Ger/CB/1916, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1916 Displacement: 39,091 t light; 41,019 t standard; 44,767 t normal; 47,765 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (817.00 ft / 815.00 ft) x 102.00 ft x (31.00 / 32.71 ft) (249.02 m / 248.41 m) x 31.09 m x (9.45 / 9.97 m) Armament: 8 - 16.50" / 419 mm 45.0 cal guns - 2,265.00lbs / 1,027.39kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1916 Model 4 x Single mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm 45.0 cal guns - 108.92lbs / 49.41kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in casemate mounts , 1916 Model 14 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft Weight of broadside 19,645 lbs / 19,645 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 275.00 ft / 83.82 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Upper: 10.0" / 254 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 13.00" / 330 mm Machinery: Coal and oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 120,078 shp / 89,578 Kw = 28.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,746 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,538 - 2,000 Cost: £6.248 million / $24.991 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,765 tons, 8.4 % Armour: 14,826 tons, 33.1 % - Belts: 4,840 tons, 10.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,239 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 3,862 tons, 8.6 % - Armour Deck: 4,533 tons, 10.1 % - Conning Tower: 353 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 4,921 tons, 11.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,247 tons, 38.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,676 tons, 12.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 62,111 lbs / 28,173 Kg = 27.7 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 9.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 6.4 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 16.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.77 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.26 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.608 / 0.615 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.99 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.55 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 47 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 22.96 ft / 7.00 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 89.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 169.8 % Waterplane Area: 61,256 Square feet or 5,691 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 201 lbs/sq ft or 982 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.99 - Longitudinal: 1.09 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, May 31, 2007

### A German battlecruiser with 16.5in guns

This German battlecruiser design seems to outclass the Hood type. This ship has 8-16.5in/45 BLR and 14-6in/50 QF guns. I choose to omit the problemmatic torpedo tubes. These were a great flaw in the German approach to capital ship design in the 1905 to 1918 period. The one feature that the Hood over my ship is much higher speed. My design has coal-fired boilers and a speed of 28 knots. My design seems to be much better protected, however. A Hood class ship could outrun this ship, however. This design continues to have the "Derfflinger look". This is the Springsharp report:

## Wednesday, May 30, 2007

### The 15in-gunned version of the German battlecruiser: Ger/CB/1914

I happen to like the flush-decked German battlecruisers, so my Ger/CB/1914 design with 8-15in guns has a flush deck. I raised the freeboard forward so that the Springsharp complaint about being "wet forward" was removed. This design is very similar to the Ger/CB/1912 design from yesterday. The dimensions are larger, the main battery now consists of 8-15in/45 guns, the range is 6,200nm, but the protection is largely unchanged. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1914, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1914 Displacement: 31,753 t light; 33,294 t standard; 36,691 t normal; 39,409 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (782.00 ft / 780.00 ft) x 98.00 ft x (30.00 / 31.77 ft) (238.35 m / 237.74 m) x 29.87 m x (9.14 / 9.68 m) Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm 45.0 cal guns - 1,700.00lbs / 771.11kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1914 Model 4 x Single mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm 45.0 cal guns - 108.92lbs / 49.41kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in casemate mounts , 1914 Model 14 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft Weight of broadside 15,125 lbs / 15,125 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 260.00 ft / 79.25 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Upper: 9.00" / 229 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Coal and oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 92,071 shp / 68,685 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 6,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,115 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,325 - 1,723 Cost: £3.817 million / $15.267 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,988 tons, 8.1 % Armour: 11,973 tons, 32.6 % - Belts: 4,285 tons, 11.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,116 tons, 3.0 % - Armament: 3,298 tons, 9.0 % - Armour Deck: 2,989 tons, 8.1 % - Conning Tower: 285 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,901 tons, 10.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 14,282 tons, 38.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,938 tons, 13.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 54,269 lbs / 24,616 Kg = 32.2 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 8.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.13 Metacentric height 6.1 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 68 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.70 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.36 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.560 / 0.568 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.96 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.93 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 21.96 ft / 6.69 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 85.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 165.5 % Waterplane Area: 53,849 Square feet or 5,003 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 187 lbs/sq ft or 915 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.99 - Longitudinal: 1.13 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Tuesday, May 29, 2007

### My Ger/CB/1912 design

I tried this design for a German battlecruiser to be laid down in 1912. This is a "modified" German design, as I use English measurements, rather than metric, as I think in English. This is a 27 knot ship with coal-fired boilers and 8-13.4in/45 BLR and 14-6in/45 QF guns. Unlike the Mackensen class, this is a flush-decked design. I very nearly had this correct as entered, as I only had to tweak it to have an acceptable Springsharp design:

Ger/CB/1912, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1912 Displacement: 27,498 t light; 28,747 t standard; 31,804 t normal; 34,249 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (742.00 ft / 740.00 ft) x 95.00 ft x (29.00 / 30.75 ft) (226.16 m / 225.55 m) x 28.96 m x (8.84 / 9.37 m) Armament: 8 - 13.40" / 340 mm 45.0 cal guns - 1,215.00lbs / 551.11kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1912 Model 4 x Single mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm 45.0 cal guns - 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in casemate mounts , 1912 Model 14 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft Weight of broadside 11,232 lbs / 11,232 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 510.00 ft / 155.45 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 230.00 ft / 70.10 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Upper: 9.00" / 229 mm 510.00 ft / 155.45 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 106 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 510.00 ft / 155.45 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Coal and oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 85,401 shp / 63,709 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,503 tons (100% coal) Complement: 1,190 - 1,548 Cost: £2.464 million / $9.857 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,276 tons, 7.2 % Armour: 10,773 tons, 33.9 % - Belts: 4,130 tons, 13.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,094 tons, 3.4 % - Armament: 2,577 tons, 8.1 % - Armour Deck: 2,713 tons, 8.5 % - Conning Tower: 260 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,746 tons, 11.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,816 tons, 37.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,305 tons, 13.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 49,156 lbs / 22,297 Kg = 40.9 x 13.4 " / 340 mm shells or 8.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 6.2 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 16.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 67 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.54 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.35 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.546 / 0.555 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.79 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.20 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 46 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 21.21 ft / 6.46 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 84.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 161.6 % Waterplane Area: 48,878 Square feet or 4,541 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 115 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 171 lbs/sq ft or 833 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.15 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Monday, May 28, 2007

### The GB/CB/1915

I have a specification for a British battlecruiser that I had over-optimistically hoped could reach 40 knots (on 216,000 SHP). The reality is that the ship can make 34 knots on that power. I scaled back the speed to keep the other parameters as close as possible to what I had specified in the early 1970's. These are my original specifications:

GB/CB/1915 Length=900ft square root of the length=30 Speed = 40 knots Speed-length ratio=1.333 Armament: 6-16.5in BLR, 12-6in QF guns Power: 5.4 SHP/ton Displacement: 40,000 tons, full load 216,000 SHP Cp=0.54 Cm=0.97 Length= 900ft Beam=100ft Hull depth=58ft Draft=29.7ft deep Hull weight coefficient = 0.24 40,000 tons full load 2,500nm at 40 knots for 62.5 hours Weights 3,620 tons fuel oil 543 tons feed water consumption=0.616 tons per SHP 57.8 tons per hour 35,837 tons standard 12,528 tons hull 7,200 tons machinery 2,875 tons armament 8,975 tons protection 2,860 tons miscellaneous 1,400 tons auxiliary machineryThis is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1915, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 34,535 t light; 36,097 t standard; 39,111 t normal; 41,523 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (908.08 ft / 900.00 ft) x 100.00 ft x (30.00 / 31.40 ft) (276.78 m / 274.32 m) x 30.48 m x (9.14 / 9.57 m) Armament: 6 - 16.50" / 419 mm 45.0 cal guns - 2,265.00lbs / 1,027.39kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1915 Model 2 x Triple mounts on centreline, forward deck forward 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1915 Model 12 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 14,790 lbs / 14,790 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 85 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 29.50 ft / 8.99 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 216,239 shp / 161,314 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,427 tons Complement: 1,389 - 1,807 Cost: £5.200 million / $20.800 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,583 tons, 6.6 % Armour: 8,791 tons, 22.5 % - Belts: 2,419 tons, 6.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,092 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 1,732 tons, 4.4 % - Armour Deck: 3,349 tons, 8.6 % - Conning Tower: 199 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 6,826 tons, 17.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,239 tons, 44.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,577 tons, 11.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 50,682 lbs / 22,989 Kg = 22.6 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 6.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.19 Metacentric height 6.9 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 67 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.67 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.35 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a straight bulbous bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.507 / 0.514 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 12.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 30.00 %, 38.00 ft / 11.58 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Aft deck: 25.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 27.22 ft / 8.30 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 111.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 211.4 % Waterplane Area: 60,349 Square feet or 5,607 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 192 lbs/sq ft or 939 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.31 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### May 31st to June 1st

We are approaching the May 31st to June 1st anniversary for the Battle of Jutland, in 1916. The book that fueled my enthusiasm for that period was Donald MacIntyre's book Jutland, the Norton book from 1958. The book had a good narrative of the battle and gave ship names. The lists at the back of the book gave ship names, even for the destroyers. There were some good photographs, as well. When I discovered Jane's Fighting Ships, it was like striking gold. Of course, the ships from Jane's were from an alternate reality, as the real ships prior to the 1919 edition generally had different specifications. Still, the earlier volumes were useful and had some nice, not-to-scale diagrams. When I was able, I purchased the usual reprints. I actually prefer the earlier Jane's All the World's Fighting Ships, from 1899 to 1904. The 1904 Edition is a classic, as it has information about ships in the Russo-Japanese War.

## Sunday, May 27, 2007

### The GB/BB/1910 design study

I have a photograph, dating from the early 1970's in ballpoint pen, that shows a scale drawing of a battleship concept that I had. The ship sacrificed gun power for speed and protection. The armament was 8-12in/50 BLR and 12-6in/50 QF guns. There were no specifications, just the drawing:

The armament I listed is what I think was intended. I assume that the ship would be fairly fast. I was able to achieve 26 knots. I started to use coal-fired boilers, but I am sure that the original was intended to use all oil. I went ahead and changed the boilers to oil-fired. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1910, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1910 Displacement: 22,117 t light; 23,102 t standard; 25,200 t normal; 26,879 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (607.00 ft / 600.00 ft) x 100.00 ft x (28.00 / 29.44 ft) (185.01 m / 182.88 m) x 30.48 m x (8.53 / 8.97 m) Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm 50.0 cal guns - 914.66lbs / 414.88kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1910 Model 3 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 1 raised mount aft - superfiring 1 x Twin mount on centreline, aft deck forward 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in casemate mounts , 1910 Model 8 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck forward 8 hull mounts in casemates- Limited use in heavy seas 4 x Single mounts on sides, aft deck forward 4 hull mounts in casemates- Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 8,689 lbs / 8,689 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 365.00 ft / 111.25 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 235.00 ft / 71.63 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Upper: 9.00" / 229 mm 365.00 ft / 111.25 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 94 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 365.00 ft / 111.25 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 11.00" / 279 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, ERROR: Revise drives, 4 shafts, 70,088 shp / 52,285 Kw = 26.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,777 tons Complement: 999 - 1,300 Cost: £2.011 million / $8.042 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,705 tons, 6.8 % Armour: 8,409 tons, 33.4 % - Belts: 3,020 tons, 12.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 756 tons, 3.0 % - Armament: 2,158 tons, 8.6 % - Armour Deck: 2,270 tons, 9.0 % - Conning Tower: 204 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 2,896 tons, 11.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,823 tons, 39.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,083 tons, 12.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 46,919 lbs / 21,282 Kg = 54.3 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 7.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.28 Metacentric height 7.8 ft / 2.4 m Roll period: 15.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 69 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.43 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.37 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.525 / 0.533 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.49 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -4.00 degrees Stern overhang: -3.00 ft / -0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 28.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Aft deck: 5.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Quarter deck: 37.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 23.77 ft / 7.24 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 84.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 206.1 % Waterplane Area: 40,907 Square feet or 3,800 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 114 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 170 lbs/sq ft or 830 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.97 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Saturday, May 26, 2007

### The GB/BB/1909 design study

I made a design study for the British battleship, circa 1909, that had 6-13.5in/45 and 12-6in QF guns. Actually, the secondary armament was unspecified, and this is what I would have used, now. The design in the spirit of my friend Cliff's 12in-gunned battleships. These were the original design weights:

Machinery 2,900 tons Protection 10,496 tons Hull 12,180 tons Armament 1,104 tons Miscellaneous 2,230 tonsThese were the Springsharp design weights:

Machinery 4,023 tons Protection 9,583 tons Hull 10,184 tons Armament 1,683 tons Miscellaneous 4,241 tonsThis is the full Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1909, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1909 Displacement: 24,788 t light; 25,858 t standard; 29,029 t normal; 31,566 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (628.00 ft / 620.00 ft) x 95.00 ft x (30.00 / 32.11 ft) (191.41 m / 188.98 m) x 28.96 m x (9.14 / 9.79 m) Armament: 6 - 13.50" / 343 mm 45.0 cal guns - 1,250.00lbs / 566.99kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1909 Model 3 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1909 Model 12 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 2 raised mounts Weight of broadside 8,872 lbs / 8,872 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 10.0" / 254 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 89 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, ERROR: Revise drives, 4 shafts, 88,514 shp / 66,032 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,708 tons Complement: 1,111 - 1,445 Cost: £2.269 million / $9.077 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,683 tons, 5.8 % Armour: 9,583 tons, 33.0 % - Belts: 3,093 tons, 10.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 799 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 2,292 tons, 7.9 % - Armour Deck: 3,114 tons, 10.7 % - Conning Tower: 285 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 4,023 tons, 13.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,184 tons, 35.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,241 tons, 14.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 46,553 lbs / 21,116 Kg = 37.8 x 13.5 " / 343 mm shells or 6.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.23 Metacentric height 6.8 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 15.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 65 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.50 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.30 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.575 / 0.584 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.53 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.90 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Aft deck: 17.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Quarter deck: 33.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 23.69 ft / 7.22 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 90.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 187.6 % Waterplane Area: 42,081 Square feet or 3,909 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 167 lbs/sq ft or 813 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.85 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Friday, May 25, 2007

### A new GB/CS/1915 design

I tried a new version of my friend Cliff's GB/CS/1915 design, and it works smashingly well. The only deviations are that displacement had to be much lower and there is one inch protective deck. They are both probably improvements. The ship becomes more of a super destroyer, except one that is protected better. You may remember the photo:

The ship can make 32 knots, can cruise at 15 knots for 5,600nm, and has 4-6in QF guns and 4-21in TT with reloads. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CS/1915, Great Britain Scout Cruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 1,935 t light; 2,019 t standard; 2,288 t normal; 2,504 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (411.70 ft / 405.00 ft) x 41.00 ft x (13.00 / 13.75 ft) (125.49 m / 123.44 m) x 12.50 m x (3.96 / 4.19 m) Armament: 4 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1915 Model 4 x Single mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 457 lbs / 457 kg 4 - 21.0" / 533 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 1.00" / 25 mm, Conning tower: 1.00" / 25 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 37,268 shp / 27,802 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 485 tons Complement: 165 - 215 Cost: £0.353 million / $1.414 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 135 tons, 5.9 % Armour: 227 tons, 9.9 % - Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 36 tons, 1.6 % - Armour Deck: 187 tons, 8.2 % - Conning Tower: 4 tons, 0.2 % Machinery: 909 tons, 39.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 742 tons, 32.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 353 tons, 15.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 943 lbs / 428 Kg = 8.7 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 0.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.24 Metacentric height 2.0 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 12.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.47 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.08 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.371 / 0.384 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.88 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.12 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 60 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 10.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m, 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 17.00 ft / 5.18 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 13.00 ft / 3.96 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 15.12 ft / 4.61 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 147.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 140.2 % Waterplane Area: 10,096 Square feet or 938 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 86 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 43 lbs/sq ft or 210 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.52 - Longitudinal: 1.26 - Overall: 0.57 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Thursday, May 24, 2007

### In 2004, I wrote about a small cruiser

In 2004, I wrote about a small cruiser for use as a destroyer flagship.
I tried a design in Springsharp 3.01b1 and have an acceptable design. I may want to work at improving it, but I was able to achieve something viable. I don't have it fully developed, with an AA armament. The ship has 9-5.1in DP guns. This is the Springsharp report:

US/CL/1937, United States Scout Cruiser laid down 1937 Displacement: 2,873 t light; 2,990 t standard; 3,245 t normal; 3,449 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (444.48 ft / 439.00 ft) x 44.00 ft x (14.00 / 14.57 ft) (135.48 m / 133.81 m) x 13.41 m x (4.27 / 4.44 m) Armament: 9 - 5.10" / 130 mm 50.0 cal guns - 70.21lbs / 31.85kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1937 Model 3 x Single mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 3 raised mounts Weight of broadside 632 lbs / 632 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 320.00 ft / 97.54 m 10.00 ft / 3.05 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 112 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 1.00" / 25 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 36,242 shp / 27,036 Kw = 31.40 kts Range 4,300nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 458 tons Complement: 214 - 279 Cost: £1.680 million / $6.720 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 189 tons, 5.8 % Armour: 531 tons, 16.4 % - Belts: 261 tons, 8.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 21 tons, 0.6 % - Armour Deck: 231 tons, 7.1 % - Conning Tower: 19 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 1,004 tons, 31.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,258 tons, 38.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 372 tons, 11.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 2,616 lbs / 1,187 Kg = 39.4 x 5.1 " / 130 mm shells or 0.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.19 Metacentric height 2.0 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 13.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.47 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and large transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.420 / 0.429 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.98 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.17 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 9.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 15.00 ft / 4.57 m, 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 13.00 ft / 3.96 m, 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Average freeboard: 15.65 ft / 4.77 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 119.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 168.6 % Waterplane Area: 12,502 Square feet or 1,161 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 102 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 62 lbs/sq ft or 301 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.74 - Longitudinal: 1.47 - Overall: 0.79 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, May 23, 2007

### Another try at the Ger/CS/1905 design

I have an semi-acceptable Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta design for the Ger/CS/1905 design. I have had trouble getting an acceptable photo, but this probably gives a good picture of one of the ships at speed:

I should be able to do better, I keep thinking. I was only able to achieve 35 knots, rather than 36 knots that I had hoped. This is with 52.395 SHP/ton machinery. Remember that with 1907 technology, the British Swift was able to produce 60 SHP/ton. The 52.395 should be reasonable, given that the British were able to do this with a similar ship. The main difficulty is that Springsharp requires too much power for the speed. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CS/1905, Germany Scout Cruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 1,825 t light; 1,879 t standard; 2,031 t normal; 2,153 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (372.95 ft / 370.00 ft) x 38.00 ft x (13.00 / 13.50 ft) (113.67 m / 112.78 m) x 11.58 m x (3.96 / 4.11 m) Armament: 5 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1905 Model 3 x Single mounts on centreline ends, majority aft 2 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck forward Weight of broadside 160 lbs / 160 kg 2 - 18.0" / 457 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 185.00 ft / 56.39 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 2.00" / 51 mm 90.00 ft / 27.43 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 77 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm - 2.00" / 51 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 53,757 shp / 40,103 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 4,200nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 274 tons Complement: 150 - 196 Cost: £0.226 million / $0.903 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 52 tons, 2.6 % Armour: 227 tons, 11.2 % - Belts: 203 tons, 10.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 24 tons, 1.2 % - Armour Deck: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Conning Tower: 0 tons, 0.0 % Machinery: 1,026 tons, 50.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 551 tons, 27.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 206 tons, 10.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 553 lbs / 251 Kg = 17.3 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.34 Metacentric height 2.0 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.15 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has raised forecastle, a normal bow and a round stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.389 / 0.397 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.74 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 19.24 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 68 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 7.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 29.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Aft deck: 26.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 16.55 ft / 5.05 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 171.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 142.0 % Waterplane Area: 8,605 Square feet or 799 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 68 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 32 lbs/sq ft or 157 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.44 - Longitudinal: 1.87 - Overall: 0.51 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, May 22, 2007

### A new version of the GB/CA/1912 design

I wanted to try my GB/CA/1912 design in Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta. The only odd thing is that Springsharp forced me to use geared turbines to get rid of an error message. This is the original photo:

This is a 29 knot ship with oil-fired boilers and 12-9.2in guns. The armour basis is 6in with a 2in deck. I did not have to do much to make the design "work". I just had to increase the displacement to achieve adequate strength. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CA/1912, Great Britain Armoured Cruiser laid down 1912 Displacement: 16,705 t light; 17,586 t standard; 19,221 t normal; 20,530 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (657.00 ft / 650.00 ft) x 75.00 ft x (24.00 / 25.32 ft) (200.25 m / 198.12 m) x 22.86 m x (7.32 / 7.72 m) Armament: 12 - 9.20" / 234 mm 50.0 cal guns - 380.00lbs / 172.37kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1912 Model 4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 3 raised mounts - superfiring 2 x Twin mounts on centreline, aft deck forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in casemate mounts , 1912 Model 10 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft 10 hull mounts in casemates- Limited use in heavy seas 4 x Single mounts on sides, aft deck forward 4 hull mounts in casemates- Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 5,960 lbs / 5,960 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 3.00" / 76 mm 190.00 ft / 57.91 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 100.00 ft / 30.48 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 85 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 86,504 shp / 64,532 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,944 tons Complement: 816 - 1,061 Cost: £1.666 million / $6.664 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,490 tons, 7.7 % Armour: 5,099 tons, 26.5 % - Belts: 1,843 tons, 9.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 480 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 1,396 tons, 7.3 % - Armour Deck: 1,289 tons, 6.7 % - Conning Tower: 93 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 3,449 tons, 17.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,444 tons, 38.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,517 tons, 13.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 24,837 lbs / 11,266 Kg = 63.8 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 3.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 3.9 ft / 1.2 m Roll period: 16.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 58 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.77 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.15 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.575 / 0.582 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.67 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -3.00 ft / -0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forward deck: 35.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Aft deck: 30.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 22.48 ft / 6.85 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 119.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 181.4 % Waterplane Area: 34,830 Square feet or 3,236 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 141 lbs/sq ft or 686 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.24 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, May 21, 2007

### Something is wrong with my GB/CA/1906 design

I am getting an error in Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta that I do not know how to fix. I can make the GB/CA/1906 design work, in some sense, in Springsharp, but the power required is much to great and the displacement to obtain adequate strength is too great, compared to known designs. This is my photo of a ship of this class:

I am disappointed that there is such a major malfunction. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CA/1906, Great Britain Armoured Cruiser laid down 1906 (Engine 1908) Displacement: 17,301 t light; 18,058 t standard; 20,501 t normal; 22,456 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (572.00 ft / 565.00 ft) x 80.00 ft x (25.00 / 27.00 ft) (174.35 m / 172.21 m) x 24.38 m x (7.62 / 8.23 m) Armament: 16 - 9.20" / 234 mm 50.0 cal guns - 380.00lbs / 172.37kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1906 Model 2 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 6 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck aft 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.27lbs / 14.64kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in casemate mounts , 1906 Model 16 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 16 raised mounts Weight of broadside 6,596 lbs / 6,596 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 365.00 ft / 111.25 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 200.00 ft / 60.96 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Main Belt covers 99 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 365.00 ft / 111.25 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 7.00" / 178 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, steam turbines, ERROR: Revise drives, 4 shafts, 59,861 shp / 44,657 Kw = 25.50 kts Range 5,600nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,398 tons (100% coal) Complement: 856 - 1,113 Cost: £1.782 million / $7.128 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,725 tons, 8.4 % Armour: 5,775 tons, 28.2 % - Belts: 1,877 tons, 9.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 506 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 2,014 tons, 9.8 % - Armour Deck: 1,264 tons, 6.2 % - Conning Tower: 113 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 3,326 tons, 16.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,355 tons, 35.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,200 tons, 15.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 29,248 lbs / 13,267 Kg = 75.1 x 9.2 " / 234 mm shells or 4.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 4.6 ft / 1.4 m Roll period: 15.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 64 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.77 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.27 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.635 / 0.644 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.77 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -3.00 ft / -0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Aft deck: 17.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Quarter deck: 33.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 23.61 ft / 7.19 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 111.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 197.6 % Waterplane Area: 34,151 Square feet or 3,173 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 145 lbs/sq ft or 708 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.62 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, May 20, 2007

### A question about the GB/CB/1914 Fast

I may be the only one "out there" to ask this question, but it occurred to me immediately after yesterday's design was posted. The question is if we restricted the machinery to "normal weight" for the date and restricted power to the specified 180,000 SHP, how fast would the GB/CB/1914 Fast be able to go? The apparent answer is "34 knots". I was apparently overly ambitious with my "38 knots" speed estimate for 29,000 tons and 180,000 SHP. This is the revised Springsharp design:

GB/CB/1914 Fast, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1914 Displacement: 25,495 t light; 26,408 t standard; 29,347 t normal; 31,698 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (854.64 ft / 850.00 ft) x 95.00 ft x (30.00 / 31.63 ft) (260.49 m / 259.08 m) x 28.96 m x (9.14 / 9.64 m) Armament: 4 - 13.50" / 343 mm 45.0 cal guns - 1,400.00lbs / 635.03kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1914 Model 2 x Single mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 33.88lbs / 15.37kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1914 Model 8 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread Weight of broadside 6,142 lbs / 6,142 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 475.00 ft / 144.78 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 86 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 475.00 ft / 144.78 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 7.00" / 178 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 178,226 shp / 132,956 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,291 tons Complement: 1,120 - 1,457 Cost: £3.022 million / $12.089 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,178 tons, 4.0 % Armour: 5,644 tons, 19.2 % - Belts: 1,959 tons, 6.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 791 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 882 tons, 3.0 % - Armour Deck: 1,868 tons, 6.4 % - Conning Tower: 143 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 6,865 tons, 23.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 12,366 tons, 42.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,851 tons, 13.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 42,345 lbs / 19,207 Kg = 34.4 x 13.5 " / 343 mm shells or 5.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.31 Metacentric height 7.5 ft / 2.3 m Roll period: 14.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 73 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.36 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.46 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.424 / 0.434 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.95 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 8.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Aft deck: 18.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Quarter deck: 32.00 %, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m, 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.35 ft / 7.73 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 117.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 234.5 % Waterplane Area: 50,485 Square feet or 4,690 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 121 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 162 lbs/sq ft or 790 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.36 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Saturday, May 19, 2007

### Wolf's Den is deactivated

I just tried to visit the home of the Queen Victoria class battleships and photoart, and found that the account had been deactivated. I figured that I should grab the page from the Google cache, while the page and pictures were still there. I would recommend it, although I hope that it is restored to life soon. From the SiteMeter, I would have guessed that this all just happened. This is the cached page. I am not sure how long this will be good. One thing that I had forgotten to say is that you can save the page to your computer, and in Windows, you will get all the images, as well as the text. I just saved with Firefox 2.0.0.3, and I am reasonably sure that you can do the same with IE6.

### The GB/CB/1914 Fast design works

I was pleasantly surprised that with lightweight machinery, the GB/CB/1914 Fast design works, as specified. The only exception is that to reach 38 knots, much greater power is required. That means that the machinery must be compact and light, necessitating using 1927 machinery (the only way to get lighter machinery in Springsharp). The ship has 4-13.5in/45 BLR and 16-4in QF guns. The armour basis is 6in with a 2in deck. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1914 Fast, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1914 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 28,679 t light; 29,643 t standard; 31,977 t normal; 33,844 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (854.64 ft / 850.00 ft) x 95.00 ft x (30.00 / 31.26 ft) (260.49 m / 259.08 m) x 28.96 m x (9.14 / 9.53 m) Armament: 4 - 13.50" / 343 mm 45.0 cal guns - 1,400.00lbs / 635.03kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1914 Model 2 x Single mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 16 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 33.88lbs / 15.37kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1914 Model 8 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread Weight of broadside 6,142 lbs / 6,142 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 475.00 ft / 144.78 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 86 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 475.00 ft / 144.78 m 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 7.00" / 178 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 297,769 shp / 222,135 Kw = 38.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,201 tons Complement: 1,195 - 1,554 Cost: £3.616 million / $14.462 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,178 tons, 3.7 % Armour: 5,714 tons, 17.9 % - Belts: 1,964 tons, 6.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 791 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 882 tons, 2.8 % - Armour Deck: 1,925 tons, 6.0 % - Conning Tower: 152 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 9,399 tons, 29.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 12,945 tons, 40.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,298 tons, 10.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 34,614 lbs / 15,701 Kg = 28.1 x 13.5 " / 343 mm shells or 3.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.34 Metacentric height 7.8 ft / 2.4 m Roll period: 14.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.29 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.462 / 0.469 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.95 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 57 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 8.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Aft deck: 18.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Quarter deck: 32.00 %, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m, 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.35 ft / 7.73 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 139.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 226.5 % Waterplane Area: 52,026 Square feet or 4,833 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 165 lbs/sq ft or 805 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.29 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, May 18, 2007

### The 1916 version of the Lexington class doesn't work, as specified, in Springsharp

I have been adjusting factors in Springsharp 3.0b1 to see if I can an acceptable version of the 1916 version of the Lexington class battlecruisers. I am hampered by not having a good set of specifications with me. The problems are created by the narrow beam of 90ft-11in and the problems with recoil. Seakeeping and strength also interact in an unfortunate way. I will be forced to greatly reduce freeboard, to see if that will help. The best I can do is to have poor seakeeping and steadiness. I would be open to suggestions. I increased the draft, thinking that it would be helpful. This is the rather bad Springsharp report:

US/CB/1916, United States Battlecruiser laid down 1916 Displacement: 36,534 t light; 38,379 t standard; 40,464 t normal; 42,131 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (864.27 ft / 850.00 ft) x 90.92 ft x (34.00 / 35.09 ft) (263.43 m / 259.08 m) x 27.71 m x (10.36 / 10.70 m) Armament: 10 - 14.00" / 356 mm 50.0 cal guns - 1,400.00lbs / 635.03kg shells, 120 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1916 Model 4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring 18 - 5.00" / 127 mm 51.0 cal guns - 65.00lbs / 29.48kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in casemate mounts , 1916 Model 18 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 4 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm 50.0 cal guns - 14.29lbs / 6.48kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1916 Model 4 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 4 raised mounts Weight of broadside 15,227 lbs / 15,227 kg 4 - 21.0" / 533 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 98 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Electric cruising motors plus geared drives, 4 shafts, 254,390 shp / 189,775 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 10.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,752 tons Complement: 1,426 - 1,854 Cost: £6.843 million / $27.370 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,994 tons, 7.4 % Armour: 8,837 tons, 21.8 % - Belts: 2,546 tons, 6.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,359 tons, 3.4 % - Armament: 2,652 tons, 6.6 % - Armour Deck: 1,975 tons, 4.9 % - Conning Tower: 305 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 9,478 tons, 23.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 16,343 tons, 40.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,930 tons, 9.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 35,186 lbs / 15,960 Kg = 25.6 x 14.0 " / 356 mm shells or 3.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.09 Metacentric height 5.1 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 16.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 44 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.99 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 0.86 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a straight bulbous bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.539 / 0.544 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.35 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 45 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 27.00 degrees Stern overhang: -3.00 ft / -0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Aft deck: 20.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Quarter deck: 30.00 %, 20.00 ft / 6.10 m, 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.60 ft / 7.80 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 142.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 192.5 % Waterplane Area: 53,380 Square feet or 4,959 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 95 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 195 lbs/sq ft or 952 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.23 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Poor seaboat, wet and uncomfortable, reduced performance in heavy weather

## Thursday, May 17, 2007

### The US/CB/1921 class

I tried a version of the US Lexington class battlecruisers from 1921 as the US/CB/1921 design in Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta. I found that the design worked reasonably well, except that I had to greatly increase the displacement, due to lack of strength. Springsharp also wants too much power to reach the designed speed, which is a large issue. Alt_Naval has a nice photo. This is the Springsharp report:

US/CB/1921, United States Battlecruiser laid down 1921 Displacement: 44,973 t light; 47,236 t standard; 49,282 t normal; 50,919 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (866.30 ft / 850.00 ft) x 104.30 ft x (32.00 / 32.88 ft) (264.05 m / 259.08 m) x 31.79 m x (9.75 / 10.02 m) Armament: 8 - 16.00" / 406 mm 50.0 cal guns - 2,100.00lbs / 952.54kg shells, 120 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1921 Model 4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm 53.0 cal guns - 115.00lbs / 52.16kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in casemate mounts , 1921 Model 16 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 8 raised mounts 4 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm 50.0 cal guns - 14.00lbs / 6.35kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1921 Model 4 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 4 raised mounts Weight of broadside 18,696 lbs / 18,696 kg 4 - 21.0" / 533 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 98 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Electric cruising motors plus geared drives, 4 shafts, 254,027 shp / 189,504 Kw = 33.50 kts Range 12,000nm at 10.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,682 tons Complement: 1,653 - 2,149 Cost: £11.975 million / $47.899 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,469 tons, 7.0 % Armour: 13,727 tons, 27.9 % - Belts: 2,590 tons, 5.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,557 tons, 5.2 % - Armament: 3,398 tons, 6.9 % - Armour Deck: 4,834 tons, 9.8 % - Conning Tower: 348 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 8,747 tons, 17.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 20,229 tons, 41.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,309 tons, 8.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 62,171 lbs / 28,200 Kg = 30.4 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 8.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 6.6 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 17.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.92 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.14 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a straight bulbous bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.608 / 0.611 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.15 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 27.00 degrees Stern overhang: -3.00 ft / -0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Aft deck: 25.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Quarter deck: 25.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Average freeboard: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 114.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 233.4 % Waterplane Area: 65,327 Square feet or 6,069 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 100 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 209 lbs/sq ft or 1,022 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.41 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, May 16, 2007

### I can't make the Capitani Romani class work in Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta

I apparently cannot make the machinery sufficiently light enough to make the Italian Capitani Romani class ships work in Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta (the Attilio Regolo, in particular). I was able to reduce the performance sufficiently, that I could make a workable Springsharp design, but the result is a hollow victory:

Capitani Romani class, Italy Light Cruiser laid down 1940 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 4,045 t light; 4,187 t standard; 4,526 t normal; 4,797 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (465.72 ft / 459.32 ft) x 47.24 ft x (16.40 / 17.09 ft) (141.95 m / 140.00 m) x 14.40 m x (5.00 / 5.21 m) Armament: 8 - 5.31" / 135 mm 45.0 cal guns - 75.71lbs / 34.34kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1940 Model 4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring 8 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 1.69lbs / 0.77kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck mounts , 1940 Model 8 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 8 raised mounts Weight of broadside 619 lbs / 619 kg 8 - 21.0" / 533 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 0.47" / 12 mm 0.39" / 10 mm 0.47" / 12 mm - Armour deck: 0.39" / 10 mm, Conning tower: 0.59" / 15 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 72,626 shp / 54,179 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 3,200nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 610 tons Complement: 275 - 358 Cost: £2.661 million / $10.644 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 144 tons, 3.2 % Armour: 137 tons, 3.0 % - Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 33 tons, 0.7 % - Armour Deck: 100 tons, 2.2 % - Conning Tower: 3 tons, 0.1 % Machinery: 1,737 tons, 38.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,101 tons, 46.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 481 tons, 10.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 3,421 lbs / 1,552 Kg = 45.6 x 5.3 " / 135 mm shells or 0.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 2.2 ft / 0.7 m Roll period: 13.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.43 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.08 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and a round stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.445 / 0.453 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.72 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 21.43 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 64 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 11.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.98 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 27.89 ft / 8.50 m, 21.33 ft / 6.50 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 21.33 ft / 6.50 m, 18.04 ft / 5.50 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 18.04 ft / 5.50 m, 16.40 ft / 5.00 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 16.40 ft / 5.00 m, 16.40 ft / 5.00 m - Average freeboard: 19.18 ft / 5.85 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 136.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 130.8 % Waterplane Area: 13,786 Square feet or 1,281 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 82 lbs/sq ft or 398 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.89 - Longitudinal: 2.73 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, May 15, 2007

### A very conservative version of the GB/CB/1905 design

By accepting somewhat lighter weight machinery, we can build a very fine version of the GB/CB/1905 battlecruiser design. My friend Cliff's original concept was for a ship with oil fuel, abnormally early in the century, admittedly. I have tried to make this version adhere quite closely to his original design, and it works quite well. I have a number of different depictions of the two ships (Essex and Sussex, Cliff named them). This a picture of the Essex. This is its sister ship, the Sussex. This is a line drawing of the inboard profile and deck plan. This is a drawing that was intended for use as part of a wargaming piece. This is a more generic photograph showing a broadside view:

This is the corresponding Springsharp report (for Springsharp 3.0b1 Beta):

GB/CB/1905, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1909) Displacement: 23,063 t light; 23,856 t standard; 27,410 t normal; 30,252 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (778.00 ft / 770.00 ft) x 85.00 ft x (27.50 / 29.71 ft) (237.13 m / 234.70 m) x 25.91 m x (8.38 / 9.06 m) Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 850.00lbs / 385.55kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1905 Model 2 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 9 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1905 Model 8 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 1 x Single mount on centreline, aft evenly spread Weight of broadside 4,300 lbs / 4,300 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 108 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 27.50 ft / 8.38 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 164,897 shp / 123,013 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 16.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,396 tons Complement: 1,064 - 1,384 Cost: £2.290 million / $9.160 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 923 tons, 3.4 % Armour: 4,637 tons, 16.9 % - Belts: 1,254 tons, 4.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 641 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 961 tons, 3.5 % - Armour Deck: 1,663 tons, 6.1 % - Conning Tower: 118 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 7,495 tons, 27.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,415 tons, 38.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,346 tons, 15.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 34,633 lbs / 15,709 Kg = 40.1 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.22 Metacentric height 5.7 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 15.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 76 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.44 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.43 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.533 / 0.544 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 53 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 34.00 ft / 10.36 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Aft deck: 20.00 %, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Quarter deck: 30.00 %, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 28.61 ft / 8.72 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 134.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 246.3 % Waterplane Area: 44,956 Square feet or 4,177 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 115 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 146 lbs/sq ft or 710 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.51 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Monday, May 14, 2007

### A large, but not extremely large, German battlecruiser

In more recent years, I have been thinking of designing rather large, but not quite so very large ships. This version backs off the size, protection, and range, to reduce the size and cost of a German battlecruiser, the Ger/CB/1943 Large design. This has 9-21in guns and a speed of 35 knots. The range is 10,000nm at 16 knots. The armour basis is 16in with a 7in deck. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1943 Large, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1943 Displacement: 137,845 t light; 144,080 t standard; 151,306 t normal; 157,087 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (1,264.14 ft / 1,250.00 ft) x 170.00 ft x (39.00 / 40.20 ft) (385.31 m / 381.00 m) x 51.82 m x (11.89 / 12.25 m) Armament: 9 - 21.00" / 533 mm 50.0 cal guns - 4,900.00lbs / 2,222.60kg shells, 120 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1943 Model 9 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 3 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm 55.0 cal guns - 116.57lbs / 52.88kg shells, 180 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mount , 1943 Model 1 x Twin mount on sides amidships 24 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 33.88lbs / 15.37kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1943 Model 12 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 12 raised mounts 64 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 1.69lbs / 0.77kg shells, 240 per gun Breech loading guns in deck mounts , 1943 Model 32 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 24 raised mounts Weight of broadside 46,886 lbs / 46,886 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 16.0" / 406 mm 840.00 ft / 256.03 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 7.00" / 178 mm 840.00 ft / 256.03 m 39.00 ft / 11.89 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 16.00" / 406 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 480,244 shp / 358,262 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 10,000nm at 16.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 13,007 tons Complement: 3,835 - 4,986 Cost: £74.873 million / $299.491 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 7,789 tons, 5.1 % Armour: 54,927 tons, 36.3 % - Belts: 9,227 tons, 6.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 8,485 tons, 5.6 % - Armament: 14,469 tons, 9.6 % - Armour Deck: 21,768 tons, 14.4 % - Conning Tower: 979 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 12,403 tons, 8.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 64,708 tons, 42.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 13,461 tons, 8.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 297,322 lbs / 134,863 Kg = 64.2 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 81.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 14.9 ft / 4.5 m Roll period: 18.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.46 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.15 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and small transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.639 / 0.644 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.35 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 40.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 12.00 degrees Stern overhang: 5.00 ft / 1.52 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 43.00 ft / 13.11 m, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Average freeboard: 34.49 ft / 10.51 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 64.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 279.4 % Waterplane Area: 168,089 Square feet or 15,616 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 120 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 306 lbs/sq ft or 1,496 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.08 - Longitudinal: 0.97 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, May 13, 2007

### The monster battleship Ger/BB/1943

The Ger/BB/1943 monster battleship is the battleship analog of the Ger/CB/1943 design. The battleship has a speed of 29 knots and carries 12-22in guns. The armour basis is 22 inches with a 10 inch deck. I don't believe that the ship would really resist 915.4 torpedoes, but that is what Springsharp 3.0b1 claims. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1943 Very Large, Germany Battleship laid down 1943 Displacement: 283,527 t light; 294,499 t standard; 309,156 t normal; 320,882 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (1,514.57 ft / 1,500.00 ft) x 285.00 ft x (39.00 / 40.20 ft) (461.64 m / 457.20 m) x 86.87 m x (11.89 / 12.25 m) Armament: 12 - 22.00" / 559 mm 50.0 cal guns - 5,650.00lbs / 2,562.80kg shells, 120 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1943 Model 9 x 4-gun mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 3 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm 55.0 cal guns - 116.57lbs / 52.88kg shells, 180 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mount , 1943 Model 1 x Twin mount on sides amidships 24 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 33.88lbs / 15.37kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1943 Model 12 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 12 raised mounts 64 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 1.69lbs / 0.77kg shells, 240 per gun Breech loading guns in deck mounts , 1943 Model 32 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 24 raised mounts Weight of broadside 70,586 lbs / 70,586 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 22.0" / 559 mm 960.00 ft / 292.61 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 98 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 9.00" / 229 mm 960.00 ft / 292.61 m 39.00 ft / 11.89 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 22.0" / 559 mm 15.0" / 381 mm 22.0" / 559 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 10.00" / 254 mm, Conning tower: 22.00" / 559 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 394,209 shp / 294,080 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 16.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 26,383 tons Complement: 6,555 - 8,522 Cost: £122.136 million / $488.543 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 13,388 tons, 4.3 % Armour: 117,737 tons, 38.1 % - Belts: 15,255 tons, 4.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 12,468 tons, 4.0 % - Armament: 24,698 tons, 8.0 % - Armour Deck: 63,149 tons, 20.4 % - Conning Tower: 2,167 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 10,181 tons, 3.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 146,905 tons, 47.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 25,629 tons, 8.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 1,289,468 lbs / 584,893 Kg = 242.2 x 22.0 " / 559 mm shells or 915.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.65 Metacentric height 55.4 ft / 16.9 m Roll period: 16.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 59 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.09 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.18 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and small transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.649 / 0.653 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.26 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 45.94 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 36 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 12.00 degrees Stern overhang: 5.00 ft / 1.52 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 45.00 ft / 13.72 m, 39.00 ft / 11.89 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 39.00 ft / 11.89 m, 37.00 ft / 11.28 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 37.00 ft / 11.28 m, 37.00 ft / 11.28 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 37.00 ft / 11.28 m, 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Average freeboard: 38.26 ft / 11.66 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 36.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 371.6 % Waterplane Area: 341,347 Square feet or 31,712 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 149 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 395 lbs/sq ft or 1,929 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.15 - Longitudinal: 0.95 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, May 12, 2007

### An extremely large battlecruiser: the Ger/CB/1943

The largest caliber guns allowed by Springsharp are 22in guns. I would like to use 24in guns, as the Germans built larger guns. The used an 80cm gun to attack Russian positions in the Crimea, I believe. In any case, I probed the limits of what are feasible with Springsharp with the Ger/CB/1941 design. This is an amazing ship that can make 35 knots and cruise for 15,000nm at 17 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1943 Very Large, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1943 Displacement: 253,110 t light; 262,391 t standard; 281,121 t normal; 296,105 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (1,514.57 ft / 1,500.00 ft) x 256.00 ft x (39.00 / 40.70 ft) (461.64 m / 457.20 m) x 78.03 m x (11.89 / 12.40 m) Armament: 9 - 22.00" / 559 mm 50.0 cal guns - 5,650.00lbs / 2,562.80kg shells, 120 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1943 Model 9 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 3 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm 55.0 cal guns - 116.57lbs / 52.88kg shells, 180 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mount , 1943 Model 1 x Twin mount on sides amidships 24 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 33.88lbs / 15.37kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1943 Model 12 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 12 raised mounts 64 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 1.69lbs / 0.77kg shells, 240 per gun Breech loading guns in deck mounts , 1943 Model 32 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 24 raised mounts Weight of broadside 53,637 lbs / 53,637 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 19.0" / 483 mm 980.00 ft / 298.70 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 8.00" / 203 mm 980.00 ft / 298.70 m 39.00 ft / 11.89 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 20.0" / 508 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 20.0" / 508 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 20.00" / 508 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 10 shafts, 716,023 shp / 534,153 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 15,000nm at 17.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 33,713 tons Complement: 6,103 - 7,935 Cost: £111.332 million / $445.326 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 8,639 tons, 3.1 % Armour: 89,799 tons, 31.9 % - Belts: 13,210 tons, 4.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 11,313 tons, 4.0 % - Armament: 17,708 tons, 6.3 % - Armour Deck: 45,720 tons, 16.3 % - Conning Tower: 1,849 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 18,492 tons, 6.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 138,198 tons, 49.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 28,011 tons, 10.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 920,311 lbs / 417,446 Kg = 172.9 x 22.0 " / 559 mm shells or 485.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.63 Metacentric height 46.1 ft / 14.1 m Roll period: 15.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.09 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.12 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and small transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.657 / 0.663 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.86 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 45.44 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 12.00 degrees Stern overhang: 5.00 ft / 1.52 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 45.00 ft / 13.72 m, 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 36.00 ft / 10.97 m, 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 34.00 ft / 10.36 m, 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 34.00 ft / 10.36 m, 37.00 ft / 11.28 m - Average freeboard: 35.65 ft / 10.86 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 44.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 332.3 % Waterplane Area: 308,916 Square feet or 28,699 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 156 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 403 lbs/sq ft or 1,969 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.31 - Longitudinal: 0.92 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, May 11, 2007

### A very large battleship: Ger/BB/1941

I have thought for a long time about very large battleships and battlecruisers with many large guns. I suspect that I need to correct the Ger/CB/1941 design, as I probably have an error. I will just update the previous blog post with the corrected report. I still believe that 24in guns should be feasible, but this version has 12-21in guns in three quadruple turrets. The armour basis is 21 inches. The design is otherwise similar to the Ger/CB/1941, except for having a 30 knot speed and greater size. The ability to survive 161.9 torpedo hits seems bizarre and improbably. I guess that this design tests the limits of Springsharp. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1941 Very Large, Germany Battleship laid down 1941 Displacement: 165,830 t light; 173,745 t standard; 182,634 t normal; 189,746 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (1,391.65 ft / 1,380.00 ft) x 185.00 ft x (39.00 / 40.23 ft) (424.18 m / 420.62 m) x 56.39 m x (11.89 / 12.26 m) Armament: 12 - 21.00" / 533 mm 50.0 cal guns - 5,000.00lbs / 2,267.96kg shells, 120 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1941 Model 3 x 4-gun mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm 55.0 cal guns - 115.00lbs / 52.16kg shells, 180 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mount , 1941 Model 1 x Twin mount on sides amidships 24 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1941 Model 12 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 12 raised mounts 64 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 1.70lbs / 0.77kg shells, 240 per gun Breech loading guns in deck mounts , 1941 Model 32 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 24 raised mounts Weight of broadside 62,717 lbs / 62,717 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 19.0" / 483 mm 940.00 ft / 286.51 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 105 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 8.00" / 203 mm 940.00 ft / 286.51 m 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 21.0" / 533 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 21.0" / 533 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 306,080 shp / 228,336 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 16,001 tons Complement: 4,416 - 5,742 Cost: £82.442 million / $329.768 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 12,057 tons, 6.6 % Armour: 66,109 tons, 36.2 % - Belts: 12,212 tons, 6.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 10,573 tons, 5.8 % - Armament: 12,103 tons, 6.6 % - Armour Deck: 29,972 tons, 16.4 % - Conning Tower: 1,248 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 8,089 tons, 4.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 84,013 tons, 46.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 16,805 tons, 9.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 455,012 lbs / 206,390 Kg = 98.3 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 161.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.34 Metacentric height 21.2 ft / 6.5 m Roll period: 16.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 64 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.33 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.27 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and small transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.642 / 0.647 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.46 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 42.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 38 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 9.00 degrees Stern overhang: 5.00 ft / 1.52 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 42.00 ft / 12.80 m, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Average freeboard: 33.84 ft / 10.31 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 52.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 285.6 % Waterplane Area: 202,515 Square feet or 18,814 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 128 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 341 lbs/sq ft or 1,667 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.13 - Longitudinal: 0.95 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Wednesday, May 09, 2007

### An ridiculously large German battlecruiser: Ger/CB/1941 (Corrected)

Springsharp 3.0b1 does not prevent us from designing extremely large ships. This is the sort of ship that I had envisioned a long time ago, except that the armament here is lighter than I would have liked. Still, this is a 33 knot battlecruiser with good characteristics, so I would say that the design works well. The ship has 9-21in guns. This is the corrected Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1941 Large, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1941 Displacement: 140,002 t light; 146,346 t standard; 154,092 t normal; 160,288 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (1,261.34 ft / 1,250.00 ft) x 185.00 ft x (39.00 / 40.23 ft) (384.46 m / 381.00 m) x 56.39 m x (11.89 / 12.26 m) Armament: 9 - 21.00" / 533 mm 50.0 cal guns - 5,000.00lbs / 2,267.96kg shells, 120 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts , 1941 Model 3 x Triple mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 3 raised mounts 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm 55.0 cal guns - 115.00lbs / 52.16kg shells, 180 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mount , 1941 Model 1 x Twin mount on sides amidships 24 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts , 1941 Model 12 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 12 raised mounts 64 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 1.70lbs / 0.77kg shells, 240 per gun Breech loading guns in deck mounts , 1941 Model 32 x Twin mounts on sides, evenly spread 24 raised mounts Weight of broadside 47,717 lbs / 47,717 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 17.0" / 432 mm 835.00 ft / 254.51 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 8.00" / 203 mm 835.00 ft / 254.51 m 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - 1.00" / 25 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 386,417 shp / 288,267 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 13,942 tons Complement: 3,888 - 5,055 Cost: £69.283 million / $277.134 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 7,789 tons, 5.1 % Armour: 56,831 tons, 36.9 % - Belts: 9,821 tons, 6.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 9,392 tons, 6.1 % - Armament: 10,465 tons, 6.8 % - Armour Deck: 26,039 tons, 16.9 % - Conning Tower: 1,115 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 10,212 tons, 6.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 67,152 tons, 43.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 14,090 tons, 9.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 356,188 lbs / 161,564 Kg = 76.9 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 117.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.32 Metacentric height 20.5 ft / 6.3 m Roll period: 17.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 65 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.33 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.31 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and small transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.598 / 0.603 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.76 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 41.22 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 46 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 9.00 degrees Stern overhang: 5.00 ft / 1.52 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 40.00 ft / 12.19 m, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Average freeboard: 33.68 ft / 10.26 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 57.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 281.8 % Waterplane Area: 175,937 Square feet or 16,345 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 125 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 313 lbs/sq ft or 1,526 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.99 - Longitudinal: 1.04 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

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