Super Lion 814ft, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1914 Displacement: 33,502 t light; 35,125 t standard; 37,800 t normal; 39,940 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 814.00 ft / 814.00 ft x 95.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 248.11 m / 248.11 m x 28.96 m x 8.53 m Armament: 10 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (5x2 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Main guns limited to end-on fire 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 17,259 lbs / 7,829 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 200.00 ft / 60.96 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m 54.00 ft / 16.46 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 6.00" / 152 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 106 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 141,013 shp / 105,196 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,814 tons Complement: 1,355 - 1,762 Cost: £4.767 million / $19.067 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,157 tons, 5.7 % Armour: 9,768 tons, 25.8 % - Belts: 2,871 tons, 7.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 870 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 2,661 tons, 7.0 % - Armour Deck: 3,171 tons, 8.4 % - Conning Tower: 194 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 5,432 tons, 14.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 16,144 tons, 42.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,298 tons, 11.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 47,036 lbs / 21,335 Kg = 27.9 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 5.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 5.4 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 17.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 62 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 1.12 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.25 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.611 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.57 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.53 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (72 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 113.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 212.1 % Waterplane Area: 57,142 Square feet or 5,309 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 100 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 195 lbs/sq ft or 952 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.16 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, August 31, 2006

### The 814ft version of the Super Lion

On the same page as the 750ft Super Lion, is an alternate set of dimenions: 814ft x 95ft x 28ft. Optimistically, the specification hoped for the same 33,710 ton Standard displacement, but that is just not feasible. The one advantage of the longer ship is that less power is required to reach a higher, 30 knot speed. This is the new Springsharp report:

## Wednesday, August 30, 2006

### A 33,710 ton Super Lion

In the Blue Book, I have specifications for two different versions of the Super Lion concept. The smaller is a 750ft, 33,710 ton ship. I compromised on speed for a 29.5 knot top speed to stay within the size constraint:

Super Lion 33,710 tons, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1914 Displacement: 31,939 t light; 33,529 t standard; 36,100 t normal; 38,157 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 750.00 ft / 750.00 ft x 100.00 ft x 28.90 ft (normal load) 228.60 m / 228.60 m x 30.48 m x 8.81 m Armament: 10 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (5x2 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 17,259 lbs / 7,829 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 510.00 ft / 155.45 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 200.00 ft / 60.96 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m 40.00 ft / 12.19 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 6.00" / 152 mm 510.00 ft / 155.45 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 105 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 325.00 ft / 99.06 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 132,635 shp / 98,946 Kw = 29.50 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,628 tons Complement: 1,309 - 1,702 Cost: £4.640 million / $18.558 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,157 tons, 6.0 % Armour: 9,020 tons, 25.0 % - Belts: 2,670 tons, 7.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 505 tons, 1.4 % - Armament: 2,661 tons, 7.4 % - Armour Deck: 2,996 tons, 8.3 % - Conning Tower: 188 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 5,109 tons, 14.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 15,652 tons, 43.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,161 tons, 11.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 44,274 lbs / 20,082 Kg = 26.2 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 5.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.09 Metacentric height 5.9 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 17.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 59 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.95 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.19 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.583 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.50 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.39 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (72 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 113.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 207.4 % Waterplane Area: 53,984 Square feet or 5,015 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 99 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 202 lbs/sq ft or 986 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.42 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, August 29, 2006

### The Ger/CA/1909 armoured cruiser

The next page in the Blue Book shows the armouring scheme for a version of the Ger/CA/1909 armoured cruiser. The ship is rather archaic-looking. It is very much an armoured cruiser, along the lines of the Blücher, except with 6-12in guns. The thickest armour is very restricted. These are the original specifications:

Ger/CA/1909 550ft x 80ft x 25ft Cp=0.56 Cm=0.95 Standard Displacement=16,860 tons 25 knots 6-12in/50 8-6in QF guns Weights: Mach= 20.6% = 3,461 tons Arm= 5.3% = 920 tons Prot= 21.1% = 3,649 tons Misc= 8.0% = 1,350 tons Hull= 45.0% = 7,480 tonsThis is the Springsharp report for what I implemented:

Ger/CA/1909, Germany Armoured Cruiser laid down 1909 Displacement: 15,892 t light; 16,570 t standard; 18,400 t normal; 19,864 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 550.00 ft / 550.00 ft x 80.00 ft x 25.00 ft (normal load) 167.64 m / 167.64 m x 24.38 m x 7.62 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1909 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1909 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 8 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 6,048 lbs / 2,743 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 140.00 ft / 42.67 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 410.00 ft / 124.97 m 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 325.00 ft / 99.06 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 39 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 325.00 ft / 99.06 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 81,270 shp / 60,627 Kw = 28.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,294 tons Complement: 789 - 1,026 Cost: £1.708 million / $6.834 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 756 tons, 4.1 % Armour: 4,294 tons, 23.3 % - Belts: 968 tons, 5.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 451 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 992 tons, 5.4 % - Armour Deck: 1,762 tons, 9.6 % - Conning Tower: 120 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 3,694 tons, 20.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,149 tons, 38.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,508 tons, 13.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 24,203 lbs / 10,978 Kg = 28.0 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 4.9 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 15.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 65 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.65 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.29 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.585 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.88 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.45 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (67 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 26.52 ft / 8.08 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 128.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 205.3 % Waterplane Area: 31,746 Square feet or 2,949 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 146 lbs/sq ft or 710 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.91 - Longitudinal: 2.41 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Monday, August 28, 2006

### The second version of the Ger/BB/1909 design

The second version of the Ger/BB/1909 design was trying to look more German. The only thing is that I grossly overestimated what it would take to implement the design that I specified. I decided to not increase the capabilities but to decrease the displacement to achieve what I had specified. This is the original specification:

Ger/BB/1909 12in/50 guns of 65 tons Standard Displacement=30,760 tons 6in QF guns of 8 tons Dimensions: 640ft x 105ft x 30ft Cp=0.55 Cm=0.97 Power: 75,000 SHP=24 knots @ 14 SHP/ton Weights: Hull= 12,400 tons Arm= 1,492.7 tons Mach= 5,370 tons Prot= 7,417.3 tons Misc= 2,320 tonsThis is the Springsharp report for that design:

Ger/BB/1909 Second version, Germany Battleship laid down 1909 Displacement: 25,415 t light; 26,439 t standard; 29,200 t normal; 31,409 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 642.00 ft / 640.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 195.68 m / 195.07 m x 32.00 m x 9.14 m Armament: 9 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1909 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1909 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 8,640 lbs / 3,919 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 365.00 ft / 111.25 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 88 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 365.00 ft / 111.25 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 14.0" / 356 mm - Armour deck: 2.65" / 67 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 74,142 shp / 55,310 Kw = 26.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,971 tons Complement: 1,116 - 1,451 Cost: £2.269 million / $9.074 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,080 tons, 3.7 % Armour: 9,417 tons, 32.3 % - Belts: 3,687 tons, 12.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 810 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 2,425 tons, 8.3 % - Armour Deck: 2,209 tons, 7.6 % - Conning Tower: 286 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 3,370 tons, 11.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,548 tons, 39.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,785 tons, 13.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 50,820 lbs / 23,052 Kg = 58.8 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 8.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 7.0 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 79 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.47 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.57 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.507 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.30 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (67 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.60 ft / 7.80 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 81.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 198.3 % Waterplane Area: 45,059 Square feet or 4,186 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 118 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 179 lbs/sq ft or 874 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 2.06 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Sunday, August 27, 2006

### The original sketch design for the Ger/BB/1909

I realized that I had the original sketch design for the Ger/BB/1909, as I had originally conceived of the ship. This is my original specification:

Ger/BB/1909 Standard displacement: 27,000 tons 9-12in/50 8-6in QF 9in-13in belt 24 knots Dimensions: 640ft x 105ft x 26.9ft Cp=0.54 Cm=0.97 Power: 63,000 SHP Weights: Hull: 12,300 tons Armament: 1,345.5 tons Machinery: 4,500 tons Misc: 2,160 tons Prot: 6,694.5 tonsSpringsharp report:

Ger/BB/1909, Germany Battleship laid down 1909 Displacement: 25,910 t light; 26,945 t standard; 29,800 t normal; 32,084 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 640.00 ft / 640.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 26.90 ft (normal load) 195.07 m / 195.07 m x 32.00 m x 8.20 m Armament: 9 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1909 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, evenly spread, 1 raised mount Aft Main mounts separated by engine room 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1909 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 8,640 lbs / 3,919 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 415.00 ft / 126.49 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 9.00" / 229 mm 415.00 ft / 126.49 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 415.00 ft / 126.49 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 13.00" / 330 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 66,778 shp / 49,816 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,139 tons Complement: 1,133 - 1,474 Cost: £2.239 million / $8.956 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,080 tons, 3.6 % Armour: 10,424 tons, 35.0 % - Belts: 3,208 tons, 10.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 798 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 2,590 tons, 8.7 % - Armour Deck: 3,559 tons, 11.9 % - Conning Tower: 269 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 3,035 tons, 10.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,370 tons, 38.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,890 tons, 13.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 55,903 lbs / 25,357 Kg = 64.7 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 9.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 7.3 ft / 2.2 m Roll period: 16.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 72 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.39 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.44 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.577 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.30 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (68 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 23.68 ft / 7.22 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 75.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 193.3 % Waterplane Area: 48,101 Square feet or 4,469 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 119 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 174 lbs/sq ft or 849 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.69 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Saturday, August 26, 2006

### The Ger/DD/1905 design: classic version

By using sufficiently lightweight machinery, not really any different than was used during the timeframe for the really leading edge ships, I was able to make my Ger/DD/1905 design work in SpringSharp. This is the original specification:

Ger/DD/1905 Dimensions: 270ft x 28ft x 9ft 2-4in QF 2-18in TT Cp=0.56 Cm=0.80 Standard displacement=870 tons Cost=£78,300This is the Springsharp report for what I actually implemented:

Ger/DD/1905, Germany Destroyer laid down 1905 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 845 t light; 870 t standard; 980 t normal; 1,068 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 270.77 ft / 270.00 ft x 28.00 ft x 9.00 ft (normal load) 82.53 m / 82.30 m x 8.53 m x 2.74 m Armament: 2 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline, evenly spread Weight of broadside 64 lbs / 29 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 2 - 18.0" / 457.2 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 30,225 shp / 22,548 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,750nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 198 tons Complement: 86 - 113 Cost: £0.109 million / $0.435 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 8 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 517 tons, 52.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 320 tons, 32.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 135 tons, 13.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 317 lbs / 144 Kg = 9.9 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.33 Metacentric height 1.2 ft / 0.4 m Roll period: 10.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.20 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.504 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.64 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.43 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 74 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forecastle (20 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Mid (31 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m (13.00 ft / 3.96 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Stern: 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Average freeboard: 15.56 ft / 4.74 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 176.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 139.2 % Waterplane Area: 5,056 Square feet or 470 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 62 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 27 lbs/sq ft or 129 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.45 - Longitudinal: 4.51 - Overall: 0.56 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, August 25, 2006

### The armoured version of the Ger/CS/1905 design

This attempt at the armoured version of the Ger/CS/1905 scout cruiser is the closest that I have come to making the original specification work in Springsharp. This is the specification that goes with a pencil sketch:

Ger/CS/1905 Standard displacement=2,480 tons Dimensions: 370ft x 38ft x 13ft Cp=0.56 Cm=0.85 Armour: 2in H.T. Belt Armament: 5-4in QF guns and 2-18in TT Speed=36 knots Oil Fuel Cost=£223,000 Power: 44,000 SHP normal 52,800 SHP max.What was actually possible in Springsharp was something less:

Ger/CS/1905 armoured, Germany Scout Cruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 2,432 t light; 2,501 t standard; 2,730 t normal; 2,913 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 370.00 ft / 370.00 ft x 38.00 ft x 13.50 ft (normal load) 112.78 m / 112.78 m x 11.58 m x 4.11 m Armament: 3 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline, evenly spread Aft Main mounts separated by engine room 2 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 160 lbs / 73 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 2 - 18.0" / 457.2 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 255.00 ft / 77.72 m 7.00 ft / 2.13 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 2.00" / 51 mm 155.00 ft / 47.24 m 7.00 ft / 2.13 m Main Belt covers 106 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm - Conning tower: 2.00" / 51 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 70,228 shp / 52,390 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 4,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 412 tons Complement: 188 - 245 Cost: £0.305 million / $1.218 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 20 tons, 0.7 % Armour: 270 tons, 9.9 % - Belts: 246 tons, 9.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 16 tons, 0.6 % - Armour Deck: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Conning Tower: 8 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 1,448 tons, 53.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 694 tons, 25.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 298 tons, 10.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 732 lbs / 332 Kg = 22.9 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.36 Metacentric height 2.0 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.19 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.14 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.503 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.74 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 19.24 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 72 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (36 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 19.96 ft / 6.08 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 176.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 167.6 % Waterplane Area: 9,397 Square feet or 873 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 72 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 32 lbs/sq ft or 157 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.41 - Longitudinal: 3.05 - Overall: 0.50 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Thursday, August 24, 2006

### The original concept for the Ger/CS/1905 design

This is the original specification for the Ger/CS/1905 scout cruiser:

Ger/CS/1905 365ft x 37ft x 12ft Cp=0.56 Cm=0.85 Standard displacement=2,200 tons 37 knots oil fuel Armament: 6-4in QF guns, 2-18in TT Cost=£223,000The 37 knot speed was not feasible under any circumstances with the current version of Springsharp. This is what was possible, with which I am reasonably happy:

Ger/CS/1905, Germany Scout Cruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 2,146 t light; 2,213 t standard; 2,425 t normal; 2,595 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 365.00 ft / 365.00 ft x 37.00 ft x 13.00 ft (normal load) 111.25 m / 111.25 m x 11.28 m x 3.96 m Armament: 2 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread 4 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 192 lbs / 87 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 2 - 18.0" / 457.2 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 73,162 shp / 54,579 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 4,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 382 tons Complement: 172 - 224 Cost: £0.293 million / $1.170 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 24 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 1,409 tons, 58.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 712 tons, 29.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 279 tons, 11.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 593 lbs / 269 Kg = 18.5 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.41 Metacentric height 2.0 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 10.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.25 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.13 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.483 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.86 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 19.10 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 73 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (36 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 19.96 ft / 6.08 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 195.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 172.3 % Waterplane Area: 8,865 Square feet or 824 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 66 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 34 lbs/sq ft or 166 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.42 - Longitudinal: 3.70 - Overall: 0.53 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, August 23, 2006

### The Ger/CS/1909 scout cruiser

I had always assumed that the Ger/CS/1909 design would make 35 knots, but the speed was never specified, only dimensions, weights, and power. This is the original specification:

"Scout" 2,100 tons 4-5in QF, 2-21" TT 350ft x 37ft x 12ft Cp=0.56 Cm=0.85 45 SHP/ton machinery Weights: Machinery: 1,000 tons Hull: 900 tons Armament: 44 tons Miscellaneous: 168 tons 54,000 SHP maximumThis is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CS/1909, Germany Scout Cruiser laid down 1909 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 2,077 t light; 2,144 t standard; 2,350 t normal; 2,514 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 350.00 ft / 350.00 ft x 37.00 ft x 12.00 ft (normal load) 106.68 m / 106.68 m x 11.28 m x 3.66 m Armament: 4 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1909 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline, evenly spread Aft Main mounts separated by engine room Weight of broadside 250 lbs / 113 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 2 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 59,600 shp / 44,461 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 4,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 370 tons Complement: 168 - 219 Cost: £0.276 million / $1.104 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 31 tons, 1.3 % Machinery: 1,265 tons, 53.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 780 tons, 33.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 273 tons, 11.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 766 lbs / 347 Kg = 12.3 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.36 Metacentric height 1.9 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 50 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.30 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.529 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.46 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 18.71 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 72 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (33 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 18.72 ft / 5.71 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 184.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 158.1 % Waterplane Area: 8,864 Square feet or 824 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 72 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 41 lbs/sq ft or 200 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.54 - Longitudinal: 3.59 - Overall: 0.65 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, August 22, 2006

### The Ger/CL/1911 design study

This was a design study for a more conventional German light cruiser, although pushing the limits. The design is only feasible with very lightweight machinery (36 SHP/ton). I believe that the plan for the British Arethusa class was for 40,000 SHP from an 800 ton plant, which is 50 SHP/ton. The original specification was for a 4,240 ton Standard vessel with a speed of 32 knots. The armament was 4-6in QF guns and 8-21in TT. The belt was 2in, of limited coverage, with a 1in deck. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CL/1911 Design Study, Germany Light Cruiser laid down 1911 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 4,159 t light; 4,288 t standard; 4,640 t normal; 4,922 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 451.82 ft / 450.00 ft x 41.00 ft x 16.00 ft (normal load) 137.71 m / 137.16 m x 12.50 m x 4.88 m Armament: 4 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1911 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread Weight of broadside 432 lbs / 196 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 8 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 300.00 ft / 91.44 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 2.00" / 51 mm 120.00 ft / 36.58 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 1.00" / 25 mm, Conning tower: 1.00" / 25 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 59,993 shp / 44,754 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 4,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 633 tons Complement: 280 - 365 Cost: £0.424 million / $1.695 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 54 tons, 1.2 % Armour: 630 tons, 13.6 % - Belts: 317 tons, 6.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 69 tons, 1.5 % - Armour Deck: 238 tons, 5.1 % - Conning Tower: 6 tons, 0.1 % Machinery: 1,663 tons, 35.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,813 tons, 39.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 481 tons, 10.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 3,815 lbs / 1,730 Kg = 35.3 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 0.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 1.8 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 13.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 62 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.38 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.23 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.550 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.98 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 21.21 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 63 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (32 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 18.72 ft / 5.71 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 125.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 107.4 % Waterplane Area: 12,878 Square feet or 1,196 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 70 lbs/sq ft or 340 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.90 - Longitudinal: 2.67 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Monday, August 21, 2006

### The GB/BB/1912 design

My friend Cliff's design for the GB/BB/1912 design over-specified the size of the ship. Back in 1971, we had overestimated the weight of machinery to achieve 80,000 SHP in 1912. Springsharp's numbers were such that I increased the speed way up to 29 knots. I had to radically decrease the displacement to get the ideal utilization of capabilities, so that the strength is 1.0. The ship is 650ft x 100ft x 28.7ft, with 9-12in and 8-6in QF guns. The armour basis is 13in. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1912, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1912 Displacement: 25,110 t light; 26,119 t standard; 28,500 t normal; 30,405 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 650.00 ft / 650.00 ft x 100.00 ft x 28.70 ft (normal load) 198.12 m / 198.12 m x 30.48 m x 8.75 m Armament: 9 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 8,640 lbs / 3,919 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 190.00 ft / 57.91 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 92 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 13.00" / 330 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 112,797 shp / 84,147 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,286 tons Complement: 1,096 - 1,425 Cost: £2.416 million / $9.663 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,080 tons, 3.8 % Armour: 8,428 tons, 29.6 % - Belts: 2,462 tons, 8.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 808 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 2,415 tons, 8.5 % - Armour Deck: 2,482 tons, 8.7 % - Conning Tower: 261 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 4,497 tons, 15.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,104 tons, 39.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,390 tons, 11.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 39,518 lbs / 17,925 Kg = 45.7 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 6.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 6.6 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 16.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.42 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.12 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.535 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.50 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (67 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 23.68 ft / 7.22 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 99.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 184.8 % Waterplane Area: 44,719 Square feet or 4,154 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 175 lbs/sq ft or 855 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.67 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, August 20, 2006

### The Super Lion with a 9in belt

The Super Lion works quite well with a 9in belt, still using normal weight machinery. The displacement must be greater, however. The Standard displacement is now 39,306 tons. The ship is still 812ft x 105ft x 30ft with 10-15in/42 and 14-6in QF guns with a speed of 30 knots. When you realize that the Super Lion has a heavier armament than the Hood, then you realize that the displacement needs to be quite substantial. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1912 Super Lion, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1912 Displacement: 37,403 t light; 39,306 t standard; 42,400 t normal; 44,876 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 812.00 ft / 812.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 247.50 m / 247.50 m x 32.00 m x 9.14 m Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns in single mounts, 1,920.00lbs / 870.90kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 4 raised mounts - superfiring 2 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns in single mounts, 1,920.00lbs / 870.90kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread 14 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 20,600 lbs / 9,344 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 290.00 ft / 88.39 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 6.00" / 152 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 96 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 10.0" / 254 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 3rd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 10.00" / 254 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 151,442 shp / 112,976 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,570 tons Complement: 1,476 - 1,920 Cost: £4.085 million / $16.340 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,298 tons, 5.4 % Armour: 11,298 tons, 26.6 % - Belts: 3,303 tons, 7.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,158 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 3,177 tons, 7.5 % - Armour Deck: 3,397 tons, 8.0 % - Conning Tower: 262 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 6,038 tons, 14.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,769 tons, 41.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,997 tons, 11.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 54,454 lbs / 24,700 Kg = 32.3 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 7.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.14 Metacentric height 6.9 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.85 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.22 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.580 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.73 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (73 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 26.16 ft / 7.97 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 107.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 209.5 % Waterplane Area: 61,212 Square feet or 5,687 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 102 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 205 lbs/sq ft or 999 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.25 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Saturday, August 19, 2006

### The Super Lion Battlecruiser with a 6in belt

I would imagine that Admiral Fisher would have specified a 6in belt for the Super Lion, as he did for the Renown and Repulse. If we do that, then we can reduce the displacement and use normal weight machinery for 1912. Even with the 6in belt and 3in deck armour, the Super Lion has decent survivability, while keeping the 30 knot speed and nice, long roll period (16.7 seconds). Our Wesworld friends might still say that the ship is too large.

This is the Springsharp report for this version:

GB/CB/1912 Super Lion, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1912 Displacement: 35,915 t light; 37,785 t standard; 40,800 t normal; 43,212 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 812.00 ft / 812.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 247.50 m / 247.50 m x 32.00 m x 9.14 m Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns in single mounts, 1,920.00lbs / 870.90kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 4 raised mounts - superfiring 2 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns in single mounts, 1,920.00lbs / 870.90kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread 14 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 20,600 lbs / 9,344 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 290.00 ft / 88.39 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 5.00" / 127 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 96 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 3rd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 146,540 shp / 109,319 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,426 tons Complement: 1,434 - 1,865 Cost: £4.006 million / $16.023 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,298 tons, 5.6 % Armour: 10,121 tons, 24.8 % - Belts: 2,605 tons, 6.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,158 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 2,825 tons, 6.9 % - Armour Deck: 3,328 tons, 8.2 % - Conning Tower: 204 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 5,843 tons, 14.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,653 tons, 43.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,885 tons, 12.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 52,008 lbs / 23,590 Kg = 30.8 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 6.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 7.0 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 62 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.87 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.25 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.558 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.73 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (73 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 26.16 ft / 7.97 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 109.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 211.3 % Waterplane Area: 59,967 Square feet or 5,571 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 102 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 207 lbs/sq ft or 1,008 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.29 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### The fast battleship version of the Super Lion concept

The really bulked-up version of the Super Lion fast battleship version of the concept has a Standard displacement of 45,740 tons. The dimensions are somewhat similar to the Vanguard. The Super Lion fast battleship has 10-15in/42 and 14-6in QF guns with a 13in armour basis and a 3.5in deck. The target speed is still 30 knots. To achieve that requires rather lightweight machinery (26.4 SHP/ton). We will later look at the battlecruiser version. This is a photo of one of the ships:

GB/CB/1912 Super Lion High Freeboard, Great Britain Fast Battleship laid down 1912 (Engine 1915) Displacement: 43,711 t light; 45,740 t standard; 48,750 t normal; 51,158 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 812.00 ft / 812.00 ft x 108.00 ft x 31.00 ft (normal load) 247.50 m / 247.50 m x 32.92 m x 9.45 m Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns in single mounts, 1,920.00lbs / 870.90kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 4 raised mounts - superfiring 2 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns in single mounts, 1,920.00lbs / 870.90kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread 14 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 20,600 lbs / 9,344 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 6.00" / 152 mm 290.00 ft / 88.39 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 9.00" / 229 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 96 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 13.0" / 330 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 3rd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 3.50" / 89 mm, Conning tower: 13.00" / 330 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 168,840 shp / 125,955 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,418 tons Complement: 1,639 - 2,132 Cost: £4.356 million / $17.423 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,298 tons, 4.7 % Armour: 15,493 tons, 31.8 % - Belts: 4,891 tons, 10.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,158 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 4,808 tons, 9.9 % - Armour Deck: 4,261 tons, 8.7 % - Conning Tower: 374 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 6,395 tons, 13.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 19,524 tons, 40.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,039 tons, 10.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 68,768 lbs / 31,193 Kg = 40.8 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 9.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 6.5 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 17.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.90 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.22 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.628 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.52 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Mid (73 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m (23.00 ft / 7.01 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 96.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 225.8 % Waterplane Area: 65,809 Square feet or 6,114 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 208 lbs/sq ft or 1,013 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.34 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Friday, August 18, 2006

### The GB/BB/1905 design study

This actually may have been more than a design study, as my friend Cliff was seriously thinking of producing the ships in numbers. It represents his ideas about speed and protection, with gunpower being secondary to those characteristics. This is a 29,000 ton Standard battleship with 9-12in/50 and 8-6in QF guns. The armour basis is 14in and the deck ended up as 4.4in. The speed is 25 knots with a range of 7,500nm. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1909 design study, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1909 Displacement: 27,924 t light; 29,012 t standard; 32,445 t normal; 35,191 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 650.00 ft / 650.00 ft x 100.00 ft x 28.70 ft (normal load) 198.12 m / 198.12 m x 30.48 m x 8.75 m Armament: 9 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1909 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1909 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 8,640 lbs / 3,919 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 215.00 ft / 65.53 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 45.00 ft / 13.72 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 92 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 4.40" / 112 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 69,958 shp / 52,189 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,179 tons Complement: 1,208 - 1,571 Cost: £2.330 million / $9.319 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,080 tons, 3.3 % Armour: 12,222 tons, 37.7 % - Belts: 4,526 tons, 14.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 808 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 2,679 tons, 8.3 % - Armour Deck: 3,901 tons, 12.0 % - Conning Tower: 307 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 3,180 tons, 9.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,442 tons, 35.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,521 tons, 13.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 61,681 lbs / 27,978 Kg = 71.4 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 10.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 6.5 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 16.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 74 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.47 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.48 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.609 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.50 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (66 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m (19.00 ft / 5.79 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 24.60 ft / 7.50 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 71.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 186.4 % Waterplane Area: 47,929 Square feet or 4,453 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 119 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 170 lbs/sq ft or 828 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.60 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, August 17, 2006

### Another attempt at the Ger/CB/1906 "classic" version

I thought that I would try again (prompted by the order of designs in the Blue Book) to see if I could implement that "classic" version of the Ger/CB/1905. This was a very "edgy" design that did extreme shortening of the citadel to reduce the weight of protection. The 800ft length was intended to aid the achievement of the 33 knot speed. The armour basis is 4in and the deck is 3in. Turrets and barbettes are 6in. The armament is 8-12in/45 and 12-4in QF guns. There is a single tripod mast forward and only lightly armoured bridge structure. I experimented to use the heaviest machinery possible, which is still not very heavy. This is the Springsharp report:'

Ger/CB/1906 Original Concept, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 23,871 t light; 24,781 t standard; 27,000 t normal; 28,775 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 800.00 ft / 800.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 25.60 ft (normal load) 243.84 m / 243.84 m x 25.91 m x 7.80 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,296 lbs / 3,309 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 425.00 ft / 129.54 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 82 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 425.00 ft / 129.54 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 2.00" / 51 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 161,336 shp / 120,357 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,995 tons Complement: 1,053 - 1,369 Cost: £2.430 million / $9.718 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 912 tons, 3.4 % Armour: 5,543 tons, 20.5 % - Belts: 1,180 tons, 4.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 393 tons, 1.5 % - Armament: 1,315 tons, 4.9 % - Armour Deck: 2,616 tons, 9.7 % - Conning Tower: 39 tons, 0.1 % Machinery: 5,914 tons, 21.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,502 tons, 42.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,129 tons, 11.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 35,302 lbs / 16,013 Kg = 40.9 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 5.1 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 15.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 65 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.74 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.30 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.543 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.41 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (69 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 27.08 ft / 8.25 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 126.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 230.5 % Waterplane Area: 47,140 Square feet or 4,379 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 159 lbs/sq ft or 776 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.24 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Wednesday, August 16, 2006

### The classic version of the Ger/CB/1905 design

This is based on the original sketch design from the Blue Book, dating from 1971. The Ger/CB/1905 was intended as a lower-end counter to the GB/CB/1905 design, but accepted a much smaller displacement and a lower speed (31 knots). The design still depends on lightweight machinery. The ship was intended to be 19,000 tons Standard, with 4-12in/45 and 12-4in QF guns. The armour basis was to be 4in. The dimensions were 700ft x 80ft x 24.4ft. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1905 classic version, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1909) Displacement: 18,156 t light; 18,791 t standard; 21,900 t normal; 24,387 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 700.00 ft / 700.00 ft x 80.00 ft x 24.40 ft (normal load) 213.36 m / 213.36 m x 24.38 m x 7.44 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 10 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 2 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 3,840 lbs / 1,742 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 385.00 ft / 117.35 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 3.00" / 76 mm 280.00 ft / 85.34 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 35.00 ft / 10.67 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 85 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 385.00 ft / 117.35 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 3rd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 118,228 shp / 88,198 Kw = 31.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 16.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,597 tons Complement: 899 - 1,170 Cost: £1.791 million / $7.164 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 480 tons, 2.2 % Armour: 4,443 tons, 20.3 % - Belts: 1,570 tons, 7.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 684 tons, 3.1 % - Armament: 627 tons, 2.9 % - Armour Deck: 1,461 tons, 6.7 % - Conning Tower: 101 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 5,374 tons, 24.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,859 tons, 35.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,744 tons, 17.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 29,414 lbs / 13,342 Kg = 34.0 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.38 Metacentric height 6.3 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 13.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.29 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.22 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.561 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.46 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (63 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 23.28 ft / 7.10 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 128.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 194.9 % Waterplane Area: 39,486 Square feet or 3,668 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 115 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 133 lbs/sq ft or 649 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.99 - Longitudinal: 1.19 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Tuesday, August 15, 2006

### The "classic" version of the GB/BB/1905 design

The "classic" version of the Ger/BB/1905 battleship design, with the original armour plan worked in Springsharp without any tweaking. I define "working" as having acceptable characteristics and a strength of 1.0,with no further adjustments. The basic design is a 22,000 ton Standard ship with a 10in belt, 8-12in guns, and a 23 knot speed.

This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1905 Classic Version, Germany Battleship laid down 1905 Displacement: 19,582 t light; 20,421 t standard; 23,500 t normal; 25,963 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 580.00 ft / 580.00 ft x 90.00 ft x 26.60 ft (normal load) 176.78 m / 176.78 m x 27.43 m x 8.11 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,296 lbs / 3,309 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 160.00 ft / 48.77 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 7.00" / 178 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 42,764 shp / 31,902 Kw = 23.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,541 tons Complement: 948 - 1,233 Cost: £1.905 million / $7.620 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 912 tons, 3.9 % Armour: 6,780 tons, 28.9 % - Belts: 2,490 tons, 10.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 2,187 tons, 9.3 % - Armour Deck: 2,104 tons, 9.0 % - Conning Tower: 0 tons, 0.0 % Machinery: 3,240 tons, 13.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,650 tons, 36.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,918 tons, 16.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 34,954 lbs / 15,855 Kg = 40.5 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.11 Metacentric height 5.2 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 16.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 84 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.68 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.68 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.592 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.44 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.08 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 48 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (67 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 23.52 ft / 7.17 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 74.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 181.2 % Waterplane Area: 37,906 Square feet or 3,522 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 114 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 158 lbs/sq ft or 773 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.85 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Monday, August 14, 2006

### This is the Ger/BB/1907, from the Blue Booi, with adjusted weights

This is the Ger/BB/1907 design, tweaked to try and achieve the weights from the original specification. This is a ship with 8-12in/50 and 12-4in QF guns, and a 13in armour basis. The originally specified speed was 24 knots. I had followed closely the armour plan from the sketch. With that plan, the 7,547 tons protection is too light. The protection in the Springsharp design comes out heavier. This is the tweaked Springsharp design:

Ger/BB/1907, Germany Battleship laid down 1907 Displacement: 23,316 t light; 24,254 t standard; 28,400 t normal; 31,717 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 620.00 ft / 620.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 188.98 m / 188.98 m x 32.00 m x 7.92 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,296 lbs / 3,309 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 335.00 ft / 102.11 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 335.00 ft / 102.11 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 83 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 335.00 ft / 102.11 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 10.00" / 254 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 69,437 shp / 51,800 Kw = 25.30 kts Range 5,600nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 7,463 tons Complement: 1,093 - 1,422 Cost: £2.134 million / $8.538 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 912 tons, 3.2 % Armour: 7,996 tons, 28.2 % - Belts: 2,605 tons, 9.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 465 tons, 1.6 % - Armament: 2,114 tons, 7.4 % - Armour Deck: 2,611 tons, 9.2 % - Conning Tower: 201 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 3,945 tons, 13.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,463 tons, 36.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,084 tons, 17.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 48,432 lbs / 21,969 Kg = 56.1 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 7.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.24 Metacentric height 8.0 ft / 2.4 m Roll period: 15.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 67 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.32 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.34 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.587 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.90 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.90 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (68 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 23.68 ft / 7.22 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 86.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 196.0 % Waterplane Area: 47,049 Square feet or 4,371 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 123 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 165 lbs/sq ft or 806 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.63 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, August 13, 2006

### The "classic" version of the GB/CB/1905 design

I experimented with the machinery date to achieve the needed strength, while not ballooning the displacement, excessively. The ship is the usual that goes with the photo:

The ship is nominally 25,000 tons, with 4-12in/45 and 9-6in QF guns. the armour basis is 4in. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1905 classic version, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1908) Displacement: 24,781 t light; 25,580 t standard; 28,500 t normal; 30,836 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 25.91 m x 8.23 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships 1 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing gun in a deck mount with hoist on centreline aft, 1 raised gun Weight of broadside 4,428 lbs / 2,009 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 345.00 ft / 105.16 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 93 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 550.00 ft / 167.64 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 3rd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 171,389 shp / 127,856 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,255 tons Complement: 1,096 - 1,425 Cost: £2.544 million / $10.176 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 554 tons, 1.9 % Armour: 4,962 tons, 17.4 % - Belts: 1,132 tons, 4.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,099 tons, 3.9 % - Armament: 857 tons, 3.0 % - Armour Deck: 1,713 tons, 6.0 % - Conning Tower: 161 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 8,656 tons, 30.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,609 tons, 37.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,719 tons, 13.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 29,079 lbs / 13,190 Kg = 33.7 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.32 Metacentric height 6.4 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 14.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 66 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.35 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.31 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.564 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (73 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 27.24 ft / 8.30 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 148.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 221.5 % Waterplane Area: 46,301 Square feet or 4,302 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 148 lbs/sq ft or 723 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.00 - Longitudinal: 1.37 - Overall: 1.04 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### The Ger/BB/1909A battleship design

The Ger/BB/1909A design was intended to look more "German", as my friend Cliff had criticized my German designs for looking too "British". With an intended Standard displacement of 32,000 tons, the design was over-designed for the intended characteristics. The Springsharp design came out light, even after increasing the speed, with normal weight machinery, to 27 knots. The armour basis is 14in with a 5in deck. The armament is 9-12in/50 and 8-6in QF guns. For some reason, my secondary armaments at this time were inadequate. The protection came out heavy, even after omitting a second deck (which Springsharp really doesn't accommodate, anyway). The design is really more of a battleship-cruiser than normal battleship, as the speed is high, but with heavy armour. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1909A, Germany Battleship laid down 1909 Displacement: 29,537 t light; 30,650 t standard; 33,700 t normal; 36,140 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 645.00 ft / 645.00 ft x 106.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 196.60 m / 196.60 m x 32.31 m x 9.14 m Armament: 9 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1909 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1909 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 8,640 lbs / 3,919 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 375.00 ft / 114.30 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 89 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 375.00 ft / 114.30 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 96,837 shp / 72,240 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,490 tons Complement: 1,243 - 1,616 Cost: £2.557 million / $10.229 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,080 tons, 3.2 % Armour: 12,054 tons, 35.8 % - Belts: 3,793 tons, 11.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 833 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 2,595 tons, 7.7 % - Armour Deck: 4,519 tons, 13.4 % - Conning Tower: 315 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 4,402 tons, 13.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 12,001 tons, 35.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,163 tons, 12.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 56,245 lbs / 25,512 Kg = 65.1 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 9.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 7.4 ft / 2.3 m Roll period: 16.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 67 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.38 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.34 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.575 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.08 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.40 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (65 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.52 ft / 7.78 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 82.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 191.2 % Waterplane Area: 48,850 Square feet or 4,538 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 114 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 175 lbs/sq ft or 852 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.85 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Saturday, August 12, 2006

### Sometimes, designs are on a "sweet spot": the Ger/CA/1906 design study

The Ger/CA/1906 is sort of an expansive armoured cruiser or small battlecruiser. I have a small pencil sketch and a set of specifications, including weights. The ship has 6-12in/50 in triple turrets at the ends and 8-6in QF guns in casemates below the forecastle level, amidships. The armour basis is 6in, with a 3in deck. The speed is 25 knots. The design does not depend on lightweight machinery, but uses 1906 technology. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CA/1906, Germany Armoured Cruiser laid down 1906 Displacement: 15,175 t light; 15,850 t standard; 18,250 t normal; 20,170 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 550.00 ft / 550.00 ft x 80.00 ft x 25.00 ft (normal load) 167.64 m / 167.64 m x 24.38 m x 7.62 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1906 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 6,048 lbs / 2,743 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 375.00 ft / 114.30 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 105 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 375.00 ft / 114.30 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 51,011 shp / 38,054 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 6,300nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,320 tons Complement: 784 - 1,020 Cost: £1.630 million / $6.520 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 756 tons, 4.1 % Armour: 4,444 tons, 24.4 % - Belts: 1,545 tons, 8.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 347 tons, 1.9 % - Armament: 708 tons, 3.9 % - Armour Deck: 1,754 tons, 9.6 % - Conning Tower: 90 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 3,312 tons, 18.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 6,663 tons, 36.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,075 tons, 16.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 24,314 lbs / 11,029 Kg = 28.1 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.27 Metacentric height 5.5 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 14.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 76 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.59 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.51 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.581 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.88 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.45 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (68 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 22.68 ft / 6.91 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 120.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 175.9 % Waterplane Area: 31,604 Square feet or 2,936 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 142 lbs/sq ft or 691 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 1.99 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Friday, August 11, 2006

### Design study for the Ger/CA/1917 12in guns in the Blue Book

While the 9.4in gunned version of the Ger/CA/1917 was more of just a concept sketch and specifications, the 12in gunned version was more completely designed. The ship was nominally 20,000 tons with 6-12in guns forward and 8-6in guns in twin turrets. The belt was 6in and the deck armour was 3in. The speed was 33 knots. The hull was flush decked, unlike the 9.4in gunned ship. These were the original specifications:

Standard Displacement=20,000 tons 6in belt, 3in+2in decks amid, 1in A/T prot 6-12in/50 (66 tons) 8-6in (8 tons) 725ft x 80ft x 22.7ft Standard Cp=0.56 Cm=0.95 6,000 tons oil 120,000 SHP = 33 knots 30 SHP/ton machinery Weights: Hull 9,850 tons Mach 4,000 tons Prot 3,488 tons Misc 1,600 tons Arm 1,062 tons Oil 6,000 tons Feed Water 1,000 tons Full load 27,000 tonsThis is the actual Springsharp report:

Ger/CA/1917 12in guns, Germany Heavy Cruiser laid down 1917 (Engine 1931) Displacement: 20,323 t light; 21,133 t standard; 23,300 t normal; 25,033 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 727.17 ft / 725.00 ft x 80.00 ft x 23.00 ft (normal load) 221.64 m / 220.98 m x 24.38 m x 7.01 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1917 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (4x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1917 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 6,048 lbs / 2,743 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 415.00 ft / 126.49 m 10.00 ft / 3.05 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 88 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 415.00 ft / 126.49 m 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 159,094 shp / 118,684 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 10,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,900 tons Complement: 942 - 1,225 Cost: £3.659 million / $14.636 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 756 tons, 3.2 % Armour: 5,176 tons, 22.2 % - Belts: 1,074 tons, 4.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 353 tons, 1.5 % - Armament: 1,229 tons, 5.3 % - Armour Deck: 2,379 tons, 10.2 % - Conning Tower: 141 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 4,758 tons, 20.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,634 tons, 41.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,977 tons, 12.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 31,348 lbs / 14,219 Kg = 36.3 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 4.8 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 15.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.61 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.611 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.93 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 57 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (71 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Stern: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Average freeboard: 24.56 ft / 7.49 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 121.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 208.0 % Waterplane Area: 42,871 Square feet or 3,983 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 152 lbs/sq ft or 740 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.28 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Thursday, August 10, 2006

### I underestimated the size needed for the Ger/CA/1917 design

I had only specified a 14,000 ton Standard displacement for the Ger/CA/1917 design, but the specifications were for a ship with a 6in belt, 4in deck, and 8-9.4in guns. The stable Springsharp design ballooned to almost 17,000 tons standard, which should not have been a surprise. the design is for a fast, belted cruiser. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CA/1917, Germany Heavy Cruiser laid down 1917 (Engine 1931) Displacement: 16,365 t light; 16,987 t standard; 18,400 t normal; 19,530 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 666.57 ft / 665.00 ft x 69.00 ft x 23.00 ft (normal load) 203.17 m / 202.69 m x 21.03 m x 7.01 m Armament: 8 - 9.40" / 239 mm guns (4x2 guns), 415.29lbs / 188.37kg shells, 1917 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 10 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1917 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 4,402 lbs / 1,997 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 435.00 ft / 132.59 m 10.00 ft / 3.05 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 435.00 ft / 132.59 m 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 123,957 shp / 92,472 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,543 tons Complement: 789 - 1,026 Cost: £2.825 million / $11.302 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 550 tons, 3.0 % Armour: 5,018 tons, 27.3 % - Belts: 1,094 tons, 5.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 338 tons, 1.8 % - Armament: 989 tons, 5.4 % - Armour Deck: 2,507 tons, 13.6 % - Conning Tower: 90 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 3,707 tons, 20.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,090 tons, 38.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,035 tons, 11.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 24,861 lbs / 11,277 Kg = 59.9 x 9.4 " / 239 mm shells or 3.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 3.4 ft / 1.0 m Roll period: 15.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 55 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.83 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.10 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.610 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.64 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.79 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 57 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (71 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 124.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 198.6 % Waterplane Area: 33,881 Square feet or 3,148 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 131 lbs/sq ft or 640 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.35 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

Subscribe to:
Posts (Atom)