Seydlitz, upgunned, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1914 (Engine 1911) Displacement: 27,774 t light; 29,235 t standard; 31,300 t normal; 32,952 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 664.70 ft / 658.14 ft x 93.50 ft (Bulges 98.43 ft) x 30.51 ft (normal load) 202.60 m / 200.60 m x 28.50 m (Bulges 30.00 m) x 9.30 m Armament: 2 - 16.93" / 430 mm guns (1x2 guns), 2,425.91lbs / 1,100.37kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in a turret (on a barbette) on centreline forward 4 - 16.93" / 430 mm guns (2x2 guns), 2,425.91lbs / 1,100.37kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all aft, 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread 12 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 4 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1914 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 15,874 lbs / 7,200 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 4 - 19.7" / 500 mm submerged torpedo tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.8" / 300 mm 393.70 ft / 120.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: 3.94" / 100 mm 246.06 ft / 75.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m 18.37 ft / 5.60 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 5.91" / 150 mm 393.70 ft / 120.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Main Belt covers 92 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead and Bulges: 1.77" / 45 mm 393.70 ft / 120.00 m 30.51 ft / 9.30 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.84" / 250 mm 3.15" / 80 mm 9.84" / 250 mm 2nd: 9.84" / 250 mm 3.15" / 80 mm 9.84" / 250 mm 3rd: 3.94" / 100 mm 1.18" / 30 mm 1.18" / 30 mm - Armour deck: 3.15" / 80 mm, Conning tower: 11.81" / 300 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 89,580 shp / 66,827 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 4,200nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,718 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,176 - 1,529 Cost: £4.071 million / $16.285 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,984 tons, 6.3 % Armour: 8,624 tons, 27.6 % - Belts: 3,371 tons, 10.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 787 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 1,700 tons, 5.4 % - Armour Deck: 2,512 tons, 8.0 % - Conning Tower: 253 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,999 tons, 12.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 13,168 tons, 42.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,526 tons, 11.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 33,397 lbs / 15,148 Kg = 13.8 x 16.9 " / 430 mm shells or 4.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.13 Metacentric height 5.7 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 17.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 68 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.73 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.35 Hull form characteristics: Hull has raised forecastle, rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.554 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.69 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.65 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 6.56 ft / 2.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.45 ft / 10.50 m - Forecastle (34 %): 34.45 ft / 10.50 m (24.61 ft / 7.50 m aft of break) - Mid (67 %): 24.61 ft / 7.50 m (14.76 ft / 4.50 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.76 ft / 4.50 m - Stern: 14.76 ft / 4.50 m - Average freeboard: 24.70 ft / 7.53 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 115.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 147.6 % Waterplane Area: 43,119 Square feet or 4,006 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 96 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 202 lbs/sq ft or 989 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 2.00 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, December 31, 2006

### My attempt at the Seydlitz upgunned with 6-17in guns

## Saturday, December 30, 2006

### What do you think of the Derfflinger with 8-17in guns?

Derfflinger class upgunned, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1914 (Engine 1911) Displacement: 29,292 t light; 31,014 t standard; 33,700 t normal; 35,849 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 696.85 ft / 690.29 ft x 95.14 ft (Bulges 100.07 ft) x 31.50 ft (normal load) 212.40 m / 210.40 m x 29.00 m (Bulges 30.50 m) x 9.60 m Armament: 8 - 16.93" / 430 mm guns (4x2 guns), 2,425.91lbs / 1,100.37kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 4 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1914 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 20,726 lbs / 9,401 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 4 - 19.7" / 500 mm submerged torpedo tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.8" / 300 mm 410.11 ft / 125.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: 3.94" / 100 mm 131.23 ft / 40.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m 148.95 ft / 45.40 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 9.06" / 230 mm 410.11 ft / 125.00 m 13.12 ft / 4.00 m Main Belt covers 91 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead and Bulges: 1.77" / 45 mm 410.11 ft / 125.00 m 29.53 ft / 9.00 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.6" / 270 mm 3.15" / 80 mm 10.6" / 270 mm 2nd: 5.91" / 150 mm 1.97" / 50 mm 1.18" / 30 mm - Armour deck: 1.57" / 40 mm, Conning tower: 11.81" / 300 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 78,829 shp / 58,806 Kw = 26.00 kts Range 5,300nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,836 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,243 - 1,616 Cost: £4.702 million / $18.806 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,591 tons, 7.7 % Armour: 9,366 tons, 27.8 % - Belts: 4,414 tons, 13.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 794 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 2,567 tons, 7.6 % - Armour Deck: 1,326 tons, 3.9 % - Conning Tower: 265 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,519 tons, 10.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 13,816 tons, 41.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,408 tons, 13.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 33,288 lbs / 15,099 Kg = 13.7 x 16.9 " / 430 mm shells or 4.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 5.5 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 17.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.80 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.21 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.542 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.90 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.27 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 48 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 6.56 ft / 2.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.53 ft / 9.00 m - Forecastle (20 %): 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Mid (50 %): 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Stern: 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Average freeboard: 20.47 ft / 6.24 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 118.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 137.3 % Waterplane Area: 45,500 Square feet or 4,227 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 91 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 209 lbs/sq ft or 1,020 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.41 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Friday, December 29, 2006

### I wonder how to rearm the German battlecruisers with 17in guns?

## Thursday, December 28, 2006

### The Kaiser class with 6-17in guns

Kaiser class-upgunned (6-17in guns), Germany Battleship laid down 1915 (Engine 1911) Displacement: 23,543 t light; 24,937 t standard; 27,400 t normal; 29,370 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 572.18 ft / 565.62 ft x 95.14 ft x 29.86 ft (normal load) 174.40 m / 172.40 m x 29.00 m x 9.10 m Armament: 2 - 16.93" / 430 mm guns (1x2 guns), 2,425.91lbs / 1,100.37kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in a turret (on a barbette) on centreline forward 4 - 16.93" / 430 mm guns (2x2 guns), 2,425.91lbs / 1,100.37kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all aft, 1 raised mount - superfiring 14 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread 14 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 4 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1915 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 16,080 lbs / 7,294 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 5 - 19.7" / 500 mm submerged torpedo tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.8" / 350 mm 311.68 ft / 95.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: 7.09" / 180 mm 219.82 ft / 67.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m 34.12 ft / 10.40 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 7.09" / 180 mm 311.68 ft / 95.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Main Belt covers 85 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.57" / 40 mm 311.68 ft / 95.00 m 29.86 ft / 9.10 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.8" / 300 mm 5.91" / 150 mm 11.8" / 300 mm 2nd: 11.8" / 300 mm 5.91" / 150 mm 11.8" / 300 mm 3rd: 6.69" / 170 mm 3.15" / 80 mm 3.15" / 80 mm - Armour deck: 2.36" / 60 mm, Conning tower: 15.75" / 400 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 3 shafts, 33,548 shp / 25,027 Kw = 21.00 kts Range 7,900nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,433 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,064 - 1,384 Cost: £3.959 million / $15.838 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,010 tons, 7.3 % Armour: 8,428 tons, 30.8 % - Belts: 3,514 tons, 12.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 542 tons, 2.0 % - Armament: 2,348 tons, 8.6 % - Armour Deck: 1,715 tons, 6.3 % - Conning Tower: 308 tons, 1.1 % Machinery: 1,498 tons, 5.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,608 tons, 42.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,857 tons, 14.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 37,315 lbs / 16,926 Kg = 15.4 x 16.9 " / 430 mm shells or 5.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 6.1 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 16.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.82 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.66 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, low quarterdeck Block coefficient: 0.597 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.94 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.78 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 46 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 37 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 6.56 ft / 2.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.25 ft / 8.00 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.61 ft / 7.50 m - Mid (69 %): 24.61 ft / 7.50 m (14.76 ft / 4.50 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.76 ft / 4.50 m (16.40 ft / 5.00 m before break) - Stern: 14.76 ft / 4.50 m - Average freeboard: 21.82 ft / 6.65 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 95.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 157.3 % Waterplane Area: 39,245 Square feet or 3,646 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 100 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 208 lbs/sq ft or 1,018 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.91 - Longitudinal: 2.30 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

### The up-gunned Kaiser class

## Wednesday, December 27, 2006

### The upgunned Kaiser class

Kaiser class-upgunned, Germany Battleship laid down 1915 (Engine 1911) Displacement: 26,874 t light; 28,603 t standard; 31,300 t normal; 33,458 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 572.18 ft / 565.62 ft x 95.14 ft (Bulges 98.43 ft) x 29.86 ft (normal load) 174.40 m / 172.40 m x 29.00 m (Bulges 30.00 m) x 9.10 m Armament: 2 - 16.93" / 430 mm guns (1x2 guns), 2,425.91lbs / 1,100.37kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in a turret (on a barbette) on centreline forward 2 - 16.93" / 430 mm guns (1x2 guns), 2,425.91lbs / 1,100.37kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in a turret (on a barbette) on centreline amidships 4 - 16.93" / 430 mm guns (2x2 guns), 2,425.91lbs / 1,100.37kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all aft, 1 raised mount - superfiring 14 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in casemate mounts on side, evenly spread 14 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 4 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1915 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 20,932 lbs / 9,495 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 5 - 19.7" / 500 mm submerged torpedo tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.8" / 350 mm 311.68 ft / 95.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: 7.09" / 180 mm 219.82 ft / 67.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m 34.12 ft / 10.40 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 7.09" / 180 mm 311.68 ft / 95.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Main Belt covers 85 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead and Bulges: 1.57" / 40 mm 311.68 ft / 95.00 m 29.86 ft / 9.10 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.8" / 300 mm 5.91" / 150 mm 11.8" / 300 mm 2nd: 11.8" / 300 mm 5.91" / 150 mm 11.8" / 300 mm 3rd: 11.8" / 300 mm 5.91" / 150 mm 11.8" / 300 mm 4th: 6.69" / 170 mm 3.15" / 80 mm 3.15" / 80 mm - Armour deck: 2.36" / 60 mm, Conning tower: 15.75" / 400 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 3 shafts, 31,011 shp / 23,134 Kw = 20.00 kts Range 7,900nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,855 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,176 - 1,529 Cost: £4.847 million / $19.388 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,617 tons, 8.4 % Armour: 9,269 tons, 29.6 % - Belts: 3,523 tons, 11.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 542 tons, 1.7 % - Armament: 3,051 tons, 9.7 % - Armour Deck: 1,817 tons, 5.8 % - Conning Tower: 337 tons, 1.1 % Machinery: 1,384 tons, 4.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 13,604 tons, 43.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,426 tons, 14.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 38,961 lbs / 17,672 Kg = 16.1 x 16.9 " / 430 mm shells or 5.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 6.0 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 16.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 62 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.93 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.66 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, low quarterdeck Block coefficient: 0.659 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.78 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 37 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 6.56 ft / 2.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.25 ft / 8.00 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.61 ft / 7.50 m - Mid (69 %): 24.61 ft / 7.50 m (14.76 ft / 4.50 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.76 ft / 4.50 m (16.40 ft / 5.00 m before break) - Stern: 14.76 ft / 4.50 m - Average freeboard: 21.82 ft / 6.65 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 100.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 150.7 % Waterplane Area: 41,571 Square feet or 3,862 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 95 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 231 lbs/sq ft or 1,130 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.29 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

### I wonder if some of the earlier German dreadnoughts might be uparmed with 17in guns

## Tuesday, December 26, 2006

### An upgunned Koenig class battleship

Koenig class-upgunned, Germany Battleship laid down 1911 (Engine 1912) Displacement: 25,534 t light; 27,184 t standard; 29,500 t normal; 31,353 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 579.72 ft / 573.16 ft x 96.78 ft (Bulges 100.07 ft) x 31.17 ft (normal load) 176.70 m / 174.70 m x 29.50 m (Bulges 30.50 m) x 9.50 m Armament: 8 - 16.93" / 430 mm guns (4x2 guns), 2,425.91lbs / 1,100.37kg shells, 1911 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 1 raised mount - superfiring 14 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1911 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 4 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1911 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread Weight of broadside 20,932 lbs / 9,495 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 5 - 19.7" / 500 mm submerged torpedo tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.8" / 350 mm 344.49 ft / 105.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 7.09" / 180 mm 344.49 ft / 105.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Main Belt covers 92 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead and Bulges: 1.57" / 40 mm 344.49 ft / 105.00 m 31.17 ft / 9.50 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.8" / 300 mm 5.91" / 150 mm 11.8" / 300 mm 2nd: 6.69" / 170 mm 1.18" / 30 mm 1.57" / 40 mm - Armour deck: 2.36" / 60 mm, Conning tower: 11.81" / 300 mm Machinery: Coal and oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 3 shafts, 34,844 shp / 25,994 Kw = 21.00 kts Range 8,000nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,168 tons (80% coal) Complement: 1,125 - 1,463 Cost: £3.301 million / $13.205 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,617 tons, 8.9 % Armour: 8,945 tons, 30.3 % - Belts: 3,175 tons, 10.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 626 tons, 2.1 % - Armament: 3,165 tons, 10.7 % - Armour Deck: 1,736 tons, 5.9 % - Conning Tower: 243 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 1,498 tons, 5.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 12,475 tons, 42.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,966 tons, 13.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 34,533 lbs / 15,664 Kg = 14.2 x 16.9 " / 430 mm shells or 5.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 6.1 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 16.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.89 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.63 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, low quarterdeck Block coefficient: 0.578 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.73 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.94 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 33 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 6.56 ft / 2.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.25 ft / 8.00 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.61 ft / 7.50 m - Mid (72 %): 24.61 ft / 7.50 m (14.76 ft / 4.50 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.76 ft / 4.50 m (16.40 ft / 5.00 m before break) - Stern: 14.76 ft / 4.50 m - Average freeboard: 22.09 ft / 6.73 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 107.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 153.4 % Waterplane Area: 39,730 Square feet or 3,691 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 90 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 217 lbs/sq ft or 1,061 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.91 - Longitudinal: 2.15 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

### What Jellicoe feared was upgunned German ships

What Admiral Jellicoe feared was that the Germans would modify their existing battleships, such as the Koenig class, with 17in (43cm) guns. I have seen the possibility belittled in some published sources, but I think that if Germany had not been so focused on the losing proposition of using submarines against merchant shipping, they might have found the resources to build the 43cm guns and to modify their existing ships.

Using submarines against merchant shipping was really mistaken in WWI. Perhaps the main reason was political, rather than strategic, in that unrestricted submarine warfare brought the United States into the war. That was the real reason that the Allies won. Without that intervention, the war might have ended as a stalemate, with Imperial Germany surviving. What Germany needed to accomplish at sea was to break the British blockade. That was not going to happen by attacking British merchant shipping.

## Monday, December 25, 2006

### The sort of ship that the British worried about: the Ger/CB/1918

Ger/CB/1918, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1918 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 48,686 t light; 50,841 t standard; 54,700 t normal; 57,788 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 821.58 ft / 820.21 ft x 111.55 ft x 32.81 ft (normal load) 250.42 m / 250.00 m x 34.00 m x 10.00 m Armament: 8 - 16.93" / 430 mm guns (4x2 guns), 2,425.91lbs / 1,100.37kg shells, 1918 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1918 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 12 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 8 - 4.13" / 105 mm guns in single mounts, 35.32lbs / 16.02kg shells, 1918 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 20,926 lbs / 9,492 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 5 - 23.6" / 600 mm submerged torpedo tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.6" / 320 mm 590.55 ft / 180.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: 3.94" / 100 mm 131.23 ft / 40.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m 98.43 ft / 30.00 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 9.45" / 240 mm 590.55 ft / 180.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Main Belt covers 111 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.36" / 60 mm 590.55 ft / 180.00 m 32.81 ft / 10.00 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.6" / 320 mm 7.87" / 200 mm 11.8" / 300 mm 2nd: 5.91" / 150 mm 5.91" / 150 mm 1.97" / 50 mm - Armour deck: 4.13" / 105 mm, Conning tower: 13.78" / 350 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 235,264 shp / 175,507 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 10,000nm at 13.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,947 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,787 - 2,324 Cost: £10.090 million / $40.359 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,616 tons, 4.8 % Armour: 17,047 tons, 31.2 % - Belts: 5,612 tons, 10.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,693 tons, 3.1 % - Armament: 4,014 tons, 7.3 % - Armour Deck: 5,300 tons, 9.7 % - Conning Tower: 428 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 8,169 tons, 14.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 20,855 tons, 38.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,014 tons, 11.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 67,262 lbs / 30,509 Kg = 27.7 x 16.9 " / 430 mm shells or 8.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 7.3 ft / 2.2 m Roll period: 17.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.70 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.638 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.35 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.64 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -9.84 ft / -3.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 39.37 ft / 12.00 m - Forecastle (20 %): 31.17 ft / 9.50 m - Mid (64 %): 31.17 ft / 9.50 m (21.33 ft / 6.50 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.33 ft / 6.50 m - Stern: 21.33 ft / 6.50 m - Average freeboard: 28.28 ft / 8.62 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 105.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 206.8 % Waterplane Area: 69,307 Square feet or 6,439 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 101 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 213 lbs/sq ft or 1,038 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.37 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, December 23, 2006

### The German battlecruiser design GK-4542

GK-4542, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1918 Displacement: 40,405 t light; 42,078 t standard; 46,000 t normal; 49,138 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 787.40 ft / 787.40 ft x 109.91 ft x 32.81 ft (normal load) 240.00 m / 240.00 m x 33.50 m x 10.00 m Armament: 8 - 14.96" / 380 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1,674.25lbs / 759.43kg shells, 1918 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1918 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 12 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 8 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1918 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 14,796 lbs / 6,711 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 5 - 23.6" / 600 mm submerged torpedo tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.8" / 300 mm 590.55 ft / 180.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: 3.94" / 100 mm 111.55 ft / 34.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m 85.30 ft / 26.00 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 9.45" / 240 mm 590.55 ft / 180.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Main Belt covers 115 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.36" / 60 mm 590.55 ft / 180.00 m 32.81 ft / 10.00 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.8" / 300 mm 7.87" / 200 mm 11.4" / 290 mm 2nd: 5.91" / 150 mm 5.91" / 150 mm 1.97" / 50 mm - Armour deck: 3.94" / 100 mm, Conning tower: 13.78" / 350 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 161,170 shp / 120,233 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 10,000nm at 13.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 7,060 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,569 - 2,041 Cost: £7.726 million / $30.905 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,850 tons, 4.0 % Armour: 15,135 tons, 32.9 % - Belts: 5,335 tons, 11.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,693 tons, 3.7 % - Armament: 3,256 tons, 7.1 % - Armour Deck: 4,470 tons, 9.7 % - Conning Tower: 381 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 6,396 tons, 13.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,025 tons, 37.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,595 tons, 12.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 63,360 lbs / 28,740 Kg = 37.8 x 15.0 " / 380 mm shells or 9.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 7.5 ft / 2.3 m Roll period: 16.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 64 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.54 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.27 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.567 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.16 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.06 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: -9.84 ft / -3.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 36.09 ft / 11.00 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.53 ft / 9.00 m - Mid (64 %): 29.53 ft / 9.00 m (19.69 ft / 6.00 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Stern: 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Average freeboard: 26.51 ft / 8.08 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 95.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 196.3 % Waterplane Area: 61,370 Square feet or 5,701 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 194 lbs/sq ft or 949 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.42 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Friday, December 22, 2006

### The German L24 battleship design

L24, Germany Battleship laid down 1916 Displacement: 36,518 t light; 38,359 t standard; 42,700 t normal; 46,172 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 787.95 ft / 787.40 ft x 104.99 ft x 29.53 ft (normal load) 240.17 m / 240.00 m x 32.00 m x 9.00 m Armament: 8 - 16.54" / 420 mm guns (4x2 guns), 2,260.56lbs / 1,025.37kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 12 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 8 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1916 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread Weight of broadside 19,487 lbs / 8,839 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 5 - 23.6" / 600 mm submerged torpedo tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.8" / 350 mm 574.15 ft / 175.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: 5.12" / 130 mm 196.85 ft / 60.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m 16.40 ft / 5.00 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 9.84" / 250 mm 574.15 ft / 175.00 m 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Main Belt covers 112 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.36" / 60 mm 574.15 ft / 175.00 m 29.53 ft / 9.00 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.8" / 350 mm 9.84" / 250 mm 13.8" / 350 mm 2nd: 6.69" / 170 mm 1.18" / 30 mm 1.18" / 30 mm - Armour deck: 1.97" / 50 mm, Conning tower: 13.78" / 350 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 96,539 shp / 72,018 Kw = 26.50 kts Range 10,700nm at 13.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 7,813 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,484 - 1,930 Cost: £6.346 million / $25.384 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,436 tons, 5.7 % Armour: 12,098 tons, 28.3 % - Belts: 3,644 tons, 8.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,482 tons, 3.5 % - Armament: 4,382 tons, 10.3 % - Armour Deck: 2,227 tons, 5.2 % - Conning Tower: 363 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,956 tons, 9.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 18,028 tons, 42.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,182 tons, 14.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 62,135 lbs / 28,184 Kg = 27.5 x 16.5 " / 420 mm shells or 9.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.13 Metacentric height 6.8 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.83 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.44 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.612 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.50 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.06 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 46 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 44 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -6.56 ft / -2.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.17 ft / 9.50 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.53 ft / 9.00 m - Mid (60 %): 29.53 ft / 9.00 m (19.69 ft / 6.00 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Stern: 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Average freeboard: 25.72 ft / 7.84 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 92.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 202.1 % Waterplane Area: 61,157 Square feet or 5,682 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 211 lbs/sq ft or 1,028 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.28 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, December 21, 2006

### The German L20e battleship design

L20e, Germany Battleship laid down 1916 Displacement: 35,429 t light; 37,246 t standard; 41,500 t normal; 44,903 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 778.10 ft / 777.56 ft x 104.99 ft x 29.53 ft (normal load) 237.17 m / 237.00 m x 32.00 m x 9.00 m Armament: 8 - 16.54" / 420 mm guns (4x2 guns), 2,260.56lbs / 1,025.37kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 12 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 8 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1916 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread Weight of broadside 19,487 lbs / 8,839 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 5 - 23.6" / 600 mm submerged torpedo tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.8" / 350 mm 574.15 ft / 175.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: 5.12" / 130 mm 196.85 ft / 60.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m 6.56 ft / 2.00 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 9.84" / 250 mm 574.15 ft / 175.00 m 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Main Belt covers 114 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.36" / 60 mm 574.15 ft / 175.00 m 29.53 ft / 9.00 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.8" / 350 mm 9.84" / 250 mm 13.8" / 350 mm 2nd: 6.69" / 170 mm 1.18" / 30 mm 1.18" / 30 mm - Armour deck: 1.97" / 50 mm, Conning tower: 13.78" / 350 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 76,118 shp / 56,784 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 10,700nm at 13.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 7,657 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,453 - 1,889 Cost: £6.092 million / $24.368 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,436 tons, 5.9 % Armour: 12,038 tons, 29.0 % - Belts: 3,638 tons, 8.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,482 tons, 3.6 % - Armament: 4,382 tons, 10.6 % - Armour Deck: 2,180 tons, 5.3 % - Conning Tower: 356 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 3,120 tons, 7.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,836 tons, 43.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,071 tons, 14.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 64,082 lbs / 29,067 Kg = 28.3 x 16.5 " / 420 mm shells or 10.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 6.7 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 17.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 66 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.87 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.51 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.603 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.41 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.88 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 43 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 44 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -6.56 ft / -2.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.17 ft / 9.50 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.53 ft / 9.00 m - Mid (60 %): 29.53 ft / 9.00 m (19.69 ft / 6.00 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Stern: 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Average freeboard: 25.72 ft / 7.84 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 87.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 202.0 % Waterplane Area: 59,850 Square feet or 5,560 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 110 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 212 lbs/sq ft or 1,037 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.35 - Overall: 1.01 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Wednesday, December 20, 2006

### German Grosse Kreuzer I design from 1916

GK-1, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1916 Displacement: 33,887 t light; 35,437 t standard; 39,300 t normal; 42,390 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 771.00 ft / 771.00 ft x 99.74 ft x 28.87 ft (normal load) 235.00 m / 235.00 m x 30.40 m x 8.80 m Armament: 8 - 14.96" / 380 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1,674.25lbs / 759.43kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 14 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 14 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 8 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1916 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 15,002 lbs / 6,805 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.8" / 300 mm 492.13 ft / 150.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: 3.94" / 100 mm 278.87 ft / 85.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Upper: 9.45" / 240 mm 492.13 ft / 150.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Main Belt covers 98 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.97" / 50 mm 492.13 ft / 150.00 m 28.87 ft / 8.80 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.6" / 320 mm 7.87" / 200 mm 11.4" / 290 mm 2nd: 5.91" / 150 mm 5.91" / 150 mm 1.97" / 50 mm - Armour deck: 1.18" / 30 mm, Conning tower: 12.60" / 320 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 135,373 shp / 100,988 Kw = 29.25 kts Range 10,000nm at 13.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,953 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,395 - 1,814 Cost: £5.789 million / $23.158 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,875 tons, 4.8 % Armour: 10,756 tons, 27.4 % - Belts: 4,835 tons, 12.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,035 tons, 2.6 % - Armament: 3,322 tons, 8.5 % - Armour Deck: 1,251 tons, 3.2 % - Conning Tower: 314 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 5,548 tons, 14.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 15,707 tons, 40.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,413 tons, 13.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 53,092 lbs / 24,082 Kg = 31.7 x 15.0 " / 380 mm shells or 7.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.11 Metacentric height 6.1 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 17.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 62 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.78 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.25 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.620 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.73 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.77 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: -9.84 ft / -3.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 36.09 ft / 11.00 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.53 ft / 9.00 m - Mid (64 %): 29.53 ft / 9.00 m (19.69 ft / 6.00 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Stern: 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Average freeboard: 26.51 ft / 8.08 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 102.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 206.1 % Waterplane Area: 57,276 Square feet or 5,321 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 192 lbs/sq ft or 935 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.31 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Tuesday, December 19, 2006

### Wikipedia has a page about the German Mackensen class battlecruisers

## Monday, December 18, 2006

### The German L1 battleship design from1916

L1, Germany Battleship laid down 1916 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 32,598 t light; 34,119 t standard; 37,200 t normal; 39,665 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 728.35 ft / 721.78 ft x 98.43 ft x 28.22 ft (normal load) 222.00 m / 220.00 m x 30.00 m x 8.60 m Armament: 8 - 14.96" / 380 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1,674.25lbs / 759.43kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 16 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 8 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm guns in single mounts, 20.79lbs / 9.43kg shells, 1916 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 15,208 lbs / 6,898 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 5 - 23.6" / 600 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.8" / 350 mm 429.79 ft / 131.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: 5.51" / 140 mm 219.82 ft / 67.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m 72.18 ft / 22.00 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 9.84" / 250 mm 429.79 ft / 131.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Main Belt covers 92 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.84" / 250 mm 7.87" / 200 mm 13.8" / 350 mm 2nd: 6.69" / 170 mm 6.69" / 170 mm 1.97" / 50 mm - Armour deck: 3.54" / 90 mm, Conning tower: 15.75" / 400 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 85,947 shp / 64,116 Kw = 26.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 13.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,546 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,339 - 1,741 Cost: £5.274 million / $21.096 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,901 tons, 5.1 % Armour: 12,529 tons, 33.7 % - Belts: 4,834 tons, 13.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 3,751 tons, 10.1 % - Armour Deck: 3,566 tons, 9.6 % - Conning Tower: 378 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 3,466 tons, 9.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 14,703 tons, 39.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,602 tons, 12.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 58,786 lbs / 26,665 Kg = 35.1 x 15.0 " / 380 mm shells or 4.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.05 Metacentric height 5.4 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 17.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 75 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 1.00 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.51 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.650 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.33 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.87 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 48 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 6.56 ft / 2.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.17 ft / 9.50 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.53 ft / 9.00 m - Mid (69 %): 29.53 ft / 9.00 m (19.69 ft / 6.00 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Stern: 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Average freeboard: 26.61 ft / 8.11 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 68.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 196.9 % Waterplane Area: 54,400 Square feet or 5,054 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 190 lbs/sq ft or 926 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.52 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Sunday, December 17, 2006

### My attempt at the German Mackensen class battlecruiser design

Mackensen class, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1914 (Engine 1915) Displacement: 30,237 t light; 31,568 t standard; 35,200 t normal; 38,106 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 734.91 ft / 734.91 ft x 99.74 ft x 27.56 ft (normal load) 224.00 m / 224.00 m x 30.40 m x 8.40 m Armament: 8 - 13.39" / 340 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1,199.24lbs / 543.97kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 14 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 14 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 8 - 0.35" / 8.8 mm guns in single mounts, 0.02lbs / 0.01kg shells, 1914 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread, 4 raised mounts Weight of broadside 11,036 lbs / 5,006 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 5 - 23.6" / 600 mm submerged torpedo tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.8" / 350 mm 413.39 ft / 126.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: 5.91" / 150 mm 278.87 ft / 85.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m 42.65 ft / 13.00 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 8.66" / 220 mm 413.39 ft / 126.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Main Belt covers 87 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.36" / 60 mm 413.39 ft / 126.00 m 27.56 ft / 8.40 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.6" / 320 mm 7.09" / 180 mm 11.4" / 290 mm 2nd: 7.87" / 200 mm 5.91" / 150 mm 1.97" / 50 mm - Armour deck: 1.18" / 30 mm, Conning tower: 11.81" / 300 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 120,745 shp / 90,076 Kw = 28.75 kts Range 9,700nm at 13.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,538 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,284 - 1,670 Cost: £3.718 million / $14.873 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,379 tons, 3.9 % Armour: 10,217 tons, 29.0 % - Belts: 4,657 tons, 13.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 996 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 3,109 tons, 8.8 % - Armour Deck: 1,182 tons, 3.4 % - Conning Tower: 273 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 5,031 tons, 14.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 13,609 tons, 38.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,963 tons, 14.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 51,441 lbs / 23,333 Kg = 42.9 x 13.4 " / 340 mm shells or 7.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 6.5 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 16.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.56 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.26 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.610 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.37 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.11 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: -6.56 ft / -2.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.17 ft / 9.50 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.25 ft / 8.00 m - Mid (63 %): 26.25 ft / 8.00 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 26.25 ft / 8.00 m - Stern: 26.25 ft / 8.00 m - Average freeboard: 26.64 ft / 8.12 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 98.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 210.7 % Waterplane Area: 54,106 Square feet or 5,027 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 177 lbs/sq ft or 863 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.35 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Saturday, December 16, 2006

### My attempt at a German L20b battleship

L20b, Germany Battleship laid down 1918 Displacement: 41,346 t light; 43,380 t standard; 46,500 t normal; 48,996 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 772.25 ft / 771.00 ft x 104.99 ft x 31.17 ft (normal load) 235.38 m / 235.00 m x 32.00 m x 9.50 m Armament: 8 - 16.54" / 420 mm guns (4x2 guns), 2,260.56lbs / 1,025.37kg shells, 1918 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns in single mounts, 102.98lbs / 46.71kg shells, 1918 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships 12 guns in hull casemates - Limited use in heavy seas 8 - 4.13" / 105 mm guns in single mounts, 35.32lbs / 16.02kg shells, 1918 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread Weight of broadside 19,603 lbs / 8,892 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 5 - 23.6" / 600 mm submerged torpedo tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.8" / 350 mm 577.43 ft / 176.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Ends: 5.12" / 130 mm 114.83 ft / 35.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m 78.74 ft / 24.00 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 9.84" / 250 mm 577.43 ft / 176.00 m 9.84 ft / 3.00 m Main Belt covers 115 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.36" / 60 mm 577.43 ft / 176.00 m 29.53 ft / 9.00 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.8" / 350 mm 9.84" / 250 mm 13.8" / 350 mm 2nd: 6.69" / 170 mm 6.69" / 170 mm 1.50" / 38 mm - Armour deck: 5.91" / 150 mm, Conning tower: 15.75" / 400 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 55,778 shp / 41,610 Kw = 22.50 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,616 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,583 - 2,058 Cost: £7.631 million / $30.522 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,450 tons, 5.3 % Armour: 18,908 tons, 40.7 % - Belts: 5,852 tons, 12.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,490 tons, 3.2 % - Armament: 4,383 tons, 9.4 % - Armour Deck: 6,744 tons, 14.5 % - Conning Tower: 439 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 2,213 tons, 4.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,774 tons, 38.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,154 tons, 11.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 84,648 lbs / 38,396 Kg = 37.4 x 16.5 " / 420 mm shells or 14.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 6.6 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 17.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 64 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.83 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.65 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.645 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.34 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.77 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 39 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 39 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -6.56 ft / -2.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.53 ft / 9.00 m - Mid (60 %): 29.53 ft / 9.00 m (19.69 ft / 6.00 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Stern: 19.69 ft / 6.00 m - Average freeboard: 26.11 ft / 7.96 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 70.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 191.2 % Waterplane Area: 61,730 Square feet or 5,735 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 204 lbs/sq ft or 997 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.42 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Friday, December 15, 2006

### Sorry, I couldn't resist creating a radical design: GB/CB/1941 36 knots

GB/CB/1941 36 knots, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1941 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 53,427 t light; 55,692 t standard; 58,500 t normal; 60,746 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 915.15 ft / 912.00 ft x 110.00 ft x 35.00 ft (normal load) 278.94 m / 277.98 m x 33.53 m x 10.67 m Armament: 9 - 16.00" / 406 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,048.00lbs / 928.96kg shells, 1941 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 20 - 4.50" / 114 mm guns (10x2 guns), 45.56lbs / 20.67kg shells, 1941 Model Dual purpose guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships 40 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (10x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.88kg shells, 1941 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, 7 raised mounts 12 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (3x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.88kg shells, 1941 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on centreline, evenly spread Weight of broadside 19,445 lbs / 8,820 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 590.00 ft / 179.83 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 590.00 ft / 179.83 m 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 6.00" / 152 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 6 shafts, 311,983 shp / 232,739 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,054 tons Complement: 1,880 - 2,445 Cost: £30.999 million / $123.998 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,431 tons, 4.2 % Armour: 19,747 tons, 33.8 % - Belts: 3,616 tons, 6.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,969 tons, 5.1 % - Armament: 4,421 tons, 7.6 % - Armour Deck: 8,352 tons, 14.3 % - Conning Tower: 390 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 7,878 tons, 13.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 23,371 tons, 40.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,073 tons, 8.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 85,413 lbs / 38,743 Kg = 41.7 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 12.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 6.9 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 17.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.72 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.583 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.29 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 34.66 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 57 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Forecastle (20 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Mid (50 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Stern: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Average freeboard: 30.48 ft / 9.29 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 92.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 228.7 % Waterplane Area: 75,245 Square feet or 6,991 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 215 lbs/sq ft or 1,049 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.40 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Thursday, December 14, 2006

### Finally, I did the 33-knot GB/BB/1941 fast battleship

GB/BB/1941 33 knost, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1941 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 50,392 t light; 52,587 t standard; 55,000 t normal; 56,930 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 878.89 ft / 876.00 ft x 110.00 ft x 33.00 ft (normal load) 267.88 m / 267.00 m x 33.53 m x 10.06 m Armament: 9 - 16.00" / 406 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,048.00lbs / 928.96kg shells, 1941 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 20 - 4.50" / 114 mm guns (10x2 guns), 45.56lbs / 20.67kg shells, 1941 Model Dual purpose guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships 40 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (10x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1941 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, 7 raised mounts 12 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (3x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1941 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on centreline, evenly spread Weight of broadside 19,445 lbs / 8,820 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 580.00 ft / 176.78 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 580.00 ft / 176.78 m 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 6.00" / 152 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 220,141 shp / 164,225 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,343 tons Complement: 1,795 - 2,334 Cost: £28.336 million / $113.343 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,431 tons, 4.4 % Armour: 21,303 tons, 38.7 % - Belts: 5,535 tons, 10.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,747 tons, 5.0 % - Armament: 4,390 tons, 8.0 % - Armour Deck: 8,195 tons, 14.9 % - Conning Tower: 436 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 5,559 tons, 10.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 21,100 tons, 38.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,608 tons, 8.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 85,766 lbs / 38,903 Kg = 41.9 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 14.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 7.2 ft / 2.2 m Roll period: 17.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.59 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.605 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.96 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 34.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 25.64 ft / 7.82 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 81.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 195.9 % Waterplane Area: 73,829 Square feet or 6,859 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 209 lbs/sq ft or 1,020 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.18 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### The GB/BB/1941 is sort of a British analog to the US Iowa class ships

## Wednesday, December 13, 2006

### The GB/BB/1941 fast battleship

GB/BB/1941 Fast Battleship, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1941 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 48,387 t light; 50,534 t standard; 52,600 t normal; 54,253 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 866.80 ft / 864.00 ft x 112.00 ft x 32.00 ft (normal load) 264.20 m / 263.35 m x 34.14 m x 9.75 m Armament: 9 - 16.00" / 406 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,048.00lbs / 928.96kg shells, 1941 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 20 - 4.50" / 114 mm guns (10x2 guns), 45.56lbs / 20.67kg shells, 1941 Model Dual purpose guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships 40 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (10x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1941 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, evenly spread, 7 raised mounts 12 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (3x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1941 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on centreline, evenly spread Weight of broadside 19,445 lbs / 8,820 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 580.00 ft / 176.78 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 580.00 ft / 176.78 m 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 6.00" / 152 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 169,042 shp / 126,106 Kw = 31.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,720 tons Complement: 1,736 - 2,257 Cost: £26.785 million / $107.140 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,431 tons, 4.6 % Armour: 21,121 tons, 40.2 % - Belts: 5,535 tons, 10.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,747 tons, 5.2 % - Armament: 4,270 tons, 8.1 % - Armour Deck: 8,145 tons, 15.5 % - Conning Tower: 423 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 4,269 tons, 8.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 20,567 tons, 39.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,214 tons, 8.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 88,821 lbs / 40,288 Kg = 43.4 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 16.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.14 Metacentric height 7.6 ft / 2.3 m Roll period: 17.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.56 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.14 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.595 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.71 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 33.89 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (50 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Stern: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Average freeboard: 24.64 ft / 7.51 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 75.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 193.2 % Waterplane Area: 73,378 Square feet or 6,817 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 209 lbs/sq ft or 1,020 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.17 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, December 12, 2006

### The 29-knot GB/CB/1937 with a 12in belt

GB/CB/1937, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1937 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 42,055 t light; 44,145 t standard; 46,100 t normal; 47,664 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 852.17 ft / 850.00 ft x 108.00 ft x 31.00 ft (normal load) 259.74 m / 259.08 m x 32.92 m x 9.45 m Armament: 9 - 16.00" / 406 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,048.00lbs / 928.96kg shells, 1937 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (8x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1937 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread, 4 raised mounts 8 - 4.70" / 119 mm guns (4x2 guns), 51.91lbs / 23.55kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on centreline, evenly spread 16 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (2x8 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.88kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, all amidships, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns in single mounts, 1.95lbs / 0.88kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mount on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 20,622 lbs / 9,354 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 570.00 ft / 173.74 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 570.00 ft / 173.74 m 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 4.50" / 114 mm, Conning tower: 13.00" / 330 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 120,571 shp / 89,946 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,518 tons Complement: 1,572 - 2,044 Cost: £22.273 million / $89.091 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,578 tons, 5.6 % Armour: 16,664 tons, 36.1 % - Belts: 4,647 tons, 10.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,961 tons, 4.3 % - Armament: 4,051 tons, 8.8 % - Armour Deck: 5,644 tons, 12.2 % - Conning Tower: 360 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,186 tons, 6.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 19,627 tons, 42.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,045 tons, 8.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 72,969 lbs / 33,098 Kg = 35.6 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 12.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 6.7 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 17.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 64 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.73 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.28 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.567 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.87 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 33.66 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 47 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (50 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 23.64 ft / 7.21 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 79.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 188.9 % Waterplane Area: 67,795 Square feet or 6,298 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 215 lbs/sq ft or 1,048 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.17 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### The 31-knot version of the GB/CB/1937

GB/CB/1937, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1937 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 41,675 t light; 43,757 t standard; 45,700 t normal; 47,254 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 852.17 ft / 850.00 ft x 108.00 ft x 31.00 ft (normal load) 259.74 m / 259.08 m x 32.92 m x 9.45 m Armament: 9 - 16.00" / 406 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,048.00lbs / 928.96kg shells, 1937 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (8x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1937 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread, 4 raised mounts 8 - 4.70" / 119 mm guns (4x2 guns), 51.91lbs / 23.55kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on centreline, evenly spread 16 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (2x8 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.88kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, all amidships, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns in single mounts, 1.95lbs / 0.88kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mount on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 20,622 lbs / 9,354 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 570.00 ft / 173.74 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 570.00 ft / 173.74 m 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 153,523 shp / 114,528 Kw = 31.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,498 tons Complement: 1,562 - 2,031 Cost: £22.865 million / $91.461 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,578 tons, 5.6 % Armour: 15,399 tons, 33.7 % - Belts: 4,259 tons, 9.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,961 tons, 4.3 % - Armament: 3,855 tons, 8.4 % - Armour Deck: 4,993 tons, 10.9 % - Conning Tower: 330 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 4,057 tons, 8.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 19,641 tons, 43.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,025 tons, 8.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 66,100 lbs / 29,982 Kg = 32.3 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 10.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.11 Metacentric height 6.9 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 17.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 55 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.68 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.11 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.562 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.87 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 33.68 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (50 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 23.64 ft / 7.21 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 87.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 189.2 % Waterplane Area: 67,475 Square feet or 6,269 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 216 lbs/sq ft or 1,053 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.16 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, December 11, 2006

### This is the battleship in the design pair: the GB/BB/1937

GB/BB/1937, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1937 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 40,099 t light; 42,143 t standard; 43,800 t normal; 45,126 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 752.17 ft / 750.00 ft x 108.00 ft x 29.00 ft (normal load) 229.26 m / 228.60 m x 32.92 m x 8.84 m Armament: 9 - 16.00" / 406 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,048.00lbs / 928.96kg shells, 1937 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (8x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1937 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread, 4 raised mounts 8 - 4.70" / 119 mm guns (4x2 guns), 51.91lbs / 23.55kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on centreline, evenly spread 16 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (2x8 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, all amidships, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns in single mounts, 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mount on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 20,622 lbs / 9,354 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 470.00 ft / 143.26 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 96 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 470.00 ft / 143.26 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 96,022 shp / 71,632 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,982 tons Complement: 1,513 - 1,967 Cost: £21.404 million / $85.616 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,578 tons, 5.9 % Armour: 16,827 tons, 38.4 % - Belts: 4,616 tons, 10.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,513 tons, 3.5 % - Armament: 4,321 tons, 9.9 % - Armour Deck: 6,003 tons, 13.7 % - Conning Tower: 375 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 2,538 tons, 5.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 18,157 tons, 41.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,701 tons, 8.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 71,208 lbs / 32,300 Kg = 34.8 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 12.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 6.7 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 17.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.72 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.19 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.653 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.94 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 31.67 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (50 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 23.64 ft / 7.21 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 78.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 187.9 % Waterplane Area: 64,896 Square feet or 6,029 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 214 lbs/sq ft or 1,044 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.34 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### This is one of my 1980 designs: GB/CB/1937

GB/CB/1937, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1937 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 40,705 t light; 42,767 t standard; 44,700 t normal; 46,246 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 852.17 ft / 850.00 ft x 108.00 ft x 29.00 ft (normal load) 259.74 m / 259.08 m x 32.92 m x 8.84 m Armament: 9 - 16.00" / 406 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,048.00lbs / 928.96kg shells, 1937 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (8x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1937 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread, 4 raised mounts 8 - 4.70" / 119 mm guns (4x2 guns), 51.91lbs / 23.55kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on centreline, evenly spread 16 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (2x8 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on side, all amidships, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns in single mounts, 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1937 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mount on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 20,622 lbs / 9,354 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 100 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 570.00 ft / 173.74 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 570.00 ft / 173.74 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 119,919 shp / 89,459 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,479 tons Complement: 1,536 - 1,998 Cost: £22.002 million / $88.007 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,578 tons, 5.8 % Armour: 15,397 tons, 34.4 % - Belts: 4,265 tons, 9.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,835 tons, 4.1 % - Armament: 3,855 tons, 8.6 % - Armour Deck: 5,117 tons, 11.4 % - Conning Tower: 326 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 3,169 tons, 7.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 19,561 tons, 43.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,995 tons, 8.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 71,227 lbs / 32,308 Kg = 34.8 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 12.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 7.0 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 17.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.71 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.23 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.588 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.87 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 33.59 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 47 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (50 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 23.64 ft / 7.21 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 82.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 197.2 % Waterplane Area: 69,155 Square feet or 6,425 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 214 lbs/sq ft or 1,043 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.11 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, December 10, 2006

### The GB/DL/1927 design

GB/DL/1927, Great Britain Destroyer Leader laid down 1927 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 2,378 t light; 2,472 t standard; 2,690 t normal; 2,864 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 409.82 ft / 408.00 ft x 38.00 ft x 13.00 ft (normal load) 124.91 m / 124.36 m x 11.58 m x 3.96 m Armament: 8 - 4.70" / 119 mm guns (4x2 guns), 51.91lbs / 23.55kg shells, 1927 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, 1 raised mount - superfiring 1 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft gun in a deck mount with hoist on centreline amidships, 1 raised gun 12 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (3x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1927 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on centreline, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 471 lbs / 214 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 8 - 24.0" / 609.6 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 71,057 shp / 53,009 Kw = 37.50 kts Range 4,250nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 392 tons Complement: 186 - 242 Cost: £1.258 million / $5.033 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 59 tons, 2.2 % Machinery: 1,524 tons, 56.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 795 tons, 29.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 312 tons, 11.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 598 lbs / 271 Kg = 11.5 x 4.7 " / 119 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.40 Metacentric height 2.1 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.52 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.467 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.74 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.01 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 70 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (33 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 18.80 ft / 5.73 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 199.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 100.6 % Waterplane Area: 10,426 Square feet or 969 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 64 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 36 lbs/sq ft or 176 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.43 - Longitudinal: 2.30 - Overall: 0.51 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Saturday, December 09, 2006

### I wondered if a smaller large destroyer would still work

GB/DL/1921, Great Britain Destroyer Leader laid down 1921 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 1,978 t light; 2,063 t standard; 2,250 t normal; 2,400 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 385.00 ft / 385.00 ft x 37.00 ft x 13.00 ft (normal load) 117.35 m / 117.35 m x 11.28 m x 3.96 m Armament: 6 - 5.10" / 130 mm guns (3x2 guns), 66.33lbs / 30.08kg shells, 1921 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 2 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm guns in single mounts, 13.50lbs / 6.12kg shells, 1921 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (3x4 guns), 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1921 Model Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts on centreline, evenly spread, all raised mounts Weight of broadside 448 lbs / 203 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 8 - 24.0" / 609.6 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 60,010 shp / 44,768 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 4,100nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 337 tons Complement: 163 - 212 Cost: £0.731 million / $2.925 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 56 tons, 2.5 % Machinery: 1,221 tons, 54.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 701 tons, 31.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 272 tons, 12.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 521 lbs / 236 Kg = 7.9 x 5.1 " / 130 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.36 Metacentric height 1.9 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 50 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.57 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak and transom stern Block coefficient: 0.425 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.41 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 22.54 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 70 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (33 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 17.88 ft / 5.45 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 194.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 88.8 % Waterplane Area: 9,255 Square feet or 860 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 62 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 36 lbs/sq ft or 175 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.43 - Longitudinal: 2.43 - Overall: 0.51 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is cramped