Ger/CB/1935 16.5in guns, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1935 Displacement: 46,861 t light; 49,855 t standard; 52,862 t normal; 55,268 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (863.41 ft / 854.00 ft) x 118.00 ft x (30.00 / 31.13 ft) (263.17 m / 260.30 m) x 35.97 m x (9.14 / 9.49 m) Armament: 9 - 16.50" / 419 mm 50.0 cal guns - 2,380.00lbs / 1,079.55kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1935 Model 3 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 55.0 cal guns - 115.00lbs / 52.16kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1935 Model 12 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.27lbs / 14.64kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mount , 1935 Model 1 x Single mount on sides amidships 32 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 1.69lbs / 0.77kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mounts , 1935 Model 8 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 7 raised mounts Weight of broadside 23,241 lbs / 23,241 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 11.0" / 279 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 153,496 shp / 114,508 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,413 tons Complement: 1,743 - 2,266 Cost: £23.681 million / $94.724 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,356 tons, 8.2 % Armour: 17,232 tons, 32.6 % - Belts: 4,830 tons, 9.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,486 tons, 4.7 % - Armament: 3,975 tons, 7.5 % - Armour Deck: 5,515 tons, 10.4 % - Conning Tower: 425 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 4,361 tons, 8.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 22,410 tons, 42.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,001 tons, 11.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 84,131 lbs / 38,161 Kg = 37.5 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 14.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 9.0 ft / 2.7 m Roll period: 16.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.60 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.27 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.612 / 0.617 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.24 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.22 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 11.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Aft deck: 30.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarter deck: 20.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Average freeboard: 25.98 ft / 7.92 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 83.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 203.6 % Waterplane Area: 74,533 Square feet or 6,924 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 224 lbs/sq ft or 1,093 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.23 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Monday, April 30, 2007

### The Ger/CB/1935 design scales nicely for a 16.5in-gunned version

I found that the Ger/CB/1935 design scaled effortlessly to accomodate 16.5in guns. I only had to adjust the armoured length and the result already had adequate strength (at 1.0). The ship now has 9-16.5in guns and still has a 14in armour basis. This is really a fast battleship, but I have designated the family of ships as battlecruisers. Really, the American fast battleships were protected more on a battlecruiser scale, rather than on the scale of the American battleships from 1916 to 1923. The main difference was that the new ships had more deck armour. Anyway, this is the Springsharp report:

## Sunday, April 29, 2007

### An alternative design for a 16in-gunned Ger/BB/1935

There are many alternatives in the Ger/BB/1935 family of designs. One is for a narrower 16-in gunned ship. Otherwise, the ship is similar to the other, but has a somewhat longer belt that offers better coverage. This family of designs is more complete, since I have included the light AA guns. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1935 16in guns-Alternative, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1935 Displacement: 43,829 t light; 46,597 t standard; 49,467 t normal; 51,763 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (829.41 ft / 820.00 ft) x 115.00 ft x (30.00 / 31.15 ft) (252.81 m / 249.94 m) x 35.05 m x (9.14 / 9.50 m) Armament: 9 - 16.00" / 406 mm 50.0 cal guns - 2,170.00lbs / 984.30kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1935 Model 3 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 55.0 cal guns - 115.00lbs / 52.16kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1935 Model 12 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.27lbs / 14.64kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mount , 1935 Model 1 x Single mount on sides amidships 32 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 1.69lbs / 0.77kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mounts , 1935 Model 8 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 7 raised mounts Weight of broadside 21,351 lbs / 21,351 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 11.0" / 279 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 149,341 shp / 111,409 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,166 tons Complement: 1,658 - 2,156 Cost: £22.063 million / $88.252 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,060 tons, 8.2 % Armour: 16,433 tons, 33.2 % - Belts: 4,661 tons, 9.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,398 tons, 4.8 % - Armament: 3,806 tons, 7.7 % - Armour Deck: 5,161 tons, 10.4 % - Conning Tower: 406 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 4,243 tons, 8.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 20,527 tons, 41.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,638 tons, 11.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 77,822 lbs / 35,300 Kg = 38.0 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 13.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.19 Metacentric height 8.6 ft / 2.6 m Roll period: 16.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 62 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.61 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.25 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.612 / 0.617 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.13 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.64 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 11.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Aft deck: 30.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarter deck: 20.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Average freeboard: 25.98 ft / 7.92 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 84.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 200.3 % Waterplane Area: 69,746 Square feet or 6,480 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 217 lbs/sq ft or 1,060 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.30 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Saturday, April 28, 2007

### The 16in-gunned version of the Ger/CB/1935

The next step up in the family of Ger/CB/1935 designs has 16in guns. The speed is now 29 knots and the armour basis is 14in. The resulting ship works extremely well. The displacement is not excessive, either. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1935 16in guns, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1935 Displacement: 44,553 t light; 47,337 t standard; 50,235 t normal; 52,554 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (823.41 ft / 814.00 ft) x 120.00 ft x (30.00 / 31.14 ft) (250.98 m / 248.11 m) x 36.58 m x (9.14 / 9.49 m) Armament: 9 - 16.00" / 406 mm 50.0 cal guns - 2,170.00lbs / 984.30kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1935 Model 3 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 55.0 cal guns - 115.00lbs / 52.16kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1935 Model 12 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.27lbs / 14.64kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mount , 1935 Model 1 x Single mount on sides amidships 32 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 1.69lbs / 0.77kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mounts , 1935 Model 8 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 7 raised mounts Weight of broadside 21,351 lbs / 21,351 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 530.00 ft / 161.54 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 11.0" / 279 mm 530.00 ft / 161.54 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 530.00 ft / 161.54 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 151,631 shp / 113,117 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,218 tons Complement: 1,677 - 2,181 Cost: £22.238 million / $88.953 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,060 tons, 8.1 % Armour: 16,464 tons, 32.8 % - Belts: 4,607 tons, 9.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,353 tons, 4.7 % - Armament: 3,806 tons, 7.6 % - Armour Deck: 5,287 tons, 10.5 % - Conning Tower: 411 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 4,308 tons, 8.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 21,155 tons, 42.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,683 tons, 11.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 81,825 lbs / 37,115 Kg = 40.0 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 14.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.24 Metacentric height 9.7 ft / 3.0 m Roll period: 16.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.51 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.22 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.600 / 0.605 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.78 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.53 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 11.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Aft deck: 30.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarter deck: 20.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Average freeboard: 25.98 ft / 7.92 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 82.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 202.9 % Waterplane Area: 71,441 Square feet or 6,637 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 222 lbs/sq ft or 1,082 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.35 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Friday, April 27, 2007

### I had to go large with the German H44 class

To make the German H44 design study work in Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta, I had to "go large". The displacment had to be greater to achieve adequate structural strength. I got the specifications from the Wikipedia page. I used the drawing at the German Navy website. This is the Springsharp report:

H44, Germany Battleship laid down 1942 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 116,674 t light; 122,502 t standard; 141,444 t normal; 156,598 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (1,155.56 ft / 1,133.00 ft) x 169.00 ft x (41.50 / 45.21 ft) (352.21 m / 345.34 m) x 51.51 m x (12.65 / 13.78 m) Armament: 8 - 20.00" / 508 mm 50.0 cal guns - 4,250.00lbs / 1,927.77kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1942 Model 4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 5.91" / 150 mm 55.0 cal guns - 112.00lbs / 50.80kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1942 Model 6 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 16 - 4.13" / 105 mm 55.0 cal guns - 38.13lbs / 17.29kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1942 Model 8 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 8 raised mounts 16 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 1.69lbs / 0.77kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mounts , 1942 Model 8 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 8 raised mounts 40 - 0.79" / 20.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 0.27lbs / 0.12kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mounts , 1942 Model 20 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 20 raised mounts Weight of broadside 35,992 lbs / 35,992 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 15.0" / 381 mm 640.00 ft / 195.07 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 87 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 8.00" / 203 mm 640.00 ft / 195.07 m 41.50 ft / 12.65 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 15.0" / 381 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 15.0" / 381 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 13.00" / 330 mm, Conning tower: 15.00" / 381 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 289,757 shp / 216,159 Kw = 29.80 kts Range 20,000nm at 19.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 34,096 tons Complement: 3,646 - 4,740 Cost: £56.276 million / $225.104 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 6,093 tons, 4.3 % Armour: 57,458 tons, 40.6 % - Belts: 6,913 tons, 4.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 7,862 tons, 5.6 % - Armament: 7,397 tons, 5.2 % - Armour Deck: 34,409 tons, 24.3 % - Conning Tower: 877 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 7,317 tons, 5.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 47,451 tons, 33.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 24,771 tons, 17.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 365,705 lbs / 165,881 Kg = 91.4 x 20.0 " / 508 mm shells or 127.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.42 Metacentric height 20.2 ft / 6.2 m Roll period: 15.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 74 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.26 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.48 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low forecastle, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.623 / 0.633 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.70 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 33.66 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 20.00 degrees Stern overhang: 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 40.00 ft / 12.19 m, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Average freeboard: 29.80 ft / 9.08 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 48.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 216.2 % Waterplane Area: 143,075 Square feet or 13,292 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 131 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 259 lbs/sq ft or 1,266 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.00 - Longitudinal: 1.02 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, April 26, 2007

### The right prescription to "fix" the Tillman Battleship

What is needed to "fix" the Tillman Battleship design in Springsharp 3.0b1 is to increase the beam. That fixes all problems. Of course, it defeats the whole purpose, which was to produce the largest ship that could go through the Panama Canal. The recoil problem seems to be insoluable in Springsharp. This the Springsharp report with those changes:

Tillman Battleship IV-2, United States Battleship laid down 1919 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 74,154 t light; 79,212 t standard; 90,926 t normal; 100,296 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (992.32 ft / 975.00 ft) x 125.00 ft x (34.00 / 37.16 ft) (302.46 m / 297.18 m) x 38.10 m x (10.36 / 11.33 m) Armament: 15 - 18.00" / 457 mm 50.0 cal guns - 3,086.99lbs / 1,400.24kg shells, 120 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1919 Model 5 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in casemate mounts , 1919 Model 16 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 12 raised mounts 4 hull mounts in casemates- Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 48,134 lbs / 48,134 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 650.00 ft / 198.12 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 250.00 ft / 76.20 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 75.00 ft / 22.86 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 18.0" / 457 mm 650.00 ft / 198.12 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 8.00" / 203 mm 650.00 ft / 198.12 m 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 15.0" / 381 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: No fuel, Internal combustion motors, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 131,930 shp / 98,420 Kw = 25.50 kts Range 15,000nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 21,084 tons Complement: 2,617 - 3,403 Cost: £16.331 million / $65.324 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 8,303 tons, 9.1 % Armour: 32,376 tons, 35.6 % - Belts: 6,996 tons, 7.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 6,349 tons, 7.0 % - Armament: 8,658 tons, 9.5 % - Armour Deck: 9,589 tons, 10.5 % - Conning Tower: 784 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 0 tons, 0.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 35,957 tons, 39.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 16,771 tons, 18.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 199,334 lbs / 90,416 Kg = 68.4 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 50.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.21 Metacentric height 9.9 ft / 3.0 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.98 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.49 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a straight bulbous bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.768 / 0.775 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.80 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 31.22 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 41 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 35 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 30.00 degrees Stern overhang: -5.00 ft / -1.52 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Average freeboard: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 58.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 226.4 % Waterplane Area: 103,665 Square feet or 9,631 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 115 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 258 lbs/sq ft or 1,260 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.99 - Longitudinal: 1.15 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### When I get home, I will try using heavier machinery and a drastic lowering of freeboard

I hope that by getting more low weight and by using a much lower freeboard that I might be able to get make the recoil forces for the Tillman Battleship be accceptable. Right now, the design is unworkable, due to the recoil issue.

### As I feared, the big issue with the Tillman Battleship IV-2 is recoil

If you don't mind too much using very lightweight machinery, I could make the Tillman Battleship IV-2 "work", except for the recoil issue. I am not sure how to deal with that. Normally, I would increase the beam, but that would be "cheating", as the whole premise was to fit through the Panama Canal. I accepted a somewhat greater draft than might have been previously acceptable, as that greatly helps. This ship is 975ft x 108ft x 35ft, with 15-18in/50 BLR and 16-6in/50 QF guns. The maxmimum belt is 18in and the deck is 5in. I used the Wells Brothers' Tillman Battleship page. Too bad that their image is just not quite good enough to read the small writing. This is the Springsharp report:

Tillman Battleship IV-2, United States Battleship laid down 1919 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 69,149 t light; 73,207 t standard; 79,502 t normal; 84,537 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (990.59 ft / 975.00 ft) x 108.00 ft x (35.00 / 36.99 ft) (301.93 m / 297.18 m) x 32.92 m x (10.67 / 11.27 m) Armament: 15 - 18.00" / 457 mm 50.0 cal guns - 3,086.99lbs / 1,400.24kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1919 Model 5 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 2 raised mounts - superfiring Main guns limited to end-on fire 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in casemate mounts , 1919 Model 16 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 12 raised mounts 4 hull mounts in casemates- Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 48,134 lbs / 48,134 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 650.00 ft / 198.12 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 250.00 ft / 76.20 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 75.00 ft / 22.86 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 18.0" / 457 mm 650.00 ft / 198.12 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 5.00" / 127 mm 650.00 ft / 198.12 m 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 15.0" / 381 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Electric cruising motors plus geared drives, 4 shafts, 118,088 shp / 88,094 Kw = 25.50 kts Range 14,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 11,331 tons Complement: 2,366 - 3,077 Cost: £16.948 million / $67.794 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 8,303 tons, 10.4 % Armour: 27,864 tons, 35.0 % - Belts: 6,895 tons, 8.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 3,968 tons, 5.0 % - Armament: 8,091 tons, 10.2 % - Armour Deck: 8,193 tons, 10.3 % - Conning Tower: 717 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 3,273 tons, 4.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 32,191 tons, 40.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 10,353 tons, 13.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 108,574 lbs / 49,248 Kg = 37.2 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 17.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.01 Metacentric height 5.8 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 18.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 1.71 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.27 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a straight bulbous bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.755 / 0.760 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.03 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 31.22 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 40 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 40 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 30.00 degrees Stern overhang: -5.00 ft / -1.52 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Average freeboard: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 84.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 192.5 % Waterplane Area: 88,573 Square feet or 8,229 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 98 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 259 lbs/sq ft or 1,263 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.02 - Longitudinal: 0.99 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### The Tillman Battleships

A reader called my attention to this page on the Tillman battleships, in the Wells Brothers' Battleship Index. I will explore the design in Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta to see if there is a way to make it work.

## Wednesday, April 25, 2007

### The 15in-gunned version of the Ger/CB/1935 design

I am going to try all the variations of my designs from early 1999. This is the 15in-gunned version of the Ger/CB/1935 family of designs. The ship has 9-15in/50 guns, with the same secondary armament and AA armament. The speed is a rather modest 28 knots. While the deck armour seems light, this IS a battlecruiser, after all. My view is that in the 1930's, the line between fast battleship and battlecruiser became blurred. For example, the American North Carolina class were very lightly protected and lightly built. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1935 15in guns, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1935 Displacement: 37,388 t light; 39,725 t standard; 42,169 t normal; 44,124 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (801.41 ft / 792.00 ft) x 108.00 ft x (29.00 / 30.10 ft) (244.27 m / 241.40 m) x 32.92 m x (8.84 / 9.17 m) Armament: 9 - 15.00" / 381 mm 50.0 cal guns - 1,790.00lbs / 811.93kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1935 Model 3 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 55.0 cal guns - 115.00lbs / 52.16kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1935 Model 12 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.27lbs / 14.64kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mount , 1935 Model 1 x Single mount on sides amidships 32 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 1.69lbs / 0.77kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mounts , 1935 Model 8 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 7 raised mounts Weight of broadside 17,931 lbs / 17,931 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 9.00" / 229 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 97 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 13.00" / 330 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 118,048 shp / 88,064 Kw = 28.00 kts Range 8,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,399 tons Complement: 1,470 - 1,912 Cost: £18.473 million / $73.892 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,510 tons, 8.3 % Armour: 14,121 tons, 33.5 % - Belts: 3,811 tons, 9.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,146 tons, 5.1 % - Armament: 3,217 tons, 7.6 % - Armour Deck: 4,608 tons, 10.9 % - Conning Tower: 339 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,354 tons, 8.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,710 tons, 42.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,782 tons, 11.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 69,899 lbs / 31,706 Kg = 41.4 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 12.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 7.5 ft / 2.3 m Roll period: 16.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 70 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.70 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.39 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.595 / 0.600 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.33 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.14 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 48 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 11.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Aft deck: 30.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarter deck: 20.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Average freeboard: 25.98 ft / 7.92 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 82.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 201.7 % Waterplane Area: 62,268 Square feet or 5,785 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 110 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 205 lbs/sq ft or 1,002 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.37 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Tuesday, April 24, 2007

### This variant type, the Ger/CB/1935 family, this version with 12in guns

There is this alternative family of designs, also dating from early 1999, that is called the Ger/CB/1935. This is the version with 9-12in/50 BLR, 12-6in QF, 12-4in AA, and 32-37mm AA guns. I am not trying to be realistic, as I like to use the English caliber guns, rather than the more usual metric (5.9in and 4.1in). This is the Springsharp design:

Ger/CB/1935, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1935 Displacement: 27,103 t light; 28,552 t standard; 30,531 t normal; 32,114 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (750.22 ft / 741.00 ft) x 98.00 ft x (27.00 / 28.10 ft) (228.67 m / 225.86 m) x 29.87 m x (8.23 / 8.56 m) Armament: 9 - 12.00" / 305 mm 50.0 cal guns - 915.00lbs / 415.04kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1935 Model 3 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 55.0 cal guns - 115.00lbs / 52.16kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1935 Model 12 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.27lbs / 14.64kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mount , 1935 Model 1 x Single mount on sides amidships 32 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 1.69lbs / 0.77kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mounts , 1935 Model 8 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 7 raised mounts Weight of broadside 10,056 lbs / 10,056 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 455.00 ft / 138.68 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 455.00 ft / 138.68 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 94 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 455.00 ft / 138.68 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 11.00" / 279 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 96,485 shp / 71,978 Kw = 28.00 kts Range 8,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,562 tons Complement: 1,154 - 1,501 Cost: £12.071 million / $48.286 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,171 tons, 7.1 % Armour: 10,782 tons, 35.3 % - Belts: 2,997 tons, 9.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,818 tons, 6.0 % - Armament: 2,003 tons, 6.6 % - Armour Deck: 3,733 tons, 12.2 % - Conning Tower: 231 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 2,741 tons, 9.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 12,343 tons, 40.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,428 tons, 11.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 57,770 lbs / 26,204 Kg = 66.9 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 10.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.19 Metacentric height 6.7 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 16.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 75 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.56 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.49 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.545 / 0.551 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.56 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.22 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 48 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 11.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Aft deck: 30.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Quarter deck: 20.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 24.98 ft / 7.61 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 77.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 199.8 % Waterplane Area: 50,443 Square feet or 4,686 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 117 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 172 lbs/sq ft or 838 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.42 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Monday, April 23, 2007

### Another try at a British fast battleship in 1906

I am still very interested in the idea of a British fast battleship in 1906. This is the sort of ship that William Hovgaard was advocating. I am using coal-fired boilers, with some oil, which seems reasonable for the time. The ship has an 11in armour basis with a 3in deck and 2in torpedo bulkhead. There are 10-12in/50 BLR and 16-4in QF guns. The speed is a fast 25.5 knots. I am getting an error message from Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta that I do not know how to correct, as having geared turbines is not allowed and is not reasonable. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1906 Fast Battleship, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1906 (Engine 1909) Displacement: 21,719 t light; 22,694 t standard; 25,221 t normal; 27,242 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (604.00 ft / 596.00 ft) x 84.00 ft x (29.00 / 30.92 ft) (184.10 m / 181.66 m) x 25.60 m x (8.84 / 9.42 m) Armament: 10 - 12.00" / 305 mm 50.0 cal guns - 850.00lbs / 385.55kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1906 Model 3 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, majority aft 1 raised mount aft - superfiring 2 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 33.88lbs / 15.37kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in casemate mounts , 1906 Model 8 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft 8 raised mounts 8 x Single mounts on sides, aft deck forward 8 raised mounts Weight of broadside 9,042 lbs / 9,042 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 395.00 ft / 120.40 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 170.00 ft / 51.82 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m 31.00 ft / 9.45 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 395.00 ft / 120.40 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 395.00 ft / 120.40 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 11.00" / 279 mm Machinery: Coal and oil fired boilers, steam turbines, ERROR: Revise drives, 4 shafts, 65,610 shp / 48,945 Kw = 25.50 kts Range 5,600nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,549 tons (92% coal) Complement: 999 - 1,300 Cost: £2.194 million / $8.774 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,914 tons, 7.6 % Armour: 8,388 tons, 33.3 % - Belts: 2,964 tons, 11.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 848 tons, 3.4 % - Armament: 2,325 tons, 9.2 % - Armour Deck: 2,047 tons, 8.1 % - Conning Tower: 204 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,254 tons, 12.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,913 tons, 35.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,502 tons, 13.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 34,366 lbs / 15,588 Kg = 39.8 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 5.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.09 Metacentric height 4.5 ft / 1.4 m Roll period: 16.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 66 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.85 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.32 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.608 / 0.616 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.41 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -3.00 ft / -0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forward deck: 46.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Aft deck: 19.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 23.87 ft / 7.28 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 100.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 168.9 % Waterplane Area: 36,890 Square feet or 3,427 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 160 lbs/sq ft or 779 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.75 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, April 22, 2007

### The 11in-gunned version of the Ger/CB/1937 family of designs

The version of the Ger/CB/1937 is something like the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, although also different. My design is smaller, for one thing. The photograph still gives a decent idea of what the ship looked like:

The ship has 9-11in/50 BLR, 12-6in QF, 12-4in AA guns and an 11in armour basis with a 4in deck. My original lacks a light AA armament, and I have not added one, although it would be warranted. The speed is a respectable 31 knots:

Ger/CB/1937 a1 11in guns, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1937 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 25,300 t light; 26,333 t standard; 28,250 t normal; 29,783 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (695.64 ft / 689.00 ft) x 89.00 ft x (29.00 / 30.25 ft) (212.03 m / 210.01 m) x 27.13 m x (8.84 / 9.22 m) Armament: 9 - 11.00" / 279 mm 50.0 cal guns - 710.00lbs / 322.05kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1937 Model 3 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1937 Model 6 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck aft 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 33.88lbs / 15.37kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1937 Model 6 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck aft 6 raised mounts Weight of broadside 8,169 lbs / 8,169 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 104 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 11.00" / 279 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 140,922 shp / 105,128 Kw = 31.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 16.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,450 tons Complement: 1,089 - 1,416 Cost: £12.288 million / $49.150 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,729 tons, 6.1 % Armour: 9,774 tons, 34.6 % - Belts: 3,000 tons, 10.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 998 tons, 3.5 % - Armament: 2,371 tons, 8.4 % - Armour Deck: 3,185 tons, 11.3 % - Conning Tower: 220 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,724 tons, 13.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,795 tons, 38.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,949 tons, 10.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 43,353 lbs / 19,664 Kg = 65.1 x 11.0 " / 279 mm shells or 6.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 4.9 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 16.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.62 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.14 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.556 / 0.562 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.74 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.25 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 8.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Average freeboard: 25.53 ft / 7.78 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 90.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 185.9 % Waterplane Area: 43,037 Square feet or 3,998 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 165 lbs/sq ft or 807 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.63 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, April 21, 2007

### The Ger/CB/1937 15in guns version

The 15in-gunned version of the Ger/CB/1937 has a quick-and-dirty photo to go with the design:

This is in the family of designs contructed around the Ger/CB/1937 drawing and specifications, dating from February 1999. My opinion of the design is that the dimensions are too small, for what I am trying to do with the design, especially since I am trying for a higher speed than the original 28 knots. This is probably a much better ship than anything that the British or Germans were able to complete during World War II. I must admit that they would have added light AA guns and additional equipment:

Ger/CB/1937 a1 15in guns, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1937 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 40,547 t light; 42,408 t standard; 45,377 t normal; 47,751 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (791.30 ft / 785.00 ft) x 107.00 ft x (29.00 / 30.29 ft) (241.19 m / 239.27 m) x 32.61 m x (8.84 / 9.23 m) Armament: 9 - 15.00" / 381 mm 50.0 cal guns - 1,790.00lbs / 811.93kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1937 Model 3 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1937 Model 6 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck aft 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 33.88lbs / 15.37kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1937 Model 6 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck aft 6 raised mounts Weight of broadside 17,889 lbs / 17,889 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 515.00 ft / 156.97 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 9.00" / 229 mm 515.00 ft / 156.97 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 515.00 ft / 156.97 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 6.00" / 152 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 166,426 shp / 124,154 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 16.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,343 tons Complement: 1,553 - 2,020 Cost: £21.208 million / $84.831 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,412 tons, 7.5 % Armour: 15,831 tons, 34.9 % - Belts: 3,733 tons, 8.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,105 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 3,508 tons, 7.7 % - Armour Deck: 7,155 tons, 15.8 % - Conning Tower: 329 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 4,398 tons, 9.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 18,112 tons, 39.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,829 tons, 10.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 72,906 lbs / 33,069 Kg = 43.2 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 10.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 7.3 ft / 2.2 m Roll period: 16.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 58 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.66 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.15 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.652 / 0.657 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.34 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.02 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 7.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 26.61 ft / 8.11 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 84.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 203.1 % Waterplane Area: 64,463 Square feet or 5,989 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 203 lbs/sq ft or 992 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.36 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, April 20, 2007

### A Super Fast Battlecruiser variant

I had this design, but I had forgotten to use a transom stern. Having the small transom, in typical British 1921 style, allowed me to improve the overall qualities and decrease displacement. The GB/CB/1921 Super Fast carried 4-17in/45 BLR and 12-5.5in QF guns. The lower belt is 8in and the deck is 3in. The top speed is 40 knots and the ship has a range of 6,500nm at 16 knots. This is a photo that I struggled to produce using a chisle and hammer, which is all I have to work with in a locked down environment, and it shows (you should be able to click on it to get a larger photo):
This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1921 Super Fast, Great Britain Light Battlecruiser laid down 1921 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 34,937 t light; 36,283 t standard; 38,265 t normal; 39,851 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (899.34 ft / 894.00 ft) x 97.00 ft x (33.00 / 33.95 ft) (274.12 m / 272.49 m) x 29.57 m x (10.06 / 10.35 m) Armament: 4 - 17.00" / 432 mm 45.0 cal guns - 2,480.00lbs / 1,124.91kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1921 Model 1 x Twin mount on centreline, forward deck forward 1 x Twin mount on centreline, forward deck aft 12 - 5.50" / 140 mm 50.0 cal guns - 85.00lbs / 38.56kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1921 Model 12 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft Weight of broadside 10,940 lbs / 10,940 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 490.00 ft / 149.35 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 5.00" / 127 mm 490.00 ft / 149.35 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 84 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 490.00 ft / 149.35 m 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 6 shafts, 343,077 shp / 255,935 Kw = 40.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 16.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,568 tons Complement: 1,367 - 1,778 Cost: £8.977 million / $35.910 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,883 tons, 4.9 % Armour: 7,843 tons, 20.5 % - Belts: 2,029 tons, 5.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 897 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 1,482 tons, 3.9 % - Armour Deck: 3,239 tons, 8.5 % - Conning Tower: 196 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 9,067 tons, 23.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 16,796 tons, 43.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,328 tons, 8.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 45,577 lbs / 20,673 Kg = 18.6 x 17.0 " / 432 mm shells or 4.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 6.2 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 16.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.59 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a normal bow and small transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.468 / 0.474 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.22 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 34.48 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 8.00 degrees Stern overhang: -3.00 ft / -0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 25.00 %, 38.00 ft / 11.58 m, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forward deck: 35.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Aft deck: 20.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Quarter deck: 20.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Average freeboard: 29.93 ft / 9.12 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 127.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 239.1 % Waterplane Area: 58,358 Square feet or 5,422 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 186 lbs/sq ft or 907 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.61 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta

One nice feature of Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta is that it does not have to be "installed" and have Windows registry entries. That allows me to run it from a flash drive. My customer has really tightened up on what can be on PCs at work, and they even prohibit Google and Yahoo tool bars in IE6. Since I can carry everything I want with me on four flash drives, totalling 7GB, I can have all my photographs of 17th Century Dutch lists and warship data from the Nationaal Archief, and my photoart pieces of imaginery warships, and not have that on my work PC.

## Thursday, April 19, 2007

### Super Lion, with the "Lion" look

A prominent member of Wesworld suggested to me that I should have my Super Lion look like the Lion of 1909. Since Admiral Fisher had recommended to Winston Churchill that the Super Lion have 10-15in guns, a 30 knot speed, and limited armour, I have used those in my Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta design. I wanted to use lighter weight machinery, so I needed to use geared turbines, because of what I consider to be a bug in the Springsharp Beta. I have one photo of the class that has that look to it:

This is the Springsharp report:

Super Lion (Lion look), Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1912 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 36,415 t light; 38,346 t standard; 42,707 t normal; 46,195 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (819.00 ft / 812.00 ft) x 104.00 ft x (30.00 / 32.00 ft) (249.63 m / 247.50 m) x 31.70 m x (9.14 / 9.75 m) Armament: 10 - 15.00" / 381 mm 42.0 cal guns - 1,920.00lbs / 870.90kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1912 Model 4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 2 raised mounts - superfiring 1 x Twin mount on centreline, aft deck forward 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in casemate mounts , 1912 Model 14 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 14 hull mounts in casemates- Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 20,600 lbs / 20,600 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 515.00 ft / 156.97 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 290.00 ft / 88.39 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 7.00 ft / 2.13 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 98 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 515.00 ft / 156.97 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 3.50" / 89 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 152,507 shp / 113,770 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 7,849 tons Complement: 1,485 - 1,931 Cost: £3.565 million / $14.260 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,838 tons, 6.6 % Armour: 11,110 tons, 26.0 % - Belts: 2,813 tons, 6.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,143 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 2,981 tons, 7.0 % - Armour Deck: 3,962 tons, 9.3 % - Conning Tower: 211 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 5,590 tons, 13.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,920 tons, 42.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,291 tons, 14.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 68,047 lbs / 30,866 Kg = 40.3 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 9.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 7.5 ft / 2.3 m Roll period: 16.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 65 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.92 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.29 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.590 / 0.598 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.81 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -4.00 degrees Stern overhang: -3.00 ft / -0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Aft deck: 15.00 %, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Quarter deck: 35.00 %, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 26.79 ft / 8.17 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 93.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 227.6 % Waterplane Area: 61,189 Square feet or 5,685 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 117 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 205 lbs/sq ft or 1,000 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.37 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Wednesday, April 18, 2007

### A reader drew the "Fujimoto Dream Battleship" to my attention

I received an email with images and data for the "Fujimoto Dream Battleship" last night. As specified, the design is totally unworkable. In order to achieve their specifications, 12-20in BLR, 16-6.1in QF, 18-5in DP guns, 16in belt, 11in deck, 30 knot speed, 12,000nm range at 16 knots, I had to go "BIG" (Very BIG). This page describes the original specifications. The "Never Were" catalog has the pictures. The specifications are extremely unworkable, but I was able to at least get a valid Springsharp design in 3.0b1 Beta that had not obvious flaws, other than the size and deep draft of 37ft:

Fujimoto "Dream Battleship", Japan Battleship laid down 1934 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 163,882 t light; 172,036 t standard; 182,175 t normal; 190,286 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (1,361.18 ft / 1,350.00 ft) x 185.00 ft x (37.00 / 38.37 ft) (414.89 m / 411.48 m) x 56.39 m x (11.28 / 11.70 m) Armament: 12 - 20.00" / 508 mm 50.0 cal guns - 4,250.00lbs / 1,927.77kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1934 Model 2 x Quad mounts on centreline, forward deck forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 1 x Quad mount on centreline, forward evenly spread 16 - 6.10" / 155 mm 55.0 cal guns - 122.64lbs / 55.63kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1934 Model 2 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck forward 6 x Twin mounts on sides, aft deck forward 2 raised mounts - superfiring 18 - 5.00" / 127 mm 50.0 cal guns - 65.00lbs / 29.48kg shells, 150 per gun Dual purpose guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1934 Model 8 x Twin mounts on sides, aft deck forward 4 raised mounts - superfiring 1 x Twin mount on centreline, aft deck forward 1 raised mount Weight of broadside 54,132 lbs / 54,132 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 16.0" / 406 mm 515.00 ft / 156.97 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 59 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 8.00" / 203 mm 515.00 ft / 156.97 m 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 16.0" / 406 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 16.0" / 406 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 2.00" / 51 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 11.00" / 279 mm, Conning tower: 16.00" / 406 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 6 shafts, 314,447 shp / 234,578 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 16.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 18,249 tons Complement: 4,408 - 5,731 Cost: £61.417 million / $245.668 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 9,166 tons, 5.0 % Armour: 63,388 tons, 34.8 % - Belts: 6,471 tons, 3.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 5,488 tons, 3.0 % - Armament: 8,168 tons, 4.5 % - Armour Deck: 42,154 tons, 23.1 % - Conning Tower: 1,108 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 8,310 tons, 4.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 84,304 tons, 46.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 18,293 tons, 10.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 1,200 tons, 0.7 % - Hull below water: 1,200 tons Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 501,260 lbs / 227,368 Kg = 125.3 x 20.0 " / 508 mm shells or 155.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.44 Metacentric height 23.7 ft / 7.2 m Roll period: 15.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.26 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.21 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise aft of midbreak, low quarterdeck , a normal bow and small transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.690 / 0.695 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.30 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 42.17 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 39 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 16.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 39.00 ft / 11.89 m, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forward deck: 17.00 %, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Aft deck: 46.00 %, 34.00 ft / 10.36 m, 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Quarter deck: 17.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 31.20 ft / 9.51 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 50.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 292.3 % Waterplane Area: 207,143 Square feet or 19,244 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 135 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 344 lbs/sq ft or 1,681 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.23 - Longitudinal: 0.93 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Tuesday, April 17, 2007

### The 14in gunned version of the Ger/CB/1937

I have a large family of designs centered around my goofy freehand drawing from 8 years ago:

The 14in gunned version is a bit larger than the version with 12in guns. The dimensions are now 754ft x 104ft x 28ft. The other specs are the same, except that the main armament has 14in/50 guns. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1937 a1 14in guns, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1937 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 34,413 t light; 35,970 t standard; 37,765 t normal; 39,201 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (760.05 ft / 754.00 ft) x 104.00 ft x (28.00 / 28.87 ft) (231.66 m / 229.82 m) x 31.70 m x (8.53 / 8.80 m) Armament: 9 - 14.00" / 356 mm 50.0 cal guns - 1,452.45lbs / 658.82kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1937 Model 3 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1937 Model 6 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck aft 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 33.88lbs / 15.37kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1937 Model 6 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck aft 6 raised mounts Weight of broadside 14,851 lbs / 14,851 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 485.00 ft / 147.83 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 485.00 ft / 147.83 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 99 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 485.00 ft / 147.83 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 11.00" / 279 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 168,751 shp / 125,888 Kw = 31.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,231 tons Complement: 1,353 - 1,760 Cost: £18.388 million / $73.550 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,914 tons, 7.7 % Armour: 12,620 tons, 33.4 % - Belts: 3,189 tons, 8.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,005 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 2,844 tons, 7.5 % - Armour Deck: 5,315 tons, 14.1 % - Conning Tower: 267 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 4,460 tons, 11.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 15,497 tons, 41.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,352 tons, 8.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 55,343 lbs / 25,103 Kg = 40.3 x 14.0 " / 356 mm shells or 8.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 7.2 ft / 2.2 m Roll period: 16.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.55 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.602 / 0.606 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.25 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.46 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 7.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 24.61 ft / 7.50 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 93.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 191.7 % Waterplane Area: 57,459 Square feet or 5,338 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 195 lbs/sq ft or 954 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.33 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, April 16, 2007

### I have this smaller Super Lion design

The "Red Book" has a smaller, 750ft, Super Lion design:

I did a Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta design with those specifications (Springsharp forced me to use geared turbines to remove an error):

GB/CB/1912 compact Super Lion, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1912 (Engine 1918) Displacement: 31,995 t light; 33,679 t standard; 36,229 t normal; 38,269 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (757.00 ft / 750.00 ft) x 100.00 ft x (29.00 / 30.32 ft) (230.73 m / 228.60 m) x 30.48 m x (8.84 / 9.24 m) Armament: 10 - 15.00" / 381 mm 42.0 cal guns - 1,920.00lbs / 870.90kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1912 Model 4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 2 raised mounts - superfiring 1 x Twin mount on centreline, aft deck forward Weight of broadside 19,200 lbs / 19,200 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 510.00 ft / 155.45 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 6.00" / 152 mm 510.00 ft / 155.45 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 105 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 510.00 ft / 155.45 m 28.90 ft / 8.81 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, ERROR: Revise drives, 4 shafts, 142,096 shp / 106,004 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,590 tons Complement: 1,312 - 1,706 Cost: £3.261 million / $13.045 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,535 tons, 7.0 % Armour: 9,117 tons, 25.2 % - Belts: 2,433 tons, 6.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 818 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 2,681 tons, 7.4 % - Armour Deck: 2,996 tons, 8.3 % - Conning Tower: 189 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 5,126 tons, 14.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 16,057 tons, 44.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,234 tons, 11.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 52,128 lbs / 23,645 Kg = 30.9 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 6.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.19 Metacentric height 6.9 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.96 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.17 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.583 / 0.589 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.50 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.39 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 44 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 25.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Aft deck: 12.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Quarter deck: 33.00 %, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 25.49 ft / 7.77 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 102.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 214.4 % Waterplane Area: 53,988 Square feet or 5,016 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 110 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 208 lbs/sq ft or 1,016 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.51 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, April 15, 2007

### I tried the 12in version of the Ger/CB/1937 in Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta

I have several families of designs that use the same freehand drawing that I did in early 1999. One is what I am calling, for lack of a better name, the Ger/CB/1937. This is the 12in gunned version of that family. I made a Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta design. This is the drawing:

This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1937 a1 12in guns, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1937 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 29,049 t light; 30,246 t standard; 31,840 t normal; 33,115 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (721.05 ft / 715.00 ft) x 98.00 ft x (28.00 / 28.90 ft) (219.78 m / 217.93 m) x 29.87 m x (8.53 / 8.81 m) Armament: 9 - 12.00" / 305 mm 50.0 cal guns - 915.00lbs / 415.04kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1937 Model 3 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1937 Model 6 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck aft 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 33.88lbs / 15.37kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1937 Model 6 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck aft 6 raised mounts Weight of broadside 10,014 lbs / 10,014 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 470.00 ft / 143.26 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 470.00 ft / 143.26 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 470.00 ft / 143.26 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 11.00" / 279 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 152,164 shp / 113,514 Kw = 31.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,870 tons Complement: 1,191 - 1,549 Cost: £14.297 million / $57.190 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,073 tons, 6.5 % Armour: 11,287 tons, 35.4 % - Belts: 3,067 tons, 9.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 974 tons, 3.1 % - Armament: 2,407 tons, 7.6 % - Armour Deck: 4,600 tons, 14.4 % - Conning Tower: 238 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 4,021 tons, 12.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 12,501 tons, 39.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,791 tons, 8.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 49,978 lbs / 22,670 Kg = 57.8 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 7.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 6.5 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 16.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.48 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.08 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.568 / 0.572 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.30 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.74 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 7.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 24.61 ft / 7.50 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 89.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 188.4 % Waterplane Area: 49,734 Square feet or 4,620 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 176 lbs/sq ft or 861 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.46 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, April 14, 2007

### An anchronistic Southampton light cruiser

In 1999, I drew a "not to scale", freehand anachronistic version of the British light cruiser Southampton. This was the original drawing:
I thought that would make a good candidate for a Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta design. This is the Springsharp report:

Southampton, anachronistic, Great Britain Light Cruiser laid down 1914 (Engine 1918) Displacement: 5,028 t light; 5,231 t standard; 5,733 t normal; 6,135 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (458.84 ft / 454.00 ft) x 50.00 ft x (17.00 / 17.88 ft) (139.85 m / 138.38 m) x 15.24 m x (5.18 / 5.45 m) Armament: 9 - 6.00" / 152 mm 45.0 cal guns - 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1914 Model 3 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 2 raised mounts - superfiring 4 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mounts , 1914 Model 2 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck aft 20 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm 45.0 cal guns - 2.00lbs / 0.91kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mounts , 1914 Model 4 x 2 row quad mounts on sides, evenly spread 4 raised mounts 1 x 2 row quad mount on centreline, aft deck aft Weight of broadside 1,068 lbs / 1,068 kg 4 - 21.0" / 533 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 300.00 ft / 91.44 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 22,139 shp / 16,516 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 4,800nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 904 tons Complement: 329 - 428 Cost: £0.495 million / $1.981 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 253 tons, 4.4 % Armour: 1,720 tons, 30.0 % - Belts: 805 tons, 14.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 295 tons, 5.1 % - Armour Deck: 593 tons, 10.3 % - Conning Tower: 28 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 799 tons, 13.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,389 tons, 41.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 706 tons, 12.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 11,307 lbs / 5,129 Kg = 104.7 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 2.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.01 Metacentric height 1.8 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 15.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 85 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.87 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.70 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and small transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.520 / 0.529 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.08 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.44 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 6.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Aft deck: 30.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Quarter deck: 20.00 %, 16.00 ft / 4.88 m, 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 18.93 ft / 5.77 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 62.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 148.8 % Waterplane Area: 16,027 Square feet or 1,489 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 134 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 88 lbs/sq ft or 432 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.25 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Friday, April 13, 2007

### A Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta version of the Ger/CBL/1915 Mod.A design

The Ger/CBL/1915 Mod.A design is a "Cruiser Killer". I had designed the ship in the early 1970's to see what might be done for extreme speed. The armament is rather like an 1890's fast Elswick cruiser, except that the main armament is in a turret, rather than some other mount. The ship is designed to run up on lesser ships, hammer them with a quick, close range shot or two from the 12in guns and sink or disable them. This is a photo of one of the ships:

I was able to get an acceptable design with very lightweight machinery and an increased draft. I really like the facility in Springsharp 3.0b1 to be able to see the hull profile after you specifiy the freeboard, in detail. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CBL/1915 Mod.A, Germany Light Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 21,642 t light; 22,306 t standard; 23,654 t normal; 24,733 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (804.30 ft / 800.00 ft) x 80.00 ft x (24.00 / 24.85 ft) (245.15 m / 243.84 m) x 24.38 m x (7.32 / 7.58 m) Armament: 2 - 12.00" / 305 mm 50.0 cal guns - 910.00lbs / 412.77kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mount , 1915 Model 1 x Twin mount on centreline, forward deck centre 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1915 Model 12 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread Weight of broadside 3,020 lbs / 3,020 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 620.00 ft / 188.98 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 119 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 6 shafts, 321,334 shp / 239,715 Kw = 40.00 kts Range 4,500nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,427 tons Complement: 953 - 1,239 Cost: £3.240 million / $12.959 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 766 tons, 3.2 % Armour: 3,302 tons, 14.0 % - Belts: 1,209 tons, 5.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 351 tons, 1.5 % - Armour Deck: 1,636 tons, 6.9 % - Conning Tower: 107 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 8,114 tons, 34.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,828 tons, 41.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,013 tons, 8.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 22,280 lbs / 10,106 Kg = 25.8 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 1.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.24 Metacentric height 5.3 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 14.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.31 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.539 / 0.544 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 61 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 7.00 degrees Stern overhang: -3.00 ft / -0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Aft deck: 17.00 %, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Quarter deck: 33.00 %, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 27.82 ft / 8.48 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 123.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 264.7 % Waterplane Area: 44,207 Square feet or 4,107 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 140 lbs/sq ft or 681 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.46 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Thursday, April 12, 2007

### A very fast Ger/CB/1911 design

From the beginning, the Ger/CB/1911 design was intended to have very lightweight machinery (the beginning being 1971). This was designed to sacrifice armament and protection for speed. Springsharp 3.0b1 forced me to use geared turbines to get rid of an error message, probably due to the date of the machinery. The date was set late so that the machinery would be lightweight. This was my last attempt at a photograph of a Ger/CB/1911 ship:

This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1911, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1911 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 30,510 t light; 31,548 t standard; 34,457 t normal; 36,784 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (753.00 ft / 750.00 ft) x 100.00 ft x (30.00 / 31.58 ft) (229.51 m / 228.60 m) x 30.48 m x (9.14 / 9.62 m) Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm 50.0 cal guns - 910.00lbs / 412.77kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1911 Model 2 x Triple mounts on centreline, forward deck forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1911 Model 8 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 6,375 lbs / 6,375 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 82 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 282,829 shp / 210,990 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,236 tons Complement: 1,263 - 1,643 Cost: £2.831 million / $11.322 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,354 tons, 3.9 % Armour: 8,751 tons, 25.4 % - Belts: 1,822 tons, 5.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 888 tons, 2.6 % - Armament: 1,080 tons, 3.1 % - Armour Deck: 4,779 tons, 13.9 % - Conning Tower: 183 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 7,839 tons, 22.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 13,128 tons, 38.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,947 tons, 11.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 48,548 lbs / 22,021 Kg = 56.2 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 5.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.28 Metacentric height 7.8 ft / 2.4 m Roll period: 15.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.33 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.09 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.536 / 0.544 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.50 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.39 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 62 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 25.00 %, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Aft deck: 30.00 %, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Average freeboard: 30.58 ft / 9.32 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 114.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 231.8 % Waterplane Area: 51,661 Square feet or 4,799 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 167 lbs/sq ft or 816 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.90 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, April 11, 2007

### By lightening the Repulse, it could reach 34 knots

I did the experiment that I proposed and lightened the Repulse, along with reducing fuel and ammunition. The ship, in Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta, could make 34 knots:

Repulse, lightened, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1919) Displacement: 29,493 t light; 30,397 t standard; 31,450 t normal; 32,293 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (800.00 ft / 794.00 ft) x 89.00 ft x (29.67 / 30.28 ft) (243.84 m / 242.01 m) x 27.13 m x (9.04 / 9.23 m) Armament: 6 - 15.00" / 381 mm 42.0 cal guns - 1,920.00lbs / 870.90kg shells, 40 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1915 Model 3 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 17 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.27lbs / 14.64kg shells, 60 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1915 Model 4 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 3 x Triple mounts on centreline, aft deck forward 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 12,069 lbs / 12,069 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 490.00 ft / 149.35 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 300.00 ft / 91.44 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m 4.00 ft / 1.22 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 95 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 490.00 ft / 149.35 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm - 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 199,422 shp / 148,769 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 3,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,896 tons Complement: 1,180 - 1,535 Cost: £4.263 million / $17.054 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,642 tons, 5.2 % Armour: 7,645 tons, 24.3 % - Belts: 2,531 tons, 8.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 789 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 1,458 tons, 4.6 % - Armour Deck: 2,674 tons, 8.5 % - Conning Tower: 193 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 7,082 tons, 22.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 13,687 tons, 43.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,957 tons, 6.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 37,330 lbs / 16,933 Kg = 22.1 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 4.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.13 Metacentric height 5.3 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 16.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.92 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.525 / 0.528 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.92 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.18 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -4.00 ft / -1.22 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Aft deck: 18.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Quarter deck: 32.00 %, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 25.03 ft / 7.63 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 126.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 212.4 % Waterplane Area: 48,179 Square feet or 4,476 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 186 lbs/sq ft or 907 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.35 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

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