The extravagantly large and fast version of the Ger/CB/1943

This version of the design for the Ger/CB/1943 matches my current thoughts about what such a ship should be like. The size is somewhat larger, so that a maximum speed of 37 knots can be achieved, along with an 18 knot cruising speed for a range of 8,000 nm. The belt is a modest 13in. I prefer twin turrets for the secondary and tertiary batteries, so the armament is 9-21in, 16-6in QF, 16-4in AA, 72-40mm AA quad, and 56-20mm AA single. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1943, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1943 Displacement: 118,293 t light; 123,122 t standard; 130,000 t normal; 135,502 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 1,304.66 ft / 1,300.00 ft x 150.00 ft x 41.00 ft (normal load) 397.66 m / 396.24 m x 45.72 m x 12.50 m Armament: 9 - 21.00" / 533 mm guns (3x3 guns), 4,630.50lbs / 2,100.36kg shells, 1943 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (8x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1943 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (8x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1943 Model Anti-aircraft guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 72 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (18x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1943 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, 13 raised mounts 56 - 0.79" / 20.0 mm guns in single mounts, 0.24lbs / 0.11kg shells, 1943 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, 36 raised mounts Weight of broadside 44,069 lbs / 19,989 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 850.00 ft / 259.08 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 850.00 ft / 259.08 m 37.00 ft / 11.28 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 15.0" / 381 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 15.0" / 381 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 4th: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 15.00" / 381 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 575,246 shp / 429,134 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 8,000nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 12,380 tons Complement: 3,422 - 4,450 Cost: £71.001 million / $284.004 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 5,509 tons, 4.2 % Armour: 38,596 tons, 29.7 % - Belts: 7,940 tons, 6.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 4,655 tons, 3.6 % - Armament: 7,231 tons, 5.6 % - Armour Deck: 17,942 tons, 13.8 % - Conning Tower: 829 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 14,857 tons, 11.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 59,331 tons, 45.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 11,707 tons, 9.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 194,150 lbs / 88,065 Kg = 41.9 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 34.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.25 Metacentric height 13.7 ft / 4.2 m Roll period: 17.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.41 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.11 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.569 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.67 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 36.06 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 48 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (50 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Stern: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Average freeboard: 28.80 ft / 8.78 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 79.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 215.9 % Waterplane Area: 138,550 Square feet or 12,872 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 320 lbs/sq ft or 1,564 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.21 - Longitudinal: 0.94 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, October 17, 2005

### An even larger Ger/CB/1943 battlecruiser

The only advantage to what I am calling the Ger/CB/1943 design is that it has a 14in belt and main armament protection. One of the 12in belt Ger/CB/1942 designs could reach 37 knots. This can comfortably reach 35 knots, and has a 9,000 nm range at 15 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1943, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1943 Displacement: 114,942 t light; 119,679 t standard; 125,000 t normal; 129,257 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 1,254.66 ft / 1,250.00 ft x 156.00 ft x 37.00 ft (normal load) 382.42 m / 381.00 m x 47.55 m x 11.28 m Armament: 9 - 21.00" / 533 mm guns (3x3 guns), 4,630.50lbs / 2,100.36kg shells, 1943 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 18 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (6x3 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1943 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships 18 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x3 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1943 Model Anti-aircraft guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 24 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (6x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1943 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts Weight of broadside 44,241 lbs / 20,068 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 800.00 ft / 243.84 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 98 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 800.00 ft / 243.84 m 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 4th: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 474,148 shp / 353,714 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 9,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 9,578 tons Complement: 3,323 - 4,321 Cost: £67.959 million / $271.838 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 5,530 tons, 4.4 % Armour: 38,575 tons, 30.9 % - Belts: 8,158 tons, 6.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 4,262 tons, 3.4 % - Armament: 6,821 tons, 5.5 % - Armour Deck: 18,580 tons, 14.9 % - Conning Tower: 754 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 12,246 tons, 9.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 58,592 tons, 46.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 10,058 tons, 8.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 208,422 lbs / 94,538 Kg = 45.0 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 41.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.29 Metacentric height 15.5 ft / 4.7 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.36 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.11 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.606 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.01 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 35.36 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 47 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (50 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Stern: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Average freeboard: 28.80 ft / 8.78 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 75.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 230.3 % Waterplane Area: 143,471 Square feet or 13,329 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 318 lbs/sq ft or 1,554 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.21 - Longitudinal: 0.94 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, October 16, 2005

### The original sketch for the Nelson and Northampton cruiser design

I scanned the original ball-point sketch for the Nelson and Northampton anachronistic cruiser design:

I hope to do a tight digital drawing to scale. I was pleasantly surprised at how plausible (to my mind) the drawing was.

### Stretching the limits with another version of the Ger/CB/1942

There is a longer version of the Ger/CB/1942. I had to accept a 40ft draft, which is ridiculous, but the design can make 37 knots, with a 15 knot cruising speed. This is with a rather thin 12in belt. The specification in the book was:

CB 120,000 tons Cp=0.57 9-21in/45 Length=1,250 ft Cm=0.92 Beam= 158 ft Draft= 40ft Speed= 35 knots (the design was good for 37 knots)The advantage to large, fast ships is that they can outrun (or run down) small fast ships in any sort of seaway, at all. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1942, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1942 Displacement: 110,968 t light; 115,614 t standard; 120,000 t normal; 123,509 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 1,254.80 ft / 1,250.00 ft x 158.00 ft x 40.00 ft (normal load) 382.46 m / 381.00 m x 48.16 m x 12.19 m Armament: 9 - 21.00" / 533 mm guns (3x3 guns), 4,630.50lbs / 2,100.36kg shells, 1942 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 18 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (6x3 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1942 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships 18 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x3 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1942 Model Anti-aircraft guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring 72 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (18x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1942 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, 12 raised mounts 42 - 0.79" / 20.0 mm guns in single mounts, 0.24lbs / 0.11kg shells, 1942 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, 32 raised mounts Weight of broadside 44,345 lbs / 20,115 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 850.00 ft / 259.08 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 105 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 850.00 ft / 259.08 m 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 16.0" / 406 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 16.0" / 406 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 4th: 1.00" / 25 mm - - 5th: 1.00" / 25 mm - - - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 16.00" / 406 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 553,147 shp / 412,648 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 7,895 tons Complement: 3,222 - 4,190 Cost: £67.220 million / $268.880 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 5,543 tons, 4.6 % Armour: 38,091 tons, 31.7 % - Belts: 7,325 tons, 6.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 4,529 tons, 3.8 % - Armament: 7,852 tons, 6.5 % - Armour Deck: 17,546 tons, 14.6 % - Conning Tower: 839 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 14,450 tons, 12.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 52,885 tons, 44.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 9,032 tons, 7.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 177,192 lbs / 80,373 Kg = 38.3 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 32.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.24 Metacentric height 14.7 ft / 4.5 m Roll period: 17.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.40 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.14 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.532 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.91 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 35.36 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 40.00 ft / 12.19 m - Forecastle (20 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Mid (50 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Stern: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Average freeboard: 30.80 ft / 9.39 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 84.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 240.3 % Waterplane Area: 135,488 Square feet or 12,587 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 294 lbs/sq ft or 1,437 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.04 - Longitudinal: 0.98 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

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