Ger/CM/1915, Germany Cruiser Minelayer laid down 1915 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 3,238 t light; 3,327 t standard; 3,606 t normal; 3,830 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (453.37 ft / 450.00 ft) x 44.00 ft x (17.00 / 17.63 ft) (138.19 m / 137.16 m) x 13.41 m x (5.18 / 5.37 m) Armament: 3 - 5.00" / 127 mm 45.0 cal guns - 65.00lbs / 29.48kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1915 Model 3 x Single mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 1 raised mount - superfiring Weight of broadside 195 lbs / 88 kg Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 84,825 shp / 63,279 Kw = 38.50 kts Range 4,200nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 503 tons Complement: 232 - 302 Cost: £0.578 million / $2.310 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 51 tons, 1.4 % Armour: 45 tons, 1.3 % - Armament: 45 tons, 1.3 % Machinery: 1,898 tons, 52.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 933 tons, 25.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 368 tons, 10.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 311 tons, 8.6 % - On freeboard deck: 311 tons Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 925 lbs / 420 Kg = 14.8 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 1.9 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 13.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 58 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.17 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and large transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.375 / 0.384 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.23 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.59 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 57 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 8.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 25.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Forward deck: 25.00 %, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 16.00 ft / 4.88 m, 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 18.78 ft / 5.72 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 174.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 184.4 % Waterplane Area: 12,450 Square feet or 1,157 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 79 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 40 lbs/sq ft or 193 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.46 - Longitudinal: 1.75 - Overall: 0.52 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, September 29, 2007

### The Ger/CM/1915 design study

This is the middle member of the family of fast German minelayers. This ship now carries 360 mines at 38.5 knots. The ship has 3-5in guns with one superfiring, forward. The mines are carried on rails at the stern. This is the Springsharp report:

## Friday, September 28, 2007

### An alternative Ger/CM/1914 design

There is a sketch of the largest ship in the family of specifications for fast German minelayers. That ship is flush-decked. That inspired me to try a flush-decked alternative to what I last wrote about. This would be a Ger/CM/1914 that tries to have a more typical draft, or at least not an oddly deep draft. That is the main difference. The ship might well not have had the mines on the upper deck, but I kept them there. The Germans only used 5in guns in my alternate universe, of course. This is at least a more rational design, in my opinion, although not quite as fast:

Ger/CM/1914, Germany Cruiser Minelayer laid down 1914 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 3,323 t light; 3,414 t standard; 3,733 t normal; 3,989 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (437.95 ft / 435.00 ft) x 38.00 ft x (17.00 / 17.81 ft) (133.49 m / 132.59 m) x 11.58 m x (5.18 / 5.43 m) Armament: 3 - 5.00" / 127 mm 45.0 cal guns - 65.00lbs / 29.48kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1914 Model 1 x Single mount on centreline forward 1 x Single mount on centreline, aft deck forward Weight of broadside 195 lbs / 88 kg Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 99,257 shp / 74,046 Kw = 39.00 kts Range 4,800nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 575 tons Complement: 238 - 310 Cost: £0.562 million / $2.248 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 51 tons, 1.4 % Armour: 31 tons, 0.8 % - Armament: 31 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 2,195 tons, 58.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 908 tons, 24.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 411 tons, 11.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 138 tons, 3.7 % - On freeboard deck: 138 tons Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 740 lbs / 335 Kg = 11.8 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.21 Metacentric height 1.7 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 12.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.25 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.10 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a normal bow and large transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.465 / 0.474 Length to Beam Ratio: 11.45 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.66 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 70 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 55 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 7.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forward deck: 25.00 %, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m, 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Aft deck: 40.00 %, 20.00 ft / 6.10 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 20.11 ft / 6.13 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 194.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 175.5 % Waterplane Area: 11,095 Square feet or 1,031 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 73 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 36 lbs/sq ft or 173 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.42 - Longitudinal: 2.56 - Overall: 0.51 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, September 26, 2007

### Another fast minelayer

The next size up in the family of fast minelayer specifications was 435ft long. That is large enough that I am classifying it as a cruiser minelayer. I originally was going to call the design a destroyer. I optimistically hoped for 50 knots, but that is way beyond reach. This design has 3-5in guns and carries 160 mines. The speed is 39.5 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CM/1914, Germany Cruiser Minelayer laid down 1914 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 3,381 t light; 3,474 t standard; 3,828 t normal; 4,112 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (437.73 ft / 435.00 ft) x 40.00 ft x (20.00 / 20.90 ft) (133.42 m / 132.59 m) x 12.19 m x (6.10 / 6.37 m) Armament: 3 - 5.00" / 127 mm 45.0 cal guns - 65.00lbs / 29.48kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1914 Model 1 x Single mount on centreline ends, evenly spread 1 x Single mount on centreline, aft deck forward Weight of broadside 195 lbs / 88 kg Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 101,034 shp / 75,371 Kw = 39.50 kts Range 4,500nm at 16.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 638 tons Complement: 243 - 316 Cost: £0.575 million / $2.299 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 51 tons, 1.3 % Armour: 31 tons, 0.8 % - Armament: 31 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 2,252 tons, 58.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 909 tons, 23.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 447 tons, 11.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 138 tons, 3.6 % - On freeboard deck: 138 tons Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 737 lbs / 334 Kg = 11.8 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.32 Metacentric height 2.1 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.17 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a normal bow and large transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.385 / 0.396 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.88 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.01 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 68 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 6.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 18.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forward deck: 14.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Aft deck: 53.00 %, 16.00 ft / 4.88 m, 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 16.00 ft / 4.88 m, 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 18.70 ft / 5.70 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 194.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 152.5 % Waterplane Area: 11,008 Square feet or 1,023 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 74 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 38 lbs/sq ft or 185 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.44 - Longitudinal: 2.24 - Overall: 0.52 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, September 25, 2007

### The Ger/DM/1914 design study

I have a list of alternate designs, most with with just a small amount of information. This is based on the smallest of the specifications. This is for a 36 knot destroyer minelayer that carries 160 mines on rails. I had hoped for a speed of 40 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/DM/1914, Germany Destroyer Minelayer laid down 1914 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 1,875 t light; 1,929 t standard; 2,150 t normal; 2,326 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (362.19 ft / 360.00 ft) x 36.00 ft x (13.50 / 14.23 ft) (110.39 m / 109.73 m) x 10.97 m x (4.11 / 4.34 m) Armament: 2 - 5.00" / 127 mm 45.0 cal guns - 65.00lbs / 29.48kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1914 Model 2 x Single mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread Weight of broadside 130 lbs / 59 kg Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 54,205 shp / 40,437 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 4,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 397 tons Complement: 157 - 205 Cost: £0.295 million / $1.178 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 34 tons, 1.6 % Armour: 30 tons, 1.4 % - Armament: 30 tons, 1.4 % Machinery: 1,098 tons, 51.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 574 tons, 26.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 274 tons, 12.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 138 tons, 6.4 % - On freeboard deck: 138 tons Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 613 lbs / 278 Kg = 9.8 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.22 Metacentric height 1.5 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 12.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.19 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a normal bow and large transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.430 / 0.441 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 21.85 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 71 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forward deck: 14.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Aft deck: 51.00 %, 15.00 ft / 4.57 m, 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 15.00 ft / 4.57 m, 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 17.88 ft / 5.45 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 170.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 171.4 % Waterplane Area: 8,450 Square feet or 785 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 75 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 32 lbs/sq ft or 157 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.43 - Longitudinal: 2.73 - Overall: 0.52 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, September 24, 2007

### I have had this concept for a long time: Ger/CA/1918 fast

I have had this concept, since the early 1970's, for a fast armoured cruiser, often cast as a German ship. The look, though, is more like the Dunkerque or the Richelieu ships. In this case, the freeboard is high, with a lower quarterdeck. I gave the ship a secondary armament that is heavier than I usually use (8-5.1in guns). The main armament, as usual, is in two turrets forward. In this case, there are 6-9.4in guns. The guns would all be high-velocity, and have long barrels. They really are more like 1880's belted cruisers than the armoured cruisers of the early 20th Century. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CA/1918 Fast, Germany Armoured Cruiser laid down 1918 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 19,760 t light; 20,465 t standard; 21,592 t normal; 22,494 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (743.91 ft / 734.00 ft) x 78.00 ft x (24.00 / 24.79 ft) (226.75 m / 223.72 m) x 23.77 m x (7.32 / 7.56 m) Armament: 6 - 9.40" / 239 mm 55.0 cal guns - 448.26lbs / 203.33kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1918 Model 2 x Triple mounts on centreline, forward deck forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 5.10" / 130 mm 65.0 cal guns - 73.54lbs / 33.36kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1918 Model 4 x Twin mounts on sides, aft deck forward 4 raised mounts Weight of broadside 3,278 lbs / 1,487 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 5.00" / 127 mm 480.00 ft / 146.30 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 480.00 ft / 146.30 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 5.00" / 127 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armoured deck - multiple decks: 3.00" / 76 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm - Conning towers: Forward 5.00" / 127 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 232,297 shp / 173,293 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 5,400nm at 16.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,030 tons Complement: 889 - 1,157 Cost: £3.716 million / $14.864 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 915 tons, 4.2 % Armour: 4,508 tons, 20.9 % - Belts: 1,188 tons, 5.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 426 tons, 2.0 % - Armament: 577 tons, 2.7 % - Armour Deck: 2,233 tons, 10.3 % - Conning Tower: 84 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 5,557 tons, 25.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,779 tons, 40.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,833 tons, 8.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 28,662 lbs / 13,001 Kg = 69.0 x 9.4 " / 239 mm shells or 3.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.11 Metacentric height 4.2 ft / 1.3 m Roll period: 16.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.52 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.27 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, an extended bulbous bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.550 / 0.555 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.41 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.09 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 61 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 15.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 35.00 %, 37.00 ft / 11.28 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forward deck: 32.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Aft deck: 18.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Average freeboard: 30.06 ft / 9.16 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 134.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 249.3 % Waterplane Area: 39,956 Square feet or 3,712 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 136 lbs/sq ft or 662 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.08 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, September 23, 2007

### A GB/CB/1915 design study

I have this design study that shows a 36 knot battlecruiser with 6-16in/45 and 12-6in/45 guns that I had called the GB/CB/1915. The ship has a tripod foremast and a tripod mainmast with a derrick. There are three circular funnels of equal height, closely spaced. By using the lightest weight machinery, I was only able to reach 35 knots with the design, but I was surprised that the design is not that far from the original, very optimistic, specification:

GB/CB/1915 Displacement=37,500 tons Standard 39,000 tons full load 6-16in/45 and 12-6in QF guns 787.5ft x 98ft x 31.4ft deep Cp=0.58 Cm=0.97 Hull Depth=58ft 234,000 SHP Max, 195,000 SHP normal Weights 12,970 tons Hull 4,870 tons Machinery 1,500 tons Aux Machinery 1,921 tons Armament 13,259 tons Protection 3,000 tons MiscellaneousThis the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1915, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 34,682 t light; 36,211 t standard; 37,869 t normal; 39,195 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (793.72 ft / 787.50 ft) x 98.00 ft x (31.00 / 31.86 ft) (241.93 m / 240.03 m) x 29.87 m x (9.45 / 9.71 m) Armament: 6 - 16.00" / 406 mm 45.0 cal guns - 2,240.00lbs / 1,016.05kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1915 Model 3 x Single mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 45.0 cal guns - 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1915 Model 12 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 2 raised mounts Weight of broadside 14,640 lbs / 6,641 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 450.00 ft / 137.16 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 258.00 ft / 78.64 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m 79.50 ft / 24.23 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 450.00 ft / 137.16 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 88 % of normal length - Hull Bulges: 2.00" / 51 mm 450.00 ft / 137.16 m 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armoured deck - multiple decks: 3.00" / 76 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm - Conning towers: Forward 9.00" / 229 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 260,141 shp / 194,065 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,984 tons Complement: 1,356 - 1,764 Cost: £4.893 million / $19.571 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,797 tons, 7.4 % Armour: 10,792 tons, 28.5 % - Belts: 3,420 tons, 9.0 % - Bulges: 1,032 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 3,099 tons, 8.2 % - Armour Deck: 3,021 tons, 8.0 % - Conning Tower: 219 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 6,223 tons, 16.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 14,869 tons, 39.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,187 tons, 8.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 52,026 lbs / 23,599 Kg = 25.4 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 3.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.09 Metacentric height 5.7 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 17.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.81 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, an extended bulbous bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.554 / 0.558 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.04 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.06 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 11.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 36.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forward deck: 35.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Aft deck: 14.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Average freeboard: 29.68 ft / 9.05 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 84.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 225.7 % Waterplane Area: 54,062 Square feet or 5,023 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 195 lbs/sq ft or 954 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.75 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, September 22, 2007

### Another try at the Red Book version of the Super Lion

I have this inboard profile of the Super Lion, as I drew it in the early 1970's in the Jane's Fighting Ship style, with different armour thicknesses in different textures. The specification was grossly over-optimistic:

Super Lion Displacement = 27,000 tons Standard 10-15in/45 (97 ton) 28,500 tons normal load 16-5in/50 (5 ton) 31,500 tons deep load Speed = 32 knots normal Cost = £2.43 million 35.6 knots maxThere are no dimensions in the specification, although the inboard profile is to scale at 1 inch = 100 feet. A much larger ship with the lightest machinery is necessary to implement the specification, such as it is.

GB/CB/1912 Super Lion (Red Book), Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1912 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 37,947 t light; 40,531 t standard; 43,660 t normal; 46,163 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (799.00 ft / 794.00 ft) x 108.00 ft x (27.50 / 28.84 ft) (243.54 m / 242.01 m) x 32.92 m x (8.38 / 8.79 m) Armament: 10 - 15.00" / 381 mm 45.0 cal guns - 1,950.00lbs / 884.51kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1912 Model 5 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, majority forward 4 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 5.00" / 127 mm 50.0 cal guns - 65.00lbs / 29.48kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in casemate mounts, 1912 Model 16 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 8 raised mounts Weight of broadside 20,540 lbs / 9,317 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 7.00" / 178 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 200.00 ft / 60.96 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m 94.00 ft / 28.65 m Unarmoured ends Main Belt covers 97 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 27.50 ft / 8.38 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armoured deck - multiple decks: 3.00" / 76 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm - Conning towers: Forward 9.00" / 229 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 210,216 shp / 156,821 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,632 tons Complement: 1,509 - 1,963 Cost: £3.675 million / $14.699 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,029 tons, 6.9 % Armour: 11,084 tons, 25.4 % - Belts: 2,900 tons, 6.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,018 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 3,262 tons, 7.5 % - Armour Deck: 3,665 tons, 8.4 % - Conning Tower: 240 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 5,029 tons, 11.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 18,805 tons, 43.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,714 tons, 13.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 71,802 lbs / 32,569 Kg = 42.5 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 10.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.14 Metacentric height 7.2 ft / 2.2 m Roll period: 16.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.92 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.648 / 0.653 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.35 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.18 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 35.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forward deck: 40.00 %, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Aft deck: 10.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 29.28 ft / 8.92 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 90.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 243.3 % Waterplane Area: 65,571 Square feet or 6,092 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 119 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 217 lbs/sq ft or 1,062 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.47 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, September 21, 2007

### Another GB/CB/1915 design study

I have enough information for a new version of the GB/CB/1915 specification, based on an armouring plan, a hull cross section, and the original sketch design, that I can do a more accurate version. This depends heavily on using the lightest machinery possible. The lower belt, very short in length is 9in, with the rest being 5in. The deck is quite thick at 6in, amidships. The guns are 8-15in/45 and 16-5in QF guns (not real guns). The speed is just 32 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1915 Design Study, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 36,763 t light; 38,961 t standard; 40,748 t normal; 42,177 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (855.70 ft / 850.00 ft) x 105.00 ft x (26.50 / 27.26 ft) (260.82 m / 259.08 m) x 32.00 m x (8.08 / 8.31 m) Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm 45.0 cal guns - 1,950.00lbs / 884.51kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1915 Model 4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 5.00" / 127 mm 45.0 cal guns - 62.00lbs / 28.12kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1915 Model 16 x Single mounts on sides amidships 4 raised mounts Weight of broadside 16,592 lbs / 7,526 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 300.00 ft / 91.44 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: 5.00" / 127 mm 230.00 ft / 70.10 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m 320.00 ft / 97.54 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 5.00" / 127 mm 300.00 ft / 91.44 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 54 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 530.00 ft / 161.54 m 26.50 ft / 8.08 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armoured deck - multiple decks: 6.00" / 152 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm - Conning towers: Forward 9.00" / 229 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 189,864 shp / 141,639 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,217 tons Complement: 1,433 - 1,864 Cost: £4.783 million / $19.130 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,531 tons, 6.2 % Armour: 12,171 tons, 29.9 % - Belts: 2,141 tons, 5.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,039 tons, 2.6 % - Armament: 2,569 tons, 6.3 % - Armour Deck: 6,191 tons, 15.2 % - Conning Tower: 230 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 4,542 tons, 11.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,519 tons, 43.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,985 tons, 9.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 72,626 lbs / 32,943 Kg = 43.0 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 10.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 7.0 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.79 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.21 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.603 / 0.607 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 9.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 36.00 %, 36.00 ft / 10.97 m, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Aft deck: 19.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 84.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 242.7 % Waterplane Area: 65,459 Square feet or 6,081 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 119 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 200 lbs/sq ft or 974 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.30 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, September 20, 2007

### A version of the Ger/CS/1905 Mod.A that works!

I have this sketch design for a version of the Ger/CS/1905 that had been upgraded in wartime to "have more punch". This version had a specification:

Ger/CS/1905 Mod.A Displacement=2,500 tons 370ft x 36ft x 13ft Cp=0.56 Cm-0.85 2in HT belt 3-6in 4-21in TT 35 knots 500 tons oil fuel 50,000 SHP = 35 knotsThis is the Springsharp report for what I was able to make work:

Ger/CS/1905 Mod.A, Germany Scout Cruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 1,882 t light; 1,955 t standard; 2,127 t normal; 2,266 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (372.10 ft / 370.00 ft) x 36.00 ft x (13.00 / 13.56 ft) (113.42 m / 112.78 m) x 10.97 m x (3.96 / 4.13 m) Armament: 3 - 6.00" / 152 mm 45.0 cal guns - 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1905 Model 2 x Single mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 1 x Single mount on centreline, aft deck aft Weight of broadside 300 lbs / 136 kg 4 - 21.0" / 533 mm, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m torpedoes - 1.265 t each, 5.059 t total In 2 sets of deck mounted centre rotating tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 260.00 ft / 79.25 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 2.00" / 51 mm 150.00 ft / 45.72 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 108 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 47,049 shp / 35,098 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 4,200nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 311 tons Complement: 156 - 203 Cost: £0.230 million / $0.920 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 92 tons, 4.3 % - Guns: 87 tons, 4.1 % - Torpedoes: 5 tons, 0.2 % Armour: 305 tons, 14.3 % - Belts: 275 tons, 12.9 % - Armament: 30 tons, 1.4 % Machinery: 951 tons, 44.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 534 tons, 25.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 245 tons, 11.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 670 lbs / 304 Kg = 6.2 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 0.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 1.5 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 12.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.42 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a normal bow and large transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.430 / 0.439 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.28 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 22.10 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 69 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forward deck: 14.00 %, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Aft deck: 51.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 16.88 ft / 5.15 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 157.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 135.8 % Waterplane Area: 8,685 Square feet or 807 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 75 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 33 lbs/sq ft or 159 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.43 - Longitudinal: 2.09 - Overall: 0.51 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, September 18, 2007

### A more normal GB/CB/1915 alternative design

I wondered what the GB/CB/1915 would be like with a more normal speed for the sort of power that I had envisioned. The answer is that just 32 knots seems reasonable. This design still requires the lightest possible machinery. This is the revised Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1915 design study, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 34,888 t light; 36,564 t standard; 39,099 t normal; 41,127 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (855.20 ft / 850.00 ft) x 105.00 ft x (25.90 / 27.00 ft) (260.67 m / 259.08 m) x 32.00 m x (7.89 / 8.23 m) Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm 45.0 cal guns - 1,950.00lbs / 884.51kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1915 Model 4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 5.50" / 140 mm 45.0 cal guns - 85.00lbs / 38.56kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1915 Model 16 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 4 raised mounts Weight of broadside 16,960 lbs / 7,693 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 565.00 ft / 172.21 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 5.00" / 127 mm 565.00 ft / 172.21 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 565.00 ft / 172.21 m 25.90 ft / 7.89 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Protected deck - multiple decks: 3.00" / 76 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm - Conning towers: Forward 8.00" / 203 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 184,470 shp / 137,614 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,563 tons Complement: 1,389 - 1,807 Cost: £4.706 million / $18.825 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,618 tons, 6.7 % Armour: 10,219 tons, 26.1 % - Belts: 2,789 tons, 7.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,083 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 2,527 tons, 6.5 % - Armour Deck: 3,621 tons, 9.3 % - Conning Tower: 199 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 4,413 tons, 11.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,638 tons, 45.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,210 tons, 10.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 71,119 lbs / 32,259 Kg = 42.1 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 10.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.13 Metacentric height 6.8 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 64 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.89 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.28 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.592 / 0.597 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 8.00 degrees Stern overhang: -3.00 ft / -0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 34.00 %, 37.00 ft / 11.28 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forward deck: 33.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Aft deck: 18.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Average freeboard: 30.19 ft / 9.20 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 85.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 259.2 % Waterplane Area: 64,789 Square feet or 6,019 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 121 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 202 lbs/sq ft or 985 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.42 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### The 35 knot version of the GB/CB/1915 design study

The GB/CB/1915 design study uses an imaginery 15in/45 guns and has a 35 knot speed specified. What makes that especially difficult is that the draft is shallow at 25.9ft. The specification was very over-optimistic:

Length: 850ft Light displacement: 35,000 tons Normal: 36,500 tons Beam: 105ft Full load: 39,000 tons Depth: 45ft Cp: 0.57 Cm: 0.97 Draft: 25.9ft 8-15in/45 guns Speed: 35 knots 154,000 SHP 184,500 SHP max.This is the Springsharp report for the version that does whatever it takes to reach 35 knots:

GB/CB/1915 design study, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 38,888 t light; 40,649 t standard; 43,392 t normal; 45,586 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (855.48 ft / 850.00 ft) x 105.00 ft x (25.90 / 27.02 ft) (260.75 m / 259.08 m) x 32.00 m x (7.89 / 8.23 m) Armament: 8 - 15.00" / 381 mm 45.0 cal guns - 1,950.00lbs / 884.51kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1915 Model 4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 5.50" / 140 mm 45.0 cal guns - 85.00lbs / 38.56kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1915 Model 16 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread 4 raised mounts Weight of broadside 16,960 lbs / 7,693 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 565.00 ft / 172.21 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 5.00" / 127 mm 565.00 ft / 172.21 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 565.00 ft / 172.21 m 25.90 ft / 7.89 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Protected deck - multiple decks: 3.00" / 76 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm - Conning towers: Forward 8.00" / 203 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 290,772 shp / 216,916 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,937 tons Complement: 1,503 - 1,954 Cost: £5.428 million / $21.711 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,618 tons, 6.0 % Armour: 10,572 tons, 24.4 % - Belts: 2,799 tons, 6.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,083 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 2,631 tons, 6.1 % - Armour Deck: 3,846 tons, 8.9 % - Conning Tower: 213 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 6,956 tons, 16.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 18,741 tons, 43.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,504 tons, 10.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 68,819 lbs / 31,216 Kg = 40.8 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 8.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 7.0 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.82 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a normal bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.657 / 0.662 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 8.00 degrees Stern overhang: -3.00 ft / -0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 34.00 %, 39.00 ft / 11.89 m, 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forward deck: 33.00 %, 34.00 ft / 10.36 m, 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Aft deck: 18.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Average freeboard: 32.19 ft / 9.81 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 100.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 271.9 % Waterplane Area: 68,810 Square feet or 6,393 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 115 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 201 lbs/sq ft or 981 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.44 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, September 16, 2007

### A new take on the GB/BB/1902 design

I now guess that this specification for a pre-dreadnought battleship that dates from the early 1970's is for a ship from about 1902. The specification is quite detailed and overestimated the power required for the ship to reach its designed speed. As a consequence, the actual speed is higher, in my solution to the design:

Normal displacement=15,000 tons 435ft x 75ft x 50ft depth Armament: 4-12in/40 and 12-6in/45 guns Belt: 12in Speed-18knots Normal power=22,330 IHP Weights: 4720 tons Hull 1484 tons Machinery 564 tons Aux Machinery 6352 tons Protection 680 tons Armament 1200 tons MiscellaneousThis is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1902, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1902 Displacement: 12,670 t light; 13,248 t standard; 15,138 t normal; 16,650 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (439.00 ft / 435.00 ft) x 75.00 ft x (29.00 / 31.30 ft) (133.81 m / 132.59 m) x 22.86 m x (8.84 / 9.54 m) Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm 40.0 cal guns - 828.07lbs / 375.60kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1902 Model 2 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 45.0 cal guns - 108.92lbs / 49.41kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in casemate mounts, 1902 Model 12 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft 4 hull mounts in casemates- Limited use in heavy seas Weight of broadside 4,619 lbs / 2,095 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 250.00 ft / 76.20 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 250.00 ft / 76.20 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 88 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 250.00 ft / 76.20 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 7.00" / 178 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 7.00" / 178 mm - Protected deck - single deck: 3.00" / 76 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 2.00" / 51 mm Quarter deck: 2.00" / 51 mm - Conning towers: Forward 9.00" / 229 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Coal fired boilers, complex reciprocating steam engines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 22,728 ihp / 16,955 Kw = 20.50 kts Range 7,500nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,403 tons (100% coal) Complement: 682 - 887 Cost: £1.262 million / $5.049 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 746 tons, 4.9 % Armour: 4,346 tons, 28.7 % - Belts: 1,822 tons, 12.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 268 tons, 1.8 % - Armament: 946 tons, 6.3 % - Armour Deck: 1,191 tons, 7.9 % - Conning Tower: 119 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,444 tons, 22.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 4,135 tons, 27.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,468 tons, 16.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 17,287 lbs / 7,841 Kg = 20.0 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 2.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.36 Metacentric height 5.6 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 13.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 91 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.47 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.83 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.560 / 0.571 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.80 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.86 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -3.00 ft / -0.91 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 25.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Aft deck: 30.00 %, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m, 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 20.58 ft / 6.27 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 129.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 126.8 % Waterplane Area: 22,983 Square feet or 2,135 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 105 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 125 lbs/sq ft or 608 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.89 - Longitudinal: 2.83 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Saturday, September 15, 2007

### I have the start of a sketch design: Ger/DL/1916

I have this incomplete sketch design for a variant large destroyer leader, with a twin mount on the forecastle. The ship appears to have been intended to be about the same dimensions as the alternate Ger/DL/1915 design. Since the sketch is imcomplete, I chose to complete the design with 5-5in QF guns and 4-23.6in TT. I retained the twin mount on the forecastle, which actually makes the design work better than the superfiring arrangement on the Ger/DL/1915. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/DL/1916 variant, Germany Destroyer Leader laid down 1916 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 1,901 t light; 1,979 t standard; 2,202 t normal; 2,380 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (394.12 ft / 390.00 ft) x 40.00 ft x (13.00 / 13.63 ft) (120.13 m / 118.87 m) x 12.19 m x (3.96 / 4.16 m) Armament: 2 - 5.00" / 127 mm 50.0 cal guns - 65.00lbs / 29.48kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mount, 1916 Model 1 x Twin mount on centreline, forward deck forward 3 - 5.00" / 127 mm 50.0 cal guns - 65.00lbs / 29.48kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1916 Model 1 x Single mount on centreline, forward deck aft 1 raised mount - superfiring 2 x Single mounts on centreline, aft evenly spread 1 raised mount Weight of broadside 325 lbs / 147 kg 4 - 23.6" / 599 mm, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m torpedoes - 1.822 t each, 7.288 t total In 2 sets of deck mounted carriage/fixed tubes Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 50,677 shp / 37,805 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 4,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 400 tons Complement: 159 - 208 Cost: £0.408 million / $1.632 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 99 tons, 4.5 % - Guns: 91 tons, 4.1 % - Torpedoes: 7 tons, 0.3 % Armour: 61 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 61 tons, 2.8 % Machinery: 1,056 tons, 47.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 686 tons, 31.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 301 tons, 13.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 685 lbs / 311 Kg = 11.0 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.21 Metacentric height 1.8 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 12.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.41 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a normal bow and large transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.380 / 0.392 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 22.97 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 9.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forward deck: 19.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Aft deck: 46.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 17.66 ft / 5.38 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 169.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 190.7 % Waterplane Area: 9,838 Square feet or 914 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 78 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 39 lbs/sq ft or 189 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.45 - Longitudinal: 2.14 - Overall: 0.52 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, September 14, 2007

### The Ger/DL/1915 alternate version

An alternative version of a German destroyer leader for 1915 was 390ft long and had a beam of 40ft. I had thought that giving up one 5in mount and adding a twin 23.6in TT mount would be beneficial. With that, the design could achieve a 36 knot speed. The "look" is very German, although of a later era. There is long forecastle and two funnels with prominent caps. This the Springsharp report:

Ger/DL/1915 alternate version, Germany Destroyer Leader laid down 1915 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 1,745 t light; 1,818 t standard; 2,006 t normal; 2,156 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (394.23 ft / 390.00 ft) x 40.00 ft x (12.00 / 12.54 ft) (120.16 m / 118.87 m) x 12.19 m x (3.66 / 3.82 m) Armament: 4 - 5.00" / 127 mm 50.0 cal guns - 65.00lbs / 29.48kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1915 Model 4 x Single mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 260 lbs / 118 kg 6 - 23.6" / 599 mm, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m torpedoes - 1.818 t each, 10.908 t total In 3 sets of deck mounted carriage/fixed tubes Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 47,569 shp / 35,487 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 4,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 338 tons Complement: 149 - 194 Cost: £0.328 million / $1.311 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 90 tons, 4.5 % - Guns: 79 tons, 4.0 % - Torpedoes: 11 tons, 0.5 % Armour: 60 tons, 3.0 % - Armament: 60 tons, 3.0 % Machinery: 974 tons, 48.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 621 tons, 31.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 260 tons, 13.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 640 lbs / 290 Kg = 10.2 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 1.7 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 12.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 58 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.36 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a normal bow and large transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.375 / 0.386 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 22.99 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 57 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 10.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forward deck: 21.00 %, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Aft deck: 44.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 17.44 ft / 5.32 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 169.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 202.2 % Waterplane Area: 9,809 Square feet or 911 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 77 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 36 lbs/sq ft or 176 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.44 - Longitudinal: 1.84 - Overall: 0.51 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Thursday, September 13, 2007

### A It/CL/1939 design study

I thought that the time was right to see what might be done for a fast Italian light cruiser, along the lines of the Capitani Romani class, but not that closely aligned with that specification. My design study was for a 462.5ft long ship with 8-5.3in guns and 8-21in TT. I was able to achieve 38 knots with the design:

It/CL/1939, Italy Light Cruiser laid down 1939 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 3,696 t light; 3,839 t standard; 4,040 t normal; 4,201 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (468.45 ft / 462.50 ft) x 43.00 ft x (18.00 / 18.46 ft) (142.78 m / 140.97 m) x 13.11 m x (5.49 / 5.63 m) Armament: 8 - 5.30" / 135 mm 45.0 cal guns - 75.07lbs / 34.05kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1939 Model 4 x Single mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 4 raised mounts Weight of broadside 601 lbs / 272 kg 8 - 21.0" / 533 mm, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m torpedoes - 1.497 t each, 11.977 t total In 2 sets of deck mounted side rotating tubes Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 103,050 shp / 76,875 Kw = 38.00 kts Range 3,500nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 362 tons Complement: 253 - 329 Cost: £2.974 million / $11.894 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 185 tons, 4.6 % - Guns: 173 tons, 4.3 % - Torpedoes: 12 tons, 0.3 % Armour: 80 tons, 2.0 % - Armament: 80 tons, 2.0 % Machinery: 2,319 tons, 57.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,112 tons, 27.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 344 tons, 8.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 800 lbs / 363 Kg = 10.7 x 5.3 " / 135 mm shells or 0.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.19 Metacentric height 1.9 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 13.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.65 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.22 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck, an extended bulbous bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.395 / 0.400 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.76 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 21.51 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 66 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 12.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Aft deck: 35.00 %, 20.00 ft / 6.10 m, 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 17.00 ft / 5.18 m, 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 20.75 ft / 6.32 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 198.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 176.7 % Waterplane Area: 12,201 Square feet or 1,133 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 73 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 44 lbs/sq ft or 215 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.44 - Longitudinal: 2.30 - Overall: 0.52 Caution: Hull subject to strain in open-sea Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Wednesday, September 12, 2007

### The "extreme sports" version of the GB/CB/1905

I thought it would be an amusing exercise to see how much more I might squeeze out of the basis GB/CB/1905 design. This assumes using a destroyer-like plant, but on a large scale, with eight shafts to get the maximum possible power at a very light weight and relatively small size. I raised the freeboard and increased the draft. Those are my usual Springsharp hacks for getting increased performance. This allows the design to make 42 knots. I actually was able to have a range of 6,500nm, as increased range increases seakeeping. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1905 Extreme, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 29,713 t light; 30,600 t standard; 32,089 t normal; 33,280 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (776.00 ft / 770.00 ft) x 85.00 ft x (33.00 / 33.94 ft) (236.52 m / 234.70 m) x 25.91 m x (10.06 / 10.34 m) Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 850.00lbs / 385.55kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1905 Model 2 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 9 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1905 Model 8 x Single mounts on centreline, aft deck forward 1 x Single mount on centreline, aft deck centre 1 raised mount Weight of broadside 4,300 lbs / 1,950 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 108 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Protected deck - multiple decks: 2.00" / 51 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 2.00" / 51 mm Quarter deck: 2.00" / 51 mm - Conning towers: Forward 6.00" / 152 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 8 shafts, 489,072 shp / 364,847 Kw = 42.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,680 tons Complement: 1,198 - 1,558 Cost: £3.111 million / $12.446 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 923 tons, 2.9 % Armour: 4,838 tons, 15.1 % - Belts: 1,238 tons, 3.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 989 tons, 3.1 % - Armament: 826 tons, 2.6 % - Armour Deck: 1,654 tons, 5.2 % - Conning Tower: 131 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 11,700 tons, 36.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 12,252 tons, 38.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,376 tons, 7.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 24,803 lbs / 11,250 Kg = 28.7 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 2.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 5.3 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 15.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.43 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.520 / 0.524 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 66 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 39.00 ft / 11.89 m, 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 36.00 ft / 10.97 m, 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Aft deck: 17.00 %, 36.00 ft / 10.97 m, 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Quarter deck: 33.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Average freeboard: 33.60 ft / 10.24 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 170.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 254.2 % Waterplane Area: 44,416 Square feet or 4,126 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 99 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 155 lbs/sq ft or 757 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.90 - Longitudinal: 2.62 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, September 11, 2007

### The very fast version of the GB/CB/1905

In the early 1970's, I had played with the concept of a very fast version of my friend Cliff's GB/CB/1905 design. I had hoped for as much as 45 knots. This version that I tried today is good for 40 knots, which is the best that I have been able to achieve. I suspect that we might be able to squeeze more by allowing a deeper draft. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1905 Very Fast, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 24,931 t light; 25,713 t standard; 26,844 t normal; 27,749 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (776.00 ft / 770.00 ft) x 85.00 ft x (29.00 / 29.73 ft) (236.52 m / 234.70 m) x 25.91 m x (8.84 / 9.06 m) Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 850.00lbs / 385.55kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1905 Model 2 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 9 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1905 Model 8 x Single mounts on centreline, aft deck forward 1 x Single mount on centreline, aft deck centre 1 raised mount Weight of broadside 4,300 lbs / 1,950 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 108 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Protected deck - multiple decks: 2.00" / 51 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 2.00" / 51 mm Quarter deck: 2.00" / 51 mm - Conning towers: Forward 6.00" / 152 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 6 shafts, 350,831 shp / 261,720 Kw = 40.00 kts Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,036 tons Complement: 1,048 - 1,363 Cost: £2.481 million / $9.924 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 923 tons, 3.4 % Armour: 4,686 tons, 17.5 % - Belts: 1,236 tons, 4.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 869 tons, 3.2 % - Armament: 848 tons, 3.2 % - Armour Deck: 1,616 tons, 6.0 % - Conning Tower: 116 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 8,393 tons, 31.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,929 tons, 40.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,913 tons, 7.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 27,342 lbs / 12,402 Kg = 31.6 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 5.2 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 15.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.43 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low quarterdeck , a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.495 / 0.499 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 63 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 37.00 ft / 11.28 m, 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forward deck: 30.00 %, 34.00 ft / 10.36 m, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Aft deck: 17.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Quarter deck: 33.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 30.95 ft / 9.43 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 151.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 262.9 % Waterplane Area: 43,410 Square feet or 4,033 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 105 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 153 lbs/sq ft or 748 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.07 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, September 10, 2007

### A very fast version of the Ger/CB/1915 design

My original hope for the Ger/CB/1915, back in the early 1970's was for the ships to be capable of 40 knots. For 40 knots to be a possibility, even with the lightest machinery, I had to tweak the dimensions. I am using some "Springsharp hacks", such as raising the freeboard to extremes and increasing the draft. By doing that I was able to achieve this design, which is very "edgy". If you accept all that, the design looks pretty acceptable on paper:

Ger/CB/1915 very fast, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 42,646 t light; 44,816 t standard; 46,155 t normal; 47,226 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (916.25 ft / 905.00 ft) x 102.00 ft x (35.00 / 35.61 ft) (279.27 m / 275.84 m) x 31.09 m x (10.67 / 10.85 m) Armament: 6 - 16.50" / 419 mm 45.0 cal guns - 2,265.21lbs / 1,027.48kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1915 Model 2 x Triple mounts on centreline, forward deck forward 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in deck and hoist mount, 1915 Model 1 x Single mount on sides, forward deck aft 2 raised mounts Weight of broadside 14,963 lbs / 6,787 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 535.00 ft / 163.07 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 5.00" / 127 mm 535.00 ft / 163.07 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 91 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 535.00 ft / 163.07 m 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Protected deck - single deck: 3.00" / 76 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm - Conning towers: Forward 8.00" / 203 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 8 shafts, 457,786 shp / 341,508 Kw = 40.00 kts Range 5,000nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,409 tons Complement: 1,573 - 2,046 Cost: £6.453 million / $25.813 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,583 tons, 5.6 % Armour: 9,285 tons, 20.1 % - Belts: 2,350 tons, 5.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,386 tons, 3.0 % - Armament: 1,889 tons, 4.1 % - Armour Deck: 3,438 tons, 7.4 % - Conning Tower: 222 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 10,952 tons, 23.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 19,827 tons, 43.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,509 tons, 7.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 46,974 lbs / 21,307 Kg = 20.9 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 5.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.09 Metacentric height 6.1 ft / 1.8 m Roll period: 17.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.81 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, an extended bulbous bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.500 / 0.503 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.87 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.08 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 51 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 15.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 30.00 %, 42.00 ft / 12.80 m, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Forward deck: 37.00 %, 35.00 ft / 10.67 m, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Aft deck: 18.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m, 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 32.17 ft / 9.81 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 131.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 231.3 % Waterplane Area: 61,504 Square feet or 5,714 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 211 lbs/sq ft or 1,032 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.78 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, September 09, 2007

### Another attempt at the Ger/DL/1915 design

The original specification for the Ger/DL1915 design seems to be not feasible in Springsharp. Part of the problem is that the dimensions are small for the displacement. They should work, as they were inspired by the British Scott leaders, which were 1580 tons and 332.5ft x 31.75ft x 12.5ft. They were armed with 5-4.7in guns and 6-21in TT. The speed was to be 36 knots. If the Scott design would work, these should work, as well. This is my original specification:

Ger/DL/1915 332ft x 32ft x 12.7ft 5-5in guns, 4-23,6in TT 1800 tons Cp=0.60 Cm=0.8- 450 tons oil fuel 2,250 tons full load 45,000 SHP 900 tons of machinery 37.4 knotsIn fact, only by using a large transom stern, a high freeboard, and a lower displacement and speed, all I was able to achieve was this:

Ger/DL/1915, Germany Destroyer Leader laid down 1915 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 1,488 t light; 1,556 t standard; 1,721 t normal; 1,853 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (334.82 ft / 332.00 ft) x 32.00 ft x (14.00 / 14.68 ft) (102.05 m / 101.19 m) x 9.75 m x (4.27 / 4.47 m) Armament: 5 - 5.00" / 127 mm 45.0 cal guns - 65.00lbs / 29.48kg shells, 150 per gun Breech loading guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1915 Model 4 x Single mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 2 raised mounts - superfiring 1 x Single mount on centreline, forward deck aft 1 raised mount Weight of broadside 325 lbs / 147 kg 4 - 23.6" / 599 mm, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m torpedoes - 1.818 t each, 7.272 t total In 2 sets of deck mounted centre rotating tubes Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 2.00" / 51 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 42,851 shp / 31,967 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 4,500nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 297 tons Complement: 133 - 173 Cost: £0.288 million / $1.153 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 92 tons, 5.4 % - Guns: 85 tons, 4.9 % - Torpedoes: 7 tons, 0.4 % Armour: 40 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 40 tons, 2.4 % Machinery: 830 tons, 48.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 525 tons, 30.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 234 tons, 13.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 462 lbs / 210 Kg = 7.4 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.07 Metacentric height 1.0 ft / 0.3 m Roll period: 13.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.96 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a normal bow and large transom stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.405 / 0.416 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.38 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 21.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 70 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 7.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forward deck: 14.00 %, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Aft deck: 51.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 16.80 ft / 5.12 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 171.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 119.5 % Waterplane Area: 6,807 Square feet or 632 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 72 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 35 lbs/sq ft or 172 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.45 - Longitudinal: 3.44 - Overall: 0.55 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Saturday, September 08, 2007

### Another try at the Ger/CB/1915 design form the Red Book

Early in the Red Book from the early 1970's, there is the specification named the Ger/CB/1915:

Ger/CB/1915 Length=900ft Sqrt(L) = 30.0 V=40 knots V/sqrt(L)=1.333 6-16.5in BLR, 12-6in QF guns 5.4 SHP/ton 40,000 tons full load 216,000 SHP Cp = 0.54 Cm = 0.97 L=900ft, B=100ft, Depth=58ft d=29.7ft deep load c=0.24 (hull weight coefficient) Weights: 40,000 tons full load displacement 2500nm @ 40 knots 62.5 hours 3,620 tons fuel oil 543 tons feed water 35,837 tons standard 12,528 tons hull 7,200 tons machinery 2,875 tons armament 8,974 tons protection 2,860 tons miscellaneous 1,400 tons auxiliary machineryThis is the Springsharp report for the design I implemented:

Ger/CB/1915, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 34,937 t light; 36,488 t standard; 38,568 t normal; 40,231 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (910.18 ft / 900.00 ft) x 100.00 ft x (29.70 / 30.67 ft) (277.42 m / 274.32 m) x 30.48 m x (9.05 / 9.35 m) Armament: 6 - 16.50" / 419 mm 45.0 cal guns - 2,265.21lbs / 1,027.48kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1915 Model 2 x Triple mounts on centreline, forward deck forward 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 100.00lbs / 45.36kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mount, 1915 Model 1 x Single mount on sides, forward deck aft 2 raised mounts Weight of broadside 14,791 lbs / 6,709 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 535.00 ft / 163.07 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 6.00" / 152 mm 535.00 ft / 163.07 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 91 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 535.00 ft / 163.07 m 29.70 ft / 9.05 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Protected deck - multiple decks: 3.00" / 76 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm - Conning towers: Forward 8.00" / 203 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 240,176 shp / 179,171 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,743 tons Complement: 1,375 - 1,788 Cost: £5.123 million / $20.492 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,583 tons, 6.7 % Armour: 9,043 tons, 23.4 % - Belts: 2,521 tons, 6.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,176 tons, 3.0 % - Armament: 1,781 tons, 4.6 % - Armour Deck: 3,368 tons, 8.7 % - Conning Tower: 197 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 6,347 tons, 16.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 16,965 tons, 44.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,630 tons, 9.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 52,706 lbs / 23,907 Kg = 23.5 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 6.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 6.5 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 16.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 64 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.72 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.29 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, an extended bulbous bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.505 / 0.510 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 15.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 30.00 %, 38.00 ft / 11.58 m, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forward deck: 37.00 %, 31.00 ft / 9.45 m, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Aft deck: 18.00 %, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 28.17 ft / 8.59 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 108.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 225.8 % Waterplane Area: 60,239 Square feet or 5,596 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 110 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 198 lbs/sq ft or 968 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.41 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Friday, September 07, 2007

### The GB/BB/1910 design study revisited

If my friend Cliff had decided to build battleships for 1910, instead of battlecruiser, he was considering building the GB/BB/1910 design. He had me prepare a preliminary design for him. This was a ship armed with just 6-13.5in guns. I have added a secondary battery of 14-4in guns, as they would have been part of the design. Cliff liked heavy armour, so the ship has a 14in belt, turret faces, and barbettes. He was determined that the standard displacement be 29,000 tons. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1910, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1910 Displacement: 27,726 t light; 28,814 t standard; 32,272 t normal; 35,039 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (626.00 ft / 620.00 ft) x 95.00 ft x (30.20 / 32.38 ft) (190.80 m / 188.98 m) x 28.96 m x (9.20 / 9.87 m) Armament: 6 - 13.50" / 343 mm 45.0 cal guns - 1,350.00lbs / 612.35kg shells, 90 per gun Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1910 Model 3 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 1 raised mount - superfiring 14 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.27lbs / 14.64kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1910 Model 14 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 8,552 lbs / 3,879 kg Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 375.00 ft / 114.30 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 9.00" / 229 mm 375.00 ft / 114.30 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 93 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 375.00 ft / 114.30 m 30.20 ft / 9.20 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armoured deck - multiple decks: 5.00" / 127 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 5.00" / 127 mm Quarter deck: 5.00" / 127 mm - Conning towers: Forward 14.00" / 356 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 129,984 shp / 96,968 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 8,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,224 tons Complement: 1,203 - 1,565 Cost: £2.460 million / $9.842 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,404 tons, 4.3 % Armour: 10,729 tons, 33.2 % - Belts: 3,054 tons, 9.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 838 tons, 2.6 % - Armament: 2,384 tons, 7.4 % - Armour Deck: 4,147 tons, 12.9 % - Conning Tower: 306 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 5,371 tons, 16.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,223 tons, 31.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,546 tons, 14.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 46,581 lbs / 21,129 Kg = 37.9 x 13.5 " / 343 mm shells or 6.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.22 Metacentric height 6.7 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 15.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.44 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a ram bow and a cruiser stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.635 / 0.643 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.53 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.90 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 60 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 30.00 %, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forward deck: 38.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Aft deck: 17.00 %, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 24.68 ft / 7.52 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 95.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 172.8 % Waterplane Area: 44,502 Square feet or 4,134 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 167 lbs/sq ft or 814 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.80 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Thursday, September 06, 2007

### An "edgy" 37 knot light cruiser: the Ger/CL/1915 design study

What I am calling here the Ger/CL/1915 design study is similar to the design that I had in the "Red Book", dating from the early 1970's. The ship is trying to be as fast as possible, with 8-6in guns. This is the sort of ship it is:
This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CL/1915 design study, Germany Light Cruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 8,806 t light; 9,085 t standard; 9,491 t normal; 9,815 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (555.00 ft / 555.00 ft) x 50.00 ft x (19.00 / 19.54 ft) (169.16 m / 169.16 m) x 15.24 m x (5.79 / 5.96 m) Armament: 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1915 Model 4 x Single mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread 4 - 3.50" / 88.9 mm 45.0 cal guns - 21.62lbs / 9.81kg shells, 150 per gun Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1915 Model 4 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread Weight of broadside 1,001 lbs / 454 kg 4 - 21.0" / 533 mm, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m torpedoes - 1.401 t each, 5.605 t total In 2 sets of deck mounted side rotating tubes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 320.00 ft / 97.54 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 89 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 0.60" / 15 mm 320.00 ft / 97.54 m 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armoured deck - multiple decks: 1.00" / 25 mm For and Aft decks Forecastle: 1.00" / 25 mm Quarter deck: 1.00" / 25 mm - Conning towers: Forward 4.00" / 102 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 161,782 shp / 120,689 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 4,200nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 730 tons Complement: 480 - 625 Cost: £1.388 million / $5.554 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 320 tons, 3.4 % - Guns: 314 tons, 3.3 % - Torpedoes: 6 tons, 0.1 % Armour: 1,042 tons, 11.0 % - Belts: 320 tons, 3.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 135 tons, 1.4 % - Armament: 159 tons, 1.7 % - Armour Deck: 389 tons, 4.1 % - Conning Tower: 39 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 3,870 tons, 40.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 3,573 tons, 37.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 685 tons, 7.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 5,948 lbs / 2,698 Kg = 55.1 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 0.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 2.1 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 14.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.51 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a normal bow and a round stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.630 / 0.633 Length to Beam Ratio: 11.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.56 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 20.00 %, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forward deck: 15.00 %, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Aft deck: 50.00 %, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 23.88 ft / 7.28 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 236.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 185.2 % Waterplane Area: 20,870 Square feet or 1,939 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 97 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 89 lbs/sq ft or 437 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.90 - Longitudinal: 2.71 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is extremely poor Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, September 05, 2007

### The original Ger/CS/1905 concept

The original Ger/CS/1905 scout cruiser was conceived as a 1905 German version of the "Super Swift" design study. Of course, the "Super Swift" was a British 1912 design study for an alternative design for the 1912 light cruisers. By using the lightest possible machinery, a successful 36-knot Ger/CS/1905 is possible. The draft is 13ft and the freeboard aft is a rather high 14 feet. This is my concept of what a Ger/CS/1905 scout would like like:
This is the scale drawing:
You should be able to click to get the good, but large, image. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CS/1905, Germany Scout Cruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 1,621 t light; 1,675 t standard; 1,828 t normal; 1,950 t full load Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep) (372.52 ft / 370.00 ft) x 38.00 ft x (13.00 / 13.51 ft) (113.54 m / 112.78 m) x 11.58 m x (3.96 / 4.12 m) Armament: 6 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 150 per gun Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1905 Model 2 x Single mounts on centreline aft 4 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread Weight of broadside 192 lbs / 87 kg 2 - 18.0" / 457 mm, 20.00 ft / 6.10 m torpedoes - 0.865 t each, 1.729 t total In 2 sets of deck mounted centre rotating tubes Armour: - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 2.00" / 51 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 55,088 shp / 41,096 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 4,500nm at 14.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 275 tons Complement: 139 - 181 Cost: £0.217 million / $0.867 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 64 tons, 3.5 % - Guns: 62 tons, 3.4 % - Torpedoes: 2 tons, 0.1 % Armour: 43 tons, 2.3 % - Armament: 43 tons, 2.3 % Machinery: 986 tons, 54.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 528 tons, 28.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 207 tons, 11.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 469 lbs / 213 Kg = 14.7 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.32 Metacentric height 1.9 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.21 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak, a normal bow and a round stern Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.350 / 0.359 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.74 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 19.24 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 52 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 6.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length): Fore end, Aft end - Forecastle: 16.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forward deck: 12.00 %, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Aft deck: 57.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 16.37 ft / 4.99 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 185.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 144.9 % Waterplane Area: 8,395 Square feet or 780 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 63 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 34 lbs/sq ft or 166 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.43 - Longitudinal: 1.96 - Overall: 0.51 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

Subscribe to:
Posts (Atom)