The reality is that these would most realisitically have been built, starting in 1914. They would have been built in at least two groups of four. Visually, the most visible characteristics are the odd funnel layout, with the second funnel being narrow and the first being wide, and the very high freeboard. The design could easily have been refined, over time. The 5in QF guns in this design were suggested prior to the war, and Admiral Fisher was greatly disappointed that development had never proceeded. That left the Renown, Repulse, Courageous, and Glorious with the totally inadequate 4in QF guns in awkward mounts. Admiral Fisher felt that the 6in QF guns smacked of the pre-Dreadnought ideas about a mixed armament. After the Queen Elizabeth and R-class, the only British capital ships with 6in guns were the Nelson and Rodney. After that, they carried smaller caliber secondary guns (4.5in to 5.25in). In the 1930's, the British considered developing a 5.1in gun (13cm), as did the Americans, but in the end, left that caliber to the French and Germans.

## Sunday, April 30, 2006

### A photo of a Super Lion, as recently presented from the Red Book

This is a photo of a Super Lion battlecruiser as presented in the Red Book design from the early 1970's. The photo is based on the proportions from the scale pencil sketch.

## Saturday, April 29, 2006

### A shallow-draft, big battlecruiser: Ger/CB/1916

This is a Red Book design with no designation written on the page. There is not even a drawing, only specifications and weights. I have arbitrarily chosed a designation, using my usual system. This was intended to be a fast battlecruiser with a relatively shallow draft. The displacement has ballooned, and the speed is only 31 knots. The problem is that I was overly optimistic, in the early 1970's, about what speeds could be achieved for a given power. I as doing some calculations of things like speed-length ratios and SHP/ton, but I was not using good data. This ship has 6-18in guns, and I have assumed that they were in triple turrets, grouped forward. There are pencil sketches showing designs like that, either in the Blue Book, or later in the Red Book. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1916, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1916 (Engine 1931) Displacement: 38,101 t light; 39,875 t standard; 42,000 t normal; 43,700 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 877.24 ft / 875.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 267.38 m / 266.70 m x 32.00 m x 8.23 m Armament: 6 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (2x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 16 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 18,496 lbs / 8,390 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 98 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 167,518 shp / 124,968 Kw = 31.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,824 tons Complement: 1,466 - 1,906 Cost: £6.508 million / $26.031 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,312 tons, 5.5 % Armour: 10,803 tons, 25.7 % - Belts: 3,248 tons, 7.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,616 tons, 3.8 % - Armament: 2,027 tons, 4.8 % - Armour Deck: 3,704 tons, 8.8 % - Conning Tower: 208 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 5,009 tons, 11.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 19,976 tons, 47.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,899 tons, 9.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 61,393 lbs / 27,847 Kg = 21.1 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 8.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 7.1 ft / 2.2 m Roll period: 16.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 64 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.81 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.24 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.593 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.33 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.58 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 52 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (67 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.68 ft / 7.83 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 98.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 223.6 % Waterplane Area: 66,732 Square feet or 6,200 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 217 lbs/sq ft or 1,059 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.99 - Longitudinal: 1.23 - Overall: 1.01 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Friday, April 28, 2006

### From the Red Book, the Ger/CB/1915 design

There are many Ger/CB/1915 designs in the Red Book, but this is the first one, and is rather unique. There is a scale drawing and pretty complete specifications, although only a weight, for protection. This was intended to be a 37,500 ton ship with 6-16in BLR and 12-6in QF guns. The over-optimistic speed was 36 knots. I was able to keep the ship in line with the dimensions and displacement, while achieving a decent protection and speed. The actual speed is 33 knots, with a 5,600nm range at 15 knots. This is a ship focused on North Sea fighting, so a great range is unnecessary. The armour basis is 11in, so the ship is well-protected. The original concept had 40 SHP/ton machinery. This only has 31.68 SHP/ton machinery. The drawing shows a ship with a long forecastle and three twin turrets, with two forward. There are three rather small stacks. The bridge and foremast are closely integrated and are substantial. The mainmast has a derrick, and has tripod legs. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1915, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 35,456 t light; 36,920 t standard; 38,700 t normal; 40,124 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 787.50 ft / 787.50 ft x 98.00 ft x 31.00 ft (normal load) 240.03 m / 240.03 m x 29.87 m x 9.45 m Armament: 6 - 16.00" / 406 mm guns (3x2 guns), 2,048.00lbs / 928.96kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline, all amidships, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 13,584 lbs / 6,162 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 455.00 ft / 138.68 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 260.00 ft / 79.25 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m 72.50 ft / 22.10 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 455.00 ft / 138.68 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 89 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 455.00 ft / 138.68 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 11.00" / 279 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 208,649 shp / 155,652 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,204 tons Complement: 1,379 - 1,793 Cost: £5.221 million / $20.883 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,698 tons, 4.4 % Armour: 11,473 tons, 29.6 % - Belts: 4,051 tons, 10.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,515 tons, 3.9 % - Armament: 2,601 tons, 6.7 % - Armour Deck: 3,035 tons, 7.8 % - Conning Tower: 271 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 6,586 tons, 17.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 15,699 tons, 40.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,244 tons, 8.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 47,584 lbs / 21,584 Kg = 23.2 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 6.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.09 Metacentric height 5.7 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 17.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.74 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.566 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.04 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.06 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 52 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (67 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 26.68 ft / 8.13 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 110.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 202.3 % Waterplane Area: 54,683 Square feet or 5,080 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 101 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 193 lbs/sq ft or 944 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.36 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Thursday, April 27, 2006

### A Super Lion design from the Red book

The Red book has a Super Lion design with 10-15in BLR and 16-5in QF guns. The paper design was extremely over-optimistic about displacement and speed. By going very large, the design worked out very well. I say "going very large" in the sense of bloating the displacement. I scaled back the speed to 30 knots, which was Admiral Fisher's desired speed, anyway. I find the resulting ship very satisfactory, despite the rather thin side armour:

Super Lion, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1912 (Engine 1916) Displacement: 34,200 t light; 35,780 t standard; 38,300 t normal; 40,316 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 800.00 ft / 800.00 ft x 97.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 243.84 m / 243.84 m x 29.57 m x 8.23 m Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Main guns limited to end-on fire 2 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (1x2 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in a turret (on a barbette) on centreline amidships 16 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, 8 raised mounts Weight of broadside 17,875 lbs / 8,108 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 190.00 ft / 57.91 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m 110.00 ft / 33.53 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 96 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 9.00" / 229 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 3rd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 145,804 shp / 108,770 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,537 tons Complement: 1,368 - 1,779 Cost: £3.834 million / $15.338 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,234 tons, 5.8 % Armour: 9,291 tons, 24.3 % - Belts: 2,789 tons, 7.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 481 tons, 1.3 % - Armament: 2,532 tons, 6.6 % - Armour Deck: 3,268 tons, 8.5 % - Conning Tower: 220 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 5,432 tons, 14.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,243 tons, 45.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,100 tons, 10.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 48,957 lbs / 22,206 Kg = 29.0 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 5.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 5.8 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 17.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 58 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 1.06 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.17 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.640 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.25 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (67 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 26.68 ft / 8.13 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 112.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 219.6 % Waterplane Area: 58,891 Square feet or 5,471 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 101 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 206 lbs/sq ft or 1,003 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.23 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, April 26, 2006

### From a sketch for a GB/CB/1915 design

This is from a pencil sketch with weights for a GB/CB/1915 design. The advantage of using it is that there are armour lengths explicitly specified. One thing that is immediately obvious is that the hull weight I had originally hoped for was too low, by a great deal. This was intended to have about a 26ft draft and be 35,000 tons, standard. The actual Springsharp report turned out differently:

GB/CB/1915 variant, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1921) Displacement: 37,387 t light; 38,881 t standard; 41,200 t normal; 43,056 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 851.73 ft / 850.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 259.61 m / 259.08 m x 32.00 m x 7.92 m Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 5.50" / 140 mm guns in single mounts, 83.19lbs / 37.73kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 14,831 lbs / 6,727 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 535.00 ft / 163.07 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 225.00 ft / 68.58 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 90.00 ft / 27.43 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 5.00" / 127 mm 535.00 ft / 163.07 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 97 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 535.00 ft / 163.07 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 2.50" / 64 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 218,200 shp / 162,777 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,175 tons Complement: 1,445 - 1,879 Cost: £5.698 million / $22.794 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,854 tons, 4.5 % Armour: 9,856 tons, 23.9 % - Belts: 3,104 tons, 7.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,029 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 2,437 tons, 5.9 % - Armour Deck: 3,080 tons, 7.5 % - Conning Tower: 206 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 7,514 tons, 18.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 18,163 tons, 44.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,813 tons, 9.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 55,959 lbs / 25,382 Kg = 33.2 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 6.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 7.3 ft / 2.2 m Roll period: 16.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.66 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.621 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Mid (67 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m (23.00 ft / 7.01 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 28.52 ft / 8.69 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 114.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 252.7 % Waterplane Area: 66,591 Square feet or 6,187 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 196 lbs/sq ft or 955 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.15 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, April 25, 2006

### The Ger/CS/1905 Mod.A

From the Red book, the next page is the Ger/CS/1905 Mod.A sketch design. This was a remodelled Ger/CS/1905 scout cruiser with 3-6in QF guns and 4-21in TT. By using lightweight machinery, the ship can keep within the dimensions and displacement and still achieve 34 knots. The basic concept was trying to follow the much later Super Swift design parameters. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CS/1905 Mod.A, Enter country Enter ship type laid down 1905 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 2,446 t light; 2,522 t standard; 2,730 t normal; 2,896 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 371.36 ft / 370.00 ft x 38.00 ft x 13.00 ft (normal load) 113.19 m / 112.78 m x 11.58 m x 3.96 m Armament: 3 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward Weight of broadside 324 lbs / 147 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 255.00 ft / 77.72 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 2.00" / 51 mm 150.00 ft / 45.72 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 106 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 62,646 shp / 46,734 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 3,750nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 375 tons Complement: 188 - 245 Cost: £0.316 million / $1.263 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 41 tons, 1.5 % Armour: 310 tons, 11.3 % - Belts: 278 tons, 10.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 32 tons, 1.2 % - Armour Deck: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Conning Tower: 0 tons, 0.0 % Machinery: 1,401 tons, 51.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 695 tons, 25.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 284 tons, 10.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 719 lbs / 326 Kg = 6.7 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.35 Metacentric height 2.0 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.36 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.08 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.523 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.74 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 19.24 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 71 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (36 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 19.04 ft / 5.80 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 176.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 140.0 % Waterplane Area: 9,566 Square feet or 889 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 69 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 34 lbs/sq ft or 164 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.42 - Longitudinal: 2.50 - Overall: 0.51 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, April 24, 2006

### I still like this style of digital ship drawing

Before my schedule got totally out of hand, I tried my hand a the style of digital ship drawing from a picture (HMAS Commonwealth, a Federation class heavy cruiser from 1923). The ships in this fanciful class are the Commonwealth, Canberra, and Southern Cross. I tried to link directly to the gif, but they block that sort of access. I hope that this link will get you to the page, at least. The drawing that I particularly liked was number 2. My first attempt was good enough that a coworker of mine still has a print of it on his cube wall. This was my attempt at a Ger/CS/1905 scout cruiser from the Blue book.

### Another Red book design: GB/CB/1915 variant

This was my attempt at a battlecruiser designed along the lines of the original Hood concept. This is a ship with 8-15in guns, 16-5.5in QF guns, 4-3in AA, and 16-2pdr AA guns. The armour basis is 8in with a 3in deck. The speed is 33 knots, although I had wanted 35 knots, back when I did the design. I was not able to use the 25.9ft draft. I had to increase the draft to 26.5ft, both for strength and seakeeping. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1915 variant, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 36,763 t light; 38,327 t standard; 40,200 t normal; 41,698 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 852.38 ft / 850.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 26.50 ft (normal load) 259.80 m / 259.08 m x 32.00 m x 8.08 m Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 5.50" / 140 mm guns in single mounts, 83.19lbs / 37.73kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, 4 raised mounts 4 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm guns in single mounts, 13.50lbs / 6.12kg shells, 1915 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread 16 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (4x4 guns), 2.00lbs / 0.91kg shells, 1915 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread Weight of broadside 14,917 lbs / 6,766 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 250.00 ft / 76.20 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m 40.00 ft / 12.19 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 5.00" / 127 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 212,007 shp / 158,157 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,372 tons Complement: 1,419 - 1,845 Cost: £5.512 million / $22.050 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,865 tons, 4.6 % Armour: 10,538 tons, 26.2 % - Belts: 3,222 tons, 8.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,036 tons, 2.6 % - Armament: 2,473 tons, 6.2 % - Armour Deck: 3,606 tons, 9.0 % - Conning Tower: 202 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 6,692 tons, 16.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,668 tons, 44.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,437 tons, 8.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 54,752 lbs / 24,835 Kg = 32.4 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 7.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 7.3 ft / 2.2 m Roll period: 16.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.62 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.595 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (67 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 26.76 ft / 8.16 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 109.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 233.6 % Waterplane Area: 64,965 Square feet or 6,035 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 196 lbs/sq ft or 957 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.99 - Longitudinal: 1.09 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, April 23, 2006

### I was curious to see if I could make the Ger/CB/1907 smaller

I wanted to see if I reduced the armour basis to 10.5in and the deck to 2.5in, if I could reduce the displacement. I was able to reduce the draft to 28ft, instead of 29ft and the standard displacement to 23,291 tons (25,700 tons normal). Survivability still seems to be pretty good. This is the revised Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1907, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1907 Displacement: 22,356 t light; 23,291 t standard; 25,700 t normal; 27,627 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 600.00 ft / 600.00 ft x 88.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 182.88 m / 182.88 m x 26.82 m x 8.53 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 1 raised mount aft - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread 12 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 8,208 lbs / 3,723 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 10.5" / 267 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 240.00 ft / 73.15 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Upper: 7.00" / 178 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 92 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.5" / 267 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 10.5" / 267 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 2.50" / 64 mm, Conning tower: 10.50" / 267 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 83,925 shp / 62,608 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,337 tons Complement: 1,014 - 1,319 Cost: £2.312 million / $9.247 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,026 tons, 4.0 % Armour: 7,799 tons, 30.3 % - Belts: 2,930 tons, 11.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 746 tons, 2.9 % - Armament: 2,126 tons, 8.3 % - Armour Deck: 1,800 tons, 7.0 % - Conning Tower: 197 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 4,768 tons, 18.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,762 tons, 34.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,344 tons, 13.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 30,556 lbs / 13,860 Kg = 35.4 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 5.6 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 15.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 55 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.50 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.11 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.608 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.82 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.49 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (67 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 22.52 ft / 6.86 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 116.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 166.6 % Waterplane Area: 38,922 Square feet or 3,616 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 101 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 155 lbs/sq ft or 757 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.54 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### From a sketch in the Red Book: the Ger/CB/1907

There are no specifications, but there is a scale drawing of what I interpret to be a German battlecruiser. I am reasonably certain of the intent with respect to armour and guns. The result is a fast battleship sort of battlecruiser, with 8-12in BLR and 12-6in QF guns. The length is 600ft and the citadel is obviously 360ft. Going on that basis, I created a Springsharp design for a ships with one turret on the forecastle, one aft of the first funnel, facing forward, and two aft, with one in the superfiring position. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1907, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1907 Displacement: 23,192 t light; 24,145 t standard; 26,600 t normal; 28,564 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 600.00 ft / 600.00 ft x 88.00 ft x 29.00 ft (normal load) 182.88 m / 182.88 m x 26.82 m x 8.84 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 1 raised mount aft - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread 12 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 8,208 lbs / 3,723 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 240.00 ft / 73.15 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 92 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 11.00" / 279 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 85,607 shp / 63,863 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,419 tons Complement: 1,040 - 1,353 Cost: £2.355 million / $9.418 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,026 tons, 3.9 % Armour: 8,438 tons, 31.7 % - Belts: 3,128 tons, 11.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 746 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 2,194 tons, 8.2 % - Armour Deck: 2,159 tons, 8.1 % - Conning Tower: 211 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 4,864 tons, 18.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,864 tons, 33.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,408 tons, 12.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 31,618 lbs / 14,342 Kg = 36.6 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 5.4 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 15.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 55 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.51 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.10 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.608 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.82 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.49 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (67 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 22.52 ft / 6.86 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 114.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 162.4 % Waterplane Area: 38,907 Square feet or 3,615 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 101 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 156 lbs/sq ft or 760 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.58 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, April 22, 2006

### My attempt at a pre-Dreadnought design: GB/BB/1900

In the early 1970's, I did a Jane's Fighting Ships style drawing of the subdivision and armour for a pre-Dreadnought battleship. It is the next design in the Red Book. I just ran the design through Springsharp, and it seems to be too good, compared to real ships. As far as possible, I followed the specifications from way back:

Standard Displacement= 15,000 tons Full Load displacement= 16,500 tons Cp=0.61 Cm=0.97 Draft (maximum)=29.9ft Length= 435ft Beam= 75ft Hull Depth= 50ft Armour: Lower Belt: 12in Upper Belt: 8in Barbettes: 9in Turrets: 12in-7in Casemates: 7in Forward CT: 9in Aft CT: 8in Fore com tube: 5in Aft com tube: 4.5in Deck, Amidships: 3in Deck, ends: 2in A/T protection: 1inThis is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1900, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1900 Displacement: 12,565 t light; 13,133 t standard; 16,000 t normal; 18,293 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 435.00 ft / 435.00 ft x 75.00 ft x 29.90 ft (normal load) 132.59 m / 132.59 m x 22.86 m x 9.11 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1900 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1900 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 4 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 4,752 lbs / 2,155 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 250.00 ft / 76.20 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 250.00 ft / 76.20 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 88 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 250.00 ft / 76.20 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 7.00" / 178 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 7.00" / 178 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, complex reciprocating steam engines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 17,562 ihp / 13,101 Kw = 19.00 kts Range 6,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,160 tons (100% coal) Complement: 710 - 924 Cost: £1.323 million / $5.292 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 594 tons, 3.7 % Armour: 4,591 tons, 28.7 % - Belts: 1,823 tons, 11.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 259 tons, 1.6 % - Armament: 1,093 tons, 6.8 % - Armour Deck: 1,293 tons, 8.1 % - Conning Tower: 123 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 2,744 tons, 17.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 4,636 tons, 29.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,435 tons, 21.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 19,197 lbs / 8,707 Kg = 22.2 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 2.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 4.6 ft / 1.4 m Roll period: 14.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 100 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.59 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 2.00 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.574 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.80 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.86 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 47 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Mid (50 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 20.24 ft / 6.17 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 114.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 125.0 % Waterplane Area: 23,289 Square feet or 2,164 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 127 lbs/sq ft or 620 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.89 - Longitudinal: 2.81 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Friday, April 21, 2006

### But for the Washington Naval Treaty, the 8 inch gun would have been quickly eclipsed

Frank Fox has told me that plans were afoot, by 1921, for large light cruisers to be armed with calibers greater than 8 inches. The 10,000 ton number and the 8in gun were due to the existence of the Raleigh class cruisers with 9-7.5in guns and a displacement of 9,750 tons standard. This was a time when the beancounters of the world prevailed and stopped the building programs which were underway at the time. The Washington Naval Treaty was one of the high points (or low points) of the Harding administration. The sentiment matched the inclination of cost-cutting politicians in Britain and other countries, as well. Japan was forced to comply, as they would have perferred to keep building.

## Thursday, April 20, 2006

### The very large destroyer Ger/DD/1915

In this case, there are few specifications to go with the pencil sketch. I am even uncertain of the designation. Besides the drawing, the only specifications given were:

4-5in guns, 6-23.6in TT Dimensions: 390ft x 40ftI extrapolated from that to be able to do a Springsharp design. I thought that a ship of this length should be able to achieve 36 knots. To do that, I had to increase the freeboard by a foot, to maintain adequate seakeeping. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/DD/1915, Germany Destroyer laid down 1915 (Engine 1933) Displacement: 2,225 t light; 2,297 t standard; 2,580 t normal; 2,806 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 392.36 ft / 390.00 ft x 40.00 ft x 13.00 ft (normal load) 119.59 m / 118.87 m x 12.19 m x 3.96 m Armament: 4 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 250 lbs / 113 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 6 - 23.6" / 600.0001 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 59,049 shp / 44,051 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 509 tons Complement: 180 - 235 Cost: £0.446 million / $1.784 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 31 tons, 1.2 % Machinery: 1,447 tons, 56.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 747 tons, 28.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 355 tons, 13.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 703 lbs / 319 Kg = 11.2 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.49 Metacentric height 2.5 ft / 0.8 m Roll period: 10.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.25 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.08 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.445 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 22.74 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 70 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (34 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 18.88 ft / 5.75 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 190.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 128.3 % Waterplane Area: 10,296 Square feet or 957 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 70 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 36 lbs/sq ft or 175 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.45 - Longitudinal: 2.41 - Overall: 0.53 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, April 19, 2006

### I have three new sections of gear

I had this concept for having three new sections with mugs and so on, with images that I like. One is called "Battleships and Battlecruisers". Another is "Cruiser Killer". The third is called "Give me a fast ship". They can be seen at the Kentish Knock storefront on Cafe Press.

### The Ger/DL/1915 from the Red Book

The Ger/DL/1915 design has a very nice pencil sketch that shows a German-looking destroyer. The specifications from the early 1970's were fairly complete:

Dimensions: 332ft x 32ft x 12.7ft Armament: 5-5in QF guns, 4-23.6in TT Standard displacement: 1,800 tons Full load displacement: 2,250 tons Cp=0.60 Cm=0.80 Fuel oil: 450 tons Power: 20 SHP/ton of displacement 45,000 SHP Machinery weight basis: 50 SHP/ton Machinery weight: 900 tons fuel consumption: 12.1 tons per hour at top speed for 37.4 hoursI tried to follow this as closely as possible in Springsharp:

Ger/DL/1915, Germany Destroyer Leader laid down 1915 (Engine 1933) Displacement: 1,786 t light; 1,848 t standard; 2,082 t normal; 2,269 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 334.31 ft / 332.00 ft x 32.00 ft x 12.70 ft (normal load) 101.90 m / 101.19 m x 9.75 m x 3.87 m Armament: 5 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 313 lbs / 142 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 4 - 23.6" / 600.0001 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 47,170 shp / 35,189 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 5,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 421 tons Complement: 153 - 200 Cost: £0.362 million / $1.448 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 39 tons, 1.9 % Machinery: 1,097 tons, 52.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 649 tons, 31.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 296 tons, 14.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 592 lbs / 269 Kg = 9.5 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.29 Metacentric height 1.4 ft / 0.4 m Roll period: 11.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.68 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.540 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.38 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.65 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 73 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (34 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 17.88 ft / 5.45 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 184.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 106.9 % Waterplane Area: 7,645 Square feet or 710 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 68 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 36 lbs/sq ft or 176 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.50 - Longitudinal: 4.03 - Overall: 0.62 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Tuesday, April 18, 2006

### I just got out my 1903 Jane's All the World's Fighting Ships

I got out my copy of the 1903 Jane's All the World's Fighting Ships, so that I could try putting Colonel Cuniberti's Ideal Battleship for the British Navy into Springsharp. I was able to do better today. The main compromise is that the displacement is considerably greater than whan Colonel Cuniberti had thought would work. He specified 17,000 tons, while my design, based on his, is 21,800 tons normal displacement. This is as close as I have come to achieving his specification:

Colonel Cuniberti's Ideal Battleship, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1904 (Engine 1908) Displacement: 19,739 t light; 20,673 t standard; 21,800 t normal; 22,702 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 513.00 ft / 510.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 156.36 m / 155.45 m x 25.91 m x 9.14 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1904 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1904 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns in single mounts, 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1904 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread 12 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm guns in single mounts, 13.50lbs / 6.12kg shells, 1904 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 6 - 1.85" / 47.0 mm guns in single mounts, 3.17lbs / 1.44kg shells, 1904 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 10,549 lbs / 4,785 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 510.00 ft / 155.45 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 12.0" / 305 mm 185.00 ft / 56.39 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Main Belt covers 154 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 335.00 ft / 102.11 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 2nd: 12.0" / 305 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 3rd: 12.0" / 305 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 4th: 6.00" / 152 mm - - - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 50,606 shp / 37,752 Kw = 24.00 kts Range 4,800nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,029 tons Complement: 896 - 1,166 Cost: £2.156 million / $8.625 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,319 tons, 6.0 % Armour: 7,743 tons, 35.5 % - Belts: 3,075 tons, 14.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 372 tons, 1.7 % - Armament: 2,987 tons, 13.7 % - Armour Deck: 1,159 tons, 5.3 % - Conning Tower: 151 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 2,556 tons, 11.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,121 tons, 37.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,061 tons, 9.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 23,359 lbs / 10,596 Kg = 27.0 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.00 Metacentric height 3.9 ft / 1.2 m Roll period: 18.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.75 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.587 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 22.58 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (50 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 19.74 ft / 6.02 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 108.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 127.5 % Waterplane Area: 31,313 Square feet or 2,909 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 93 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 177 lbs/sq ft or 863 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.12 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, April 17, 2006

### The Ger/CB/1915 from page 5 of the Red book

The Ger/CB/1915 design from the Red book, wanted to achieve 40 knots, but I could only reasonably obtain 34 knots, to obtain about the same amount of protection. The speed was perdicated on a mistaken speed-power calculation from the early 1970's. The specifications were more complete in this case:

Ger/CB/1915 Length= 900ft Beam= 100ft Hull Depth=58ft Draft= 29.7ft displacement (full load)=40,000 tons Power= 216,000 SHP 3,620 tons of fuel oil 40,000 tons full load 3,620 tons fuel oil 543 tons feed water 35,837 tons standard 12,528 tons hull 7,200 tons machinery 2,875 tons armament 8,974 tons protection 2,860 tons miscellaneous 1,400 tons auxiliary machineryThe results from Springsharp:

Ger/CB/1915, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1919) Displacement: 34,274 t light; 35,712 t standard; 38,300 t normal; 40,371 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 903.68 ft / 900.00 ft x 100.00 ft x 29.70 ft (normal load) 275.44 m / 274.32 m x 30.48 m x 9.05 m Armament: 6 - 16.50" / 419 mm guns (2x3 guns), 2,246.06lbs / 1,018.80kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships 4 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1915 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 8 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm guns in single mounts, 1.55lbs / 0.70kg shells, 1915 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 14,868 lbs / 6,744 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 600.00 ft / 182.88 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 300.00 ft / 91.44 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 600.00 ft / 182.88 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 213,023 shp / 158,915 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,659 tons Complement: 1,368 - 1,779 Cost: £5.556 million / $22.224 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,858 tons, 4.9 % Armour: 8,178 tons, 21.4 % - Belts: 2,340 tons, 6.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,243 tons, 3.2 % - Armament: 1,164 tons, 3.0 % - Armour Deck: 3,333 tons, 8.7 % - Conning Tower: 98 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 7,565 tons, 19.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 16,673 tons, 43.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,026 tons, 10.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 44,978 lbs / 20,402 Kg = 20.0 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 5.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.30 Metacentric height 8.0 ft / 2.4 m Roll period: 14.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 58 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.54 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.17 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.501 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (67 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 23.84 ft / 7.27 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 125.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 198.9 % Waterplane Area: 60,047 Square feet or 5,579 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 100 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 193 lbs/sq ft or 942 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.99 - Longitudinal: 1.09 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, April 16, 2006

### I don't understand what is happening with this ship

Page 2 of the Red book has a fast battleship, clearly meant to be British. The specs provides are as follows:

Displacement=29,000 tons Length=620ft Beam= 95ft Draft= 30.2ft Cp=0.59 Cm=0.97 Armament=6-13.5in Total = 29,000 tons Machinery = 10,496 tons Hull= 12,180 tons Armament= 1,104 tons Miscellaneous=2,320 tonsThe sketch shows a two-funneled ship with two turrets forward and one aft. There is no mention of a secondary armament. I took liberties to provide a secondary armament, armour, and an AA armament. This is the resulting Springsharp report:

Battleship with 6-13.5in guns, Great Britain Fast Battleship laid down 1912 Displacement: 25,206 t light; 26,142 t standard; 29,000 t normal; 31,287 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 620.00 ft / 620.00 ft x 95.00 ft x 30.20 ft (normal load) 188.98 m / 188.98 m x 28.96 m x 9.20 m Armament: 6 - 13.50" / 343 mm guns (3x2 guns), 1,230.19lbs / 558.00kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 14 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships, 6 raised mounts - superfiring 2 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm guns in single mounts, 13.50lbs / 6.12kg shells, 1912 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread 8 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns in single mounts, 2.00lbs / 0.91kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread Weight of broadside 7,872 lbs / 3,571 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 200.00 ft / 60.96 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Main Belt covers 104 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 88,267 shp / 65,847 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 7,800nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,145 tons Complement: 1,110 - 1,444 Cost: £2.201 million / $8.806 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 984 tons, 3.4 % Armour: 10,881 tons, 37.5 % - Belts: 4,143 tons, 14.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,352 tons, 4.7 % - Armament: 2,041 tons, 7.0 % - Armour Deck: 3,101 tons, 10.7 % - Conning Tower: 244 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,519 tons, 12.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,821 tons, 33.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,794 tons, 13.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 45,783 lbs / 20,767 Kg = 37.2 x 13.5 " / 343 mm shells or 8.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 6.3 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 15.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 58 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.39 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.15 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.571 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.53 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.90 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (67 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 21.76 ft / 6.63 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 82.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 156.7 % Waterplane Area: 41,909 Square feet or 3,893 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 164 lbs/sq ft or 800 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.63 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### A change of pace: back to the Blue and Red books

I am interested in going back through the Blue and Red books (dating from the early 1970's), now that I have increased skill at using Springsharp. The Blue and Red books may someday be published, probably through Cafe Press.

The first design that I tried was the 38-knot light battlecruiser on the first page of the Red Book. The specifications leave a great deal to the imagination. The specs that have survived are only the following:

An outboard profile drawing Speed 38 knots Displacement 29,000 tons Guns 4-13.5in Dimensions 850ft x 95ft 180,000 SHP On 18 July 1973, I added the following: at 29,000 SHP SHP required=209,235I assumed a secondary armament of 5.5in QF guns and AA armament, and armour. The power per ton of machinery is 31.68 SHP. This is the resulting Springsharp report:

38-knot light battlecruiser, Great Britain Light Battlecruiser laid down 1916 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 26,180 t light; 27,036 t standard; 29,000 t normal; 30,571 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 853.68 ft / 850.00 ft x 95.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 260.20 m / 259.08 m x 28.96 m x 8.23 m Armament: 4 - 13.50" / 343 mm guns (2x2 guns), 1,230.19lbs / 558.00kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 12 - 5.50" / 140 mm guns in single mounts, 83.19lbs / 37.73kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring 2 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1916 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 8 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns in single mounts, 2.00lbs / 0.91kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 5,999 lbs / 2,721 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 10.00 ft / 3.05 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 281,258 shp / 209,819 Kw = 38.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,536 tons Complement: 1,110 - 1,444 Cost: £4.564 million / $18.256 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 750 tons, 2.6 % Armour: 4,470 tons, 15.4 % - Belts: 937 tons, 3.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,077 tons, 3.7 % - Armament: 443 tons, 1.5 % - Armour Deck: 1,931 tons, 6.7 % - Conning Tower: 81 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 8,878 tons, 30.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 12,082 tons, 41.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,820 tons, 9.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 28,111 lbs / 12,751 Kg = 22.9 x 13.5 " / 343 mm shells or 3.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.43 Metacentric height 8.7 ft / 2.6 m Roll period: 13.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.25 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.466 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.95 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (67 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m (19.00 ft / 5.79 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 24.76 ft / 7.55 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 150.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 221.9 % Waterplane Area: 52,183 Square feet or 4,848 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 158 lbs/sq ft or 773 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.17 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, April 15, 2006

### A French Mogami class: the F/CL/1941

The F/CL/1941 is aided by technology improvements, as the main armament is now 15-6.1in QF guns mounted in five triple turrets. The heavy AA armament is 16-100mm AA guns. The speed is still 35 knots, and the displacement only had to grow to 13,000 tons, normal. The standard displacement is only 11,981 tons, so a lot is done without a huge displacement. This is the Springsharp report:

F/CL/1941, France Light Cruiser laid down 1941 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 11,555 t light; 11,981 t standard; 13,000 t normal; 13,815 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 670.71 ft / 665.00 ft x 61.00 ft x 19.00 ft (normal load) 204.43 m / 202.69 m x 18.59 m x 5.79 m Armament: 15 - 6.10" / 155 mm guns (5x3 guns), 113.62lbs / 51.54kg shells, 1941 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 3.94" / 100 mm guns (8x2 guns), 30.51lbs / 13.84kg shells, 1941 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 36 - 1.85" / 47.0 mm guns (18x2 guns), 3.17lbs / 1.44kg shells, 1941 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 14 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 2,307 lbs / 1,046 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 10 - 21.7" / 549.9999 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: 2.00" / 51 mm 160.00 ft / 48.77 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m 65.00 ft / 19.81 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.25" / 32 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 140,598 shp / 104,886 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,834 tons Complement: 608 - 791 Cost: £7.070 million / $28.280 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 288 tons, 2.2 % Armour: 2,419 tons, 18.6 % - Belts: 749 tons, 5.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 366 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 180 tons, 1.4 % - Armour Deck: 1,088 tons, 8.4 % - Conning Tower: 36 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 3,550 tons, 27.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 5,297 tons, 40.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,445 tons, 11.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 15,850 lbs / 7,190 Kg = 139.5 x 6.1 " / 155 mm shells or 2.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.22 Metacentric height 3.4 ft / 1.0 m Roll period: 13.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.61 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.09 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.590 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.90 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.79 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (67 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 22.84 ft / 6.96 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 157.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 172.0 % Waterplane Area: 29,402 Square feet or 2,732 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 110 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 109 lbs/sq ft or 532 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.33 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, April 14, 2006

### The F/CL/1937 design

The goal of the modest improvements in the F/CL/1937 design was to improve the torpedo protection. That was successful, so that the ship can take 2 torpedo hits. The freeboard was also increased to improve seakeeping. A slight increase in length also helped seakeeping, as that is one strategy to use in Springsharp. The torpedo bulkhead was thickened to 1.25in, and that was sufficient. This is the Springsharp report:

F/CL/1937, France Light Cruiser laid down 1937 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 11,377 t light; 11,757 t standard; 12,800 t normal; 13,634 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 670.71 ft / 665.00 ft x 61.00 ft x 19.00 ft (normal load) 204.43 m / 202.69 m x 18.59 m x 5.79 m Armament: 12 - 6.10" / 155 mm guns (4x3 guns), 113.62lbs / 51.54kg shells, 1937 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 3.54" / 90.0 mm guns (6x2 guns), 22.24lbs / 10.09kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 32 - 1.85" / 47.0 mm guns (16x2 guns), 3.17lbs / 1.44kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 12 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 1,732 lbs / 786 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 8 - 21.7" / 549.9999 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: 2.00" / 51 mm 160.00 ft / 48.77 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m 65.00 ft / 19.81 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.25" / 32 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 138,645 shp / 103,429 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,877 tons Complement: 601 - 782 Cost: £5.962 million / $23.847 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 216 tons, 1.7 % Armour: 2,368 tons, 18.5 % - Belts: 749 tons, 5.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 366 tons, 2.9 % - Armament: 138 tons, 1.1 % - Armour Deck: 1,079 tons, 8.4 % - Conning Tower: 35 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 3,664 tons, 28.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 5,129 tons, 40.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,423 tons, 11.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 15,793 lbs / 7,163 Kg = 139.0 x 6.1 " / 155 mm shells or 2.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.25 Metacentric height 3.6 ft / 1.1 m Roll period: 13.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.46 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.12 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.581 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.90 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.79 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (67 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 22.84 ft / 6.96 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 157.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 180.1 % Waterplane Area: 29,153 Square feet or 2,708 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 106 lbs/sq ft or 518 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.35 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Thursday, April 13, 2006

### The F/CL/1933 light cruiser design

The F/CL/1933 design for a light cruiser benefits by the improvement in machinery between 1927 and 1933 (with a four year incremented added to bring the date to 1937). I was able to decrease the displacement by 100 tons, and add one triple turret to the main armament and another pair of twin 90mm AA guns. The result is more reasonable for the size. This is the Springsharp report:

F/CL/1933, France Light Cruiser laid down 1933 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 11,077 t light; 11,449 t standard; 12,400 t normal; 13,161 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 660.62 ft / 655.00 ft x 59.00 ft x 19.00 ft (normal load) 201.36 m / 199.64 m x 17.98 m x 5.79 m Armament: 12 - 6.10" / 155 mm guns (4x3 guns), 113.62lbs / 51.54kg shells, 1933 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 3.54" / 90.0 mm guns (6x2 guns), 22.24lbs / 10.09kg shells, 1933 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 32 - 1.85" / 47.0 mm guns (16x2 guns), 3.17lbs / 1.44kg shells, 1933 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 12 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 1,732 lbs / 786 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 8 - 21.7" / 549.9999 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: 2.00" / 51 mm 160.00 ft / 48.77 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m 55.00 ft / 16.76 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 136,996 shp / 102,199 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 6,700nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,711 tons Complement: 586 - 763 Cost: £5.205 million / $20.821 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 216 tons, 1.7 % Armour: 2,250 tons, 18.1 % - Belts: 747 tons, 6.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 293 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 138 tons, 1.1 % - Armour Deck: 1,037 tons, 8.4 % - Conning Tower: 35 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 3,797 tons, 30.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 4,814 tons, 38.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,323 tons, 10.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 13,116 lbs / 5,949 Kg = 115.4 x 6.1 " / 155 mm shells or 1.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.26 Metacentric height 3.4 ft / 1.0 m Roll period: 13.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.48 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.591 Length to Beam Ratio: 11.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.59 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (67 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 21.84 ft / 6.66 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 170.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 168.4 % Waterplane Area: 28,029 Square feet or 2,604 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 104 lbs/sq ft or 507 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.25 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, April 12, 2006

### The F/CL/1927 design

The F/CL/1927 design is a rather large vessel with a high speed and a modest armament. The main armament is now 9-6.1in QF guns in triple mounts. The AA armament is increased to 8-90mm guns in twin mounts and 24-47mm guns in twin mounts. The ship is well-protected against gunfire and not so well protected against underwater attack. At least the range is now 6,500nm at 15 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

F/CL/1927, France Light Cruiser laid down 1927 (Engine 1931) Displacement: 11,178 t light; 11,519 t standard; 12,500 t normal; 13,285 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 660.62 ft / 655.00 ft x 59.00 ft x 19.00 ft (normal load) 201.36 m / 199.64 m x 17.98 m x 5.79 m Armament: 9 - 6.10" / 155 mm guns (3x3 guns), 113.62lbs / 51.54kg shells, 1927 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 3.54" / 90.0 mm guns (4x2 guns), 22.24lbs / 10.09kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 24 - 1.85" / 47.0 mm guns (12x2 guns), 3.17lbs / 1.44kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 8 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 1,277 lbs / 579 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 8 - 21.7" / 549.9999 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: 2.00" / 51 mm 160.00 ft / 48.77 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m 55.00 ft / 16.76 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 137,994 shp / 102,943 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,765 tons Complement: 590 - 768 Cost: £4.011 million / $16.044 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 160 tons, 1.3 % Armour: 2,218 tons, 17.7 % - Belts: 747 tons, 6.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 293 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 101 tons, 0.8 % - Armour Deck: 1,042 tons, 8.3 % - Conning Tower: 35 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 4,127 tons, 33.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 4,674 tons, 37.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,322 tons, 10.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 12,551 lbs / 5,693 Kg = 110.5 x 6.1 " / 155 mm shells or 1.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.31 Metacentric height 3.7 ft / 1.1 m Roll period: 13.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.33 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.596 Length to Beam Ratio: 11.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.59 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (67 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 21.84 ft / 6.66 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 176.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 168.0 % Waterplane Area: 28,155 Square feet or 2,616 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 101 lbs/sq ft or 491 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.24 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, April 11, 2006

### The F/CL/1923 light cruiser design

The F/CL/1923 light cruiser design can now make 35 knots. The design was lengthened and the bow was raised and the rake was increased. The result was better seakeeping, while achieving a higher speed. The only other improvement is that the torpedo armament is now 8-21.6in TT. To achieve that, a pretty large displacement is required for a rather modest armament. I believe that not very light weight machinery is the reason. This is the Springsharp report:

F/CL/1923, France Light Cruiser laid down 1923 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 11,133 t light; 11,453 t standard; 12,300 t normal; 12,978 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 650.62 ft / 645.00 ft x 59.00 ft x 19.00 ft (normal load) 198.31 m / 196.60 m x 17.98 m x 5.79 m Armament: 8 - 6.10" / 155 mm guns (4x2 guns), 113.62lbs / 51.54kg shells, 1923 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 4 - 3.54" / 90.0 mm guns in single mounts, 22.24lbs / 10.09kg shells, 1923 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 16 - 1.85" / 47.0 mm guns (8x2 guns), 3.17lbs / 1.44kg shells, 1923 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 1,049 lbs / 476 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 8 - 21.7" / 549.9999 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: 2.00" / 51 mm 132.00 ft / 40.23 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m 93.00 ft / 28.35 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 137,885 shp / 102,863 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,525 tons Complement: 583 - 759 Cost: £3.227 million / $12.906 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 131 tons, 1.1 % Armour: 2,131 tons, 17.3 % - Belts: 704 tons, 5.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 280 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 87 tons, 0.7 % - Armour Deck: 1,025 tons, 8.3 % - Conning Tower: 34 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 4,352 tons, 35.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 4,519 tons, 36.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,167 tons, 9.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 11,258 lbs / 5,107 Kg = 99.1 x 6.1 " / 155 mm shells or 1.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.33 Metacentric height 3.7 ft / 1.1 m Roll period: 12.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.27 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.595 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.93 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.40 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 60 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (67 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 21.84 ft / 6.66 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 186.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 166.9 % Waterplane Area: 27,713 Square feet or 2,575 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 99 lbs/sq ft or 482 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.27 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, April 10, 2006

### The F/CL/1921 design

The F/CL/1921 design is has just two improvements. One is a 34 knot speed and the other is the 1in torpedo bulkhead. The belt is also longer, due to the increased lenght and the larger power plant. This is the Springsharp report:

F/CL/1921, France Light Cruiser laid down 1921 (Engine 1925) Displacement: 10,185 t light; 10,484 t standard; 11,300 t normal; 11,953 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 599.03 ft / 595.00 ft x 57.00 ft x 19.00 ft (normal load) 182.58 m / 181.36 m x 17.37 m x 5.79 m Armament: 8 - 6.10" / 155 mm guns (4x2 guns), 113.62lbs / 51.54kg shells, 1921 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 4 - 3.54" / 90.0 mm guns in single mounts, 22.24lbs / 10.09kg shells, 1921 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 16 - 1.85" / 47.0 mm guns (8x2 guns), 3.17lbs / 1.44kg shells, 1921 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 1,049 lbs / 476 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 6 - 21.7" / 549.9999 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: 2.00" / 51 mm 132.00 ft / 40.23 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m 43.00 ft / 13.11 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 109 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 122,357 shp / 91,278 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,468 tons Complement: 547 - 712 Cost: £2.603 million / $10.413 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 131 tons, 1.2 % Armour: 2,029 tons, 18.0 % - Belts: 700 tons, 6.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 280 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 87 tons, 0.8 % - Armour Deck: 930 tons, 8.2 % - Conning Tower: 33 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 3,973 tons, 35.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 4,052 tons, 35.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,115 tons, 9.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 10,196 lbs / 4,625 Kg = 89.7 x 6.1 " / 155 mm shells or 1.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.31 Metacentric height 3.5 ft / 1.1 m Roll period: 12.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.31 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.614 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.44 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.39 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 62 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (67 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 21.76 ft / 6.63 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 189.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 165.9 % Waterplane Area: 25,125 Square feet or 2,334 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 96 lbs/sq ft or 467 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.49 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, April 09, 2006

### The F/CL/1918 design

The F/CL/1918 design is a transitional ship, in that it has twin mounts, but not turrets. The main armament is now 8-155mm (6.1in) QF guns. The armament is unchanged, otherwise, but the maximum speed is now 33.5 knots. I looked at what a torpedo bulkhead would do for the defensive strength, but the effect is neglible, so I deferred adding the bulkhead until a later date in the series. This is the Springsharp report:

F/CL/1918, France Light Cruiser laid down 1918 (Engine 1922) Displacement: 9,410 t light; 9,693 t standard; 10,500 t normal; 11,146 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 579.03 ft / 575.00 ft x 55.00 ft x 18.00 ft (normal load) 176.49 m / 175.26 m x 16.76 m x 5.49 m Armament: 8 - 6.10" / 155 mm guns (4x2 guns), 113.62lbs / 51.54kg shells, 1918 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 4 - 3.54" / 90.0 mm guns in single mounts, 22.24lbs / 10.09kg shells, 1918 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts 16 - 1.85" / 47.0 mm guns (8x2 guns), 3.17lbs / 1.44kg shells, 1918 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 1,049 lbs / 476 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 6 - 21.7" / 549.9999 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: 2.00" / 51 mm 132.00 ft / 40.23 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m 63.00 ft / 19.20 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 113,475 shp / 84,653 Kw = 33.50 kts Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,453 tons Complement: 518 - 674 Cost: £1.957 million / $7.827 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 131 tons, 1.2 % Armour: 1,657 tons, 15.8 % - Belts: 647 tons, 6.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 87 tons, 0.8 % - Armour Deck: 893 tons, 8.5 % - Conning Tower: 31 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 3,849 tons, 36.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 3,772 tons, 35.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,090 tons, 10.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 8,750 lbs / 3,969 Kg = 77.0 x 6.1 " / 155 mm shells or 1.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.29 Metacentric height 3.2 ft / 1.0 m Roll period: 12.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.37 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.08 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.646 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.45 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.98 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 62 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (67 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 21.76 ft / 6.63 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 128.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 166.4 % Waterplane Area: 24,129 Square feet or 2,242 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 101 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 92 lbs/sq ft or 449 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.62 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

Subscribe to:
Posts (Atom)