tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-73575872016-09-05T03:45:14.330-07:00Dreadnought CruisersThis is a forum for discussion of topics relating to the Dreadnought era, prior to the ascendency of naval aviation. We will be discussing history, ship design, and naval wargaming.Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.comBlogger1843125tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-84768820830714200392014-05-30T14:25:00.000-07:002014-05-30T14:32:17.009-07:00Tomorrow is a big anniversary: May 31, 1916, the start of the Battle of JutlandAll those enthusiasts interested in naval history and warships from 1900 to 1921 know what May 31st is about: the anniversary of the start of the Battle of Jutland in 1916. This picture, of course, shows the unfortunate loss of HMS Invincible (from Wikipedia).<br />
<p><div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a href="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-TYiHZ_lzZW0/U4j4m7svdSI/AAAAAAAAEb4/k8XJJilJPfk/s1600/InvincibleBlowingUpJutland1916small.jpg" imageanchor="1" style="clear: left; float: left; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-right: 1em;"><img border="0" src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-TYiHZ_lzZW0/U4j4m7svdSI/AAAAAAAAEb4/k8XJJilJPfk/s200/InvincibleBlowingUpJutland1916small.jpg" /></a></div></p>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-58177757057854446072014-05-18T12:10:00.000-07:002014-05-18T12:13:51.887-07:00The World War Two British Emergency War ProgrammeThe British World War Two Emergency War Programme (as they say) was very inadequate for rebuilding the navy from the losses of 1941 and 1942. The Battle for Crete took a heavy toll of cruisers and destroyers. We might as why they wanted to build the Colony class cruisers. They were too small for their armament and were not able to take battle damage. They really needed to build a mix, such as larger Liverpool class ships, more Dido light cruisers, and perhaps more Leander class ships. Then again, nine-gun Colony class ships might have been equivalent.Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-28219591360383785252013-05-04T19:56:00.001-07:002013-05-04T19:57:37.408-07:00My fast Italian six inch gunned cruiser conceptI have a photograph of what I have thought that the more modern fast Italian six inch gunned cruiser would look like. The ships would look a lot like the Attilio Regolo, except longer and lower, with eight six inch guns.<br />
<a href="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-3n_5gje-9cQ/UYXKAf_8eJI/AAAAAAAAEQk/PrcdztK3MUY/s1600/Fast+Italian+six+inch+gun+Cruiser.bmp" imageanchor="1"><img border="0" src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-3n_5gje-9cQ/UYXKAf_8eJI/AAAAAAAAEQk/PrcdztK3MUY/s320/Fast+Italian+six+inch+gun+Cruiser.bmp" /></a>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-47775960021075999802013-05-04T13:36:00.000-07:002013-05-04T13:36:28.005-07:00My first attempt in a Springsharp design in years<p>I have had the concept for a modernized version of the early Italian fast light cruisers. I can tell that I have become extremely rusty using SpringSharp. This is supposed to be a flush-decked version, sort of like the Capitani Romani ships. I thought that 8-6in guns, 8-4in DP, and 8 torpedo tubes might work. I wanted to get 36 knots out of the design. I am not even sure any more how to publish the report. I gave it some armor and machinery, but I am sure that I am doing something inappropriate:<br />
<pre>Fast Light Cruiser, Italy Light Cruiser laid down 1941
Displacement:
9,685 t light; 10,001 t standard; 11,129 t normal; 12,031 t full load
Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
(564.95 ft / 555.00 ft) x 62.00 ft x (22.00 / 23.32 ft)
(172.20 m / 169.16 m) x 18.90 m x (6.71 / 7.11 m)
Armament:
8 - 5.91" / 150 mm 50.0 cal guns - 109.02lbs / 49.45kg shells, 150 per gun
Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1941 Model
4 x Twin mounts on centreline, evenly spread
2 raised mounts
8 - 3.94" / 100.0 mm 45.0 cal guns - 30.77lbs / 13.96kg shells, 150 per gun
Dual purpose guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1941 Model
8 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread
8 raised mounts
Weight of broadside 1,118 lbs / 507 kg
Main Torpedoes
8 - 20.9" / 530 mm, 68.90 ft / 21.00 m torpedoes - 4.227 t each, 33.817 t total
In 4 sets of deck mounted side rotating tubes
Armour:
- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)
Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 350.00 ft / 106.68 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m
Ends: 1.00" / 25 mm 100.00 ft / 30.48 m 10.00 ft / 3.05 m
105.00 ft / 32.00 m Unarmoured ends
Main Belt covers 97 % of normal length
Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces
Main Belt inclined 2.00 degrees (positive = in)
- Torpedo Bulkhead - Strengthened structural bulkheads:
0.75" / 19 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 15.00 ft / 4.57 m
Beam between torpedo bulkheads 54.00 ft / 16.46 m
- Hull Bulges:
0.50" / 13 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 15.00 ft / 4.57 m
- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3.00" / 76 mm
2nd: - - 2.00" / 51 mm
- Armoured deck - multiple decks:
For and Aft decks: 2.00" / 51 mm
Forecastle: 1.00" / 25 mm Quarter deck: 1.00" / 25 mm
- Conning towers: Forward 2.00" / 51 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm
Machinery:
Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,
Geared drive, 4 shafts, 156,810 shp / 116,980 Kw = 36.00 kts
Range 3,500nm at 22.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 2,030 tons
Complement:
541 - 704
Cost:
£6.396 million / $25.583 million
Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 361 tons, 3.2 %
- Guns: 294 tons, 2.6 %
- Weapons: 68 tons, 0.6 %
Armour: 1,672 tons, 15.0 %
- Belts: 389 tons, 3.5 %
- Torpedo bulkhead: 150 tons, 1.3 %
- Bulges: 100 tons, 0.9 %
- Armament: 216 tons, 1.9 %
- Armour Deck: 796 tons, 7.2 %
- Conning Tower: 21 tons, 0.2 %
Machinery: 4,144 tons, 37.2 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 3,507 tons, 31.5 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,444 tons, 13.0 %
Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %
Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
7,239 lbs / 3,284 Kg = 70.3 x 5.9 " / 150 mm shells or 0.4 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.02
Metacentric height 2.5 ft / 0.8 m
Roll period: 15.3 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.40
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 0.71
Hull form characteristics:
Hull has a flush deck,
an extended bulbous bow and a round stern
Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.550 / 0.561
Length to Beam Ratio: 9.57 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 23.56 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 66 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 80
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 12.00 degrees
Stern overhang: 4.00 ft / 1.22 m
Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
Fore end, Aft end
- Forecastle: 25.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m
- Forward deck: 35.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m
- Aft deck: 25.00 %, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m, 17.00 ft / 5.18 m
- Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 17.00 ft / 5.18 m, 15.00 ft / 4.57 m
- Average freeboard: 20.50 ft / 6.25 m
Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 149.6 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 140.0 %
Waterplane Area: 24,014 Square feet or 2,231 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 101 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 100 lbs/sq ft or 489 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 0.94
- Longitudinal: 1.52
- Overall: 0.99
Caution: Hull subject to strain in open-sea
Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
Excellent accommodation and workspace room
Poor seaboat, wet and uncomfortable, reduced performance in heavy weather
</pre></p>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com1tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-18819571646210302382010-06-01T09:25:00.000-07:002010-06-01T09:28:45.393-07:00Jutland<p>
<a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/HMS_Queen_Mary_Jutland.jpg"><img style="cursor: pointer; width: 600px; height: 323px;" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d2/HMS_Queen_Mary_Jutland.jpg" alt="" border="0" /></a></p>
We almost got by the anniversary of the Battle of Jutland (May 31-June 1, 1916) without some mention. This Wikipedia image shows the British battle cruiser Queen Mary exploding. There is a Lion-class ship to the left.Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com1tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-61684986373175264002010-01-24T16:07:00.000-08:002010-01-24T16:15:17.766-08:00Today was the annivesary of the Battle of Dogger Bank in 1915I noticed two good photographs from the Battle of Dogger Bank (24 January 1915). I hope that these will work for us:
the Seydlitz on fire and low in the water (from <a href="http://www.cityofart.net/bship/gun_ops.html">www.cityofart.net/bship/gun_ops.html</a>)
<p>
<a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://www.cityofart.net/bship/seydlitz_dogger_bank.jpg"><img style="cursor: pointer; width: 612px; height: 395px;" src="http://www.cityofart.net/bship/seydlitz_dogger_bank.jpg" alt="" border="0" /></a>
</p>
the Derfflinger, Seydlitz, and Von der Tann on the way to the battle (from <a href="http://www.sms-navy.com/bc/sms_bc.htm">www.sms-navy.com</a>)
<p>
<a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://www.sms-navy.com/bc/Derff-Seyd-Molt_1915-s.jpg"><img style="cursor: pointer; width: 610px; height: 253px;" src="http://www.sms-navy.com/bc/Derff-Seyd-Molt_1915-s.jpg" alt="" border="0" /></a>
</p>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com2tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-4793267350475741502009-09-20T05:15:00.000-07:002009-09-20T05:17:30.587-07:00Cruising formations for Dutch warships?One question that I have is if the Dutch sailed in some cruising formation with their fleet when not engaged in actual fighting. I have speculated that the ships in the same squadron sailed as a clump and that the fleet consisted of clumps, grouped by squadron. Is there a more definitive answer?Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-17720534383367265042009-08-16T17:44:00.000-07:002009-08-16T17:46:42.868-07:00Another run at the GB/CB/1905 fast battlecruiser designI have tended to be obsessed with Cliff's design for a fast British battlecruiser, what we called the GB/CB/1905 design. I just got a good result by using light weight machinery. I am mystified why the protection is so good, considering the armour basis of 4in:
<pre style="font-size:10px;">
GB/CB/1905, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1910)
Displacement:
23,677 t light; 24,490 t standard; 27,903 t normal; 30,632 t full load
Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
(778.00 ft / 770.00 ft) x 80.00 ft x (27.50 / 29.67 ft)
(237.13 m / 234.70 m) x 24.38 m x (8.38 / 9.04 m)
Armament:
4 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 850.00lbs / 385.55kg shells, 90 per gun
Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1905 Model
2 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread
1 raised mount - superfiring
9 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun
Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1905 Model
8 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread
1 x Single mount on centreline, aft deck aft
1 raised mount
Weight of broadside 4,429 lbs / 2,009 kg
Armour:
- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)
Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 580.00 ft / 176.78 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m
Ends: Unarmoured
Main Belt covers 116 % of normal length
Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces
- Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
1.50" / 38 mm 580.00 ft / 176.78 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m
Beam between torpedo bulkheads 56.00 ft / 17.07 m
- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm
2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm
- Armoured deck - multiple decks:
For and Aft decks: 3.00" / 76 mm
Forecastle: 2.00" / 51 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm
- Conning towers: Forward 8.00" / 203 mm, Aft 5.00" / 127 mm
Machinery:
Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,
Direct drive, 4 shafts, 168,353 shp / 125,591 Kw = 33.00 kts
Range 6,500nm at 17.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 6,142 tons
Complement:
1,079 - 1,403
Cost:
£2.236 million / $8.944 million
Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 923 tons, 3.3 %
- Guns: 923 tons, 3.3 %
Armour: 5,984 tons, 21.4 %
- Belts: 1,501 tons, 5.4 %
- Torpedo bulkhead: 869 tons, 3.1 %
- Armament: 1,029 tons, 3.7 %
- Armour Deck: 2,327 tons, 8.3 %
- Conning Towers: 258 tons, 0.9 %
Machinery: 6,957 tons, 24.9 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,813 tons, 35.2 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,226 tons, 15.1 %
Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %
Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
36,559 lbs / 16,583 Kg = 42.3 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.1 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17
Metacentric height 4.8 ft / 1.5 m
Roll period: 15.4 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 65 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.55
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.30
Hull form characteristics:
Hull has low quarterdeck ,
a ram bow and a cruiser stern
Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.577 / 0.587
Length to Beam Ratio: 9.63 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees
Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m
Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
Fore end, Aft end
- Forecastle: 30.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m
- Forward deck: 30.00 %, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m
- Aft deck: 10.00 %, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m, 29.00 ft / 8.84 m
- Quarter deck: 30.00 %, 21.00 ft / 6.40 m, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m
- Average freeboard: 27.23 ft / 8.30 m
Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 136.1 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 225.6 %
Waterplane Area: 44,072 Square feet or 4,094 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 145 lbs/sq ft or 706 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 0.97
- Longitudinal: 1.36
- Overall: 1.00
Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
Excellent accommodation and workspace room
Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily
</pre>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-19774267322799417612009-08-15T17:14:00.000-07:002009-08-15T17:19:33.097-07:00Sadly, Alt_Naval seems to be goneOne of my inspiration for making imaginary ship photographs, Alt_Naval, seems to be gone. I tried to go there and found that the page was not there. I did a Google search and could not find a new URL for the site. It is gone. Thankfully, the "Wolf's Den" still exists. That was the first site that I had found with fake ship photographs. "Wolf's Den" has a new URL, but still lives on! I still like the classic <a href="http://wolfsshipyard.mystarship.com/Misc/WolfsDen/MISC/Queen_Victoria/queen.htm">Queen Victoria class pictures</a>.Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-54634885585354891042009-07-17T18:05:00.000-07:002009-07-17T18:38:29.822-07:00A super American battlecruiser: the US/CB/1943I have been toying with very large battleship and battlecruiser designs since I was young. This is a fast battlecruiser armed with 12-21in/55 guns. I don't like the deep draft, but I don't see an alternative.
<pre stle="font-size:10px;">
US-CB-1943, United States Battlecruiser laid down 1943
Displacement:
192,480 t light; 201,981 t standard; 217,137 t normal; 229,261 t full load
Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
(1,366.74 ft / 1,350.00 ft) x 188.00 ft x (38.00 / 39.85 ft)
(416.58 m / 411.48 m) x 57.30 m x (11.58 / 12.15 m)
Armament:
12 - 21.00" / 533 mm 55.0 cal guns - 5,000.00lbs / 2,267.96kg shells, 150 per gun
Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1943 Model
3 x Quad mounts on centreline ends, majority forward
1 raised mount - superfiring
24 - 5.00" / 127 mm 55.0 cal guns - 72.00lbs / 32.66kg shells, 150 per gun
Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1943 Model
12 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck aft
4 raised mounts - superfiring
88 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 2.00lbs / 0.91kg shells, 150 per gun
Breech loading guns in deck mounts, 1943 Model
22 x 4-gun mounts on sides, evenly spread
12 raised mounts
Weight of broadside 61,904 lbs / 28,079 kg
Armour:
- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)
Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 900.00 ft / 274.32 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m
Ends: Unarmoured
Upper: 14.0" / 356 mm 900.00 ft / 274.32 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m
Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length
Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces
Main Belt inclined -17.00 degrees (positive = in)
- Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
8.00" / 203 mm 900.00 ft / 274.32 m 37.00 ft / 11.28 m
Beam between torpedo bulkheads 80.00 ft / 24.38 m
- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
Main: 20.0" / 508 mm 15.0" / 381 mm 20.0" / 508 mm
2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 5.00" / 127 mm
- Armoured deck - multiple decks:
For and Aft decks: 8.00" / 203 mm
Forecastle: 5.00" / 127 mm Quarter deck: 8.00" / 203 mm
- Conning towers: Forward 20.00" / 508 mm, Aft 15.00" / 381 mm
Machinery:
Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,
Geared drive, 10 shafts, 637,542 shp / 475,606 Kw = 35.00 kts
Range 12,000nm at 18.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 27,280 tons
Complement:
5,029 - 6,538
Cost:
£105.209 million / $420.837 million
Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 11,042 tons, 5.1 %
- Guns: 11,042 tons, 5.1 %
Armour: 69,922 tons, 32.2 %
- Belts: 11,396 tons, 5.2 %
- Torpedo bulkhead: 9,857 tons, 4.5 %
- Armament: 12,878 tons, 5.9 %
- Armour Deck: 33,067 tons, 15.2 %
- Conning Towers: 2,724 tons, 1.3 %
Machinery: 16,465 tons, 7.6 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 95,051 tons, 43.8 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 24,657 tons, 11.4 %
Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %
Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
495,302 lbs / 224,665 Kg = 107.0 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 150.3 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.36
Metacentric height 22.2 ft / 6.8 m
Roll period: 16.8 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 58 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.32
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.15
Hull form characteristics:
Hull has a flush deck,
an extended bulbous bow and large transom stern
Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.788 / 0.793
Length to Beam Ratio: 7.18 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 41.90 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 20.00 degrees
Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
Fore end, Aft end
- Forecastle: 20.00 %, 46.00 ft / 14.02 m, 40.00 ft / 12.19 m
- Forward deck: 30.00 %, 40.00 ft / 12.19 m, 38.00 ft / 11.58 m
- Aft deck: 35.00 %, 38.00 ft / 11.58 m, 37.00 ft / 11.28 m
- Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 37.00 ft / 11.28 m, 38.00 ft / 11.58 m
- Average freeboard: 38.93 ft / 11.87 m
Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 129.5 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 332.2 %
Waterplane Area: 229,646 Square feet or 21,335 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 128 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 352 lbs/sq ft or 1,718 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 1.18
- Longitudinal: 0.95
- Overall: 1.00
Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
Excellent accommodation and workspace room
</pre>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-36071038649862799732009-07-07T06:18:00.000-07:002009-07-07T06:20:28.876-07:00The picture posted "May 31, 1916"Rob pointed out to me that <a href="http://dreadnought-cruisers.blogspot.com/2009/05/may-31-1916.html">the picture I posted five weeks ago</a> was actually from the Battle of the Dogger Bank. The Tiger is steaming at high speed towards the left of the picture while in the background, on the right, is the burning, sinking Blücher.Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-52408268914091825322009-05-31T04:05:00.000-07:002009-05-31T04:15:54.706-07:00May 31, 1916<p>
<a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Wyzt7vQJbVg/SiJlYPfLlsI/AAAAAAAACzE/Bgj32-k5bAs/s1600-h/hms-tiger-in-ww1+.jpg"><img style="cursor:pointer; cursor:hand;width: 200px; height: 134px;" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Wyzt7vQJbVg/SiJlYPfLlsI/AAAAAAAACzE/Bgj32-k5bAs/s200/hms-tiger-in-ww1+.jpg" border="0" alt=""id="BLOGGER_PHOTO_ID_5341943575163410114" /></a>
</p>
In my younger years, I was focused on the Battle of Jutland and the events leading up to the war at sea (1905-1918). Today is the anniversary of the start of the Battle of Jutland. This seemed like a good Jutland picture.Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com2tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-1589387202931790032009-05-29T18:15:00.000-07:002009-05-29T18:22:48.982-07:00A fast version of the Ger/CB/1905The Ger/CB/1905 design is the classic light battlecruiser type. The design in anachronistic and looks British, but it works well. I wanted to see how much speed I could achieve with it, and the answer is that I could get 35 knots without a lot of trouble. Of course, it relies on very light machinery:
<pre style="font-size:10px;">
Ger/CB/1905 Fast, Germany Light Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1923)
Displacement:
18,384 t light; 19,004 t standard; 20,886 t normal; 22,392 t full load
Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
(707.00 ft / 700.00 ft) x 80.00 ft x (24.40 / 25.77 ft)
(215.49 m / 213.36 m) x 24.38 m x (7.44 / 7.85 m)
Armament:
4 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 850.00lbs / 385.55kg shells, 90 per gun
Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1905 Model
2 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread
12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.27lbs / 14.64kg shells, 150 per gun
Quick firing guns in casemate mounts, 1905 Model
6 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft
6 x Single mounts on sides, aft deck forward
Weight of broadside 3,787 lbs / 1,718 kg
Armour:
- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)
Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
Ends: Unarmoured
Upper: 3.00" / 76 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
Main Belt covers 97 % of normal length
Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces
- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm
2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm
- Armoured deck - multiple decks:
For and Aft decks: 3.00" / 76 mm
Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm
- Conning towers: Forward 9.00" / 229 mm, Aft 4.00" / 102 mm
Machinery:
Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,
Direct drive, 4 shafts, 185,595 shp / 138,454 Kw = 35.00 kts
Range 6,500nm at 17.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 3,388 tons
Complement:
868 - 1,129
Cost:
£1.856 million / $7.424 million
Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 689 tons, 3.3 %
- Guns: 689 tons, 3.3 %
Armour: 3,897 tons, 18.7 %
- Belts: 1,032 tons, 4.9 %
- Armament: 498 tons, 2.4 %
- Armour Deck: 2,154 tons, 10.3 %
- Conning Towers: 212 tons, 1.0 %
Machinery: 6,203 tons, 29.7 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,596 tons, 36.4 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,502 tons, 12.0 %
Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %
Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
21,714 lbs / 9,849 Kg = 25.1 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 2.0 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.30
Metacentric height 5.8 ft / 1.8 m
Roll period: 14.0 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.29
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.07
Hull form characteristics:
Hull has rise forward of midbreak,
a ram bow and a cruiser stern
Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.535 / 0.543
Length to Beam Ratio: 8.75 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 26.46 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 60 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees
Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m
Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
Fore end, Aft end
- Forecastle: 32.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m
- Forward deck: 30.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m
- Aft deck: 23.00 %, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m
- Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m
- Average freeboard: 24.94 ft / 7.60 m
Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 111.3 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 201.4 %
Waterplane Area: 38,537 Square feet or 3,580 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 133 lbs/sq ft or 650 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 0.96
- Longitudinal: 1.48
- Overall: 1.00
Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
Excellent accommodation and workspace room
</pre>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-6282527041617505042009-05-17T08:17:00.000-07:002009-05-17T08:23:20.580-07:00Naval Airship Command comments on my MySpace pageNaval Airship Command has posted some great pictures in the comments on <a href="http://www.myspace.com/anglodutchwars">my MySpace page</a>. They include U.S. Navy blimps and dirigibles.Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-74961484278552151662009-05-02T15:58:00.000-07:002009-05-02T16:01:24.978-07:00My latest attempt at a very fast 1921-style battlecruiserOne of my long term obsessions is with very fast 1921-style battlecruisers. This latest one relies upon the lightest weight machinery to achieve 38 knots. The battlecruiser carries 6-16in/45 guns and has a 9in belt and 3in deck armour. This is the Springsharp design:
<pre style="font-size:10px;">
GB/CB/1921, Great Britain Fast Battlecruiser laid down 1921 (Engine 1950)
Displacement:
41,653 t light; 43,329 t standard; 46,991 t normal; 49,921 t full load
Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
(889.32 ft / 874.00 ft) x 108.00 ft x (33.00 / 34.53 ft)
(271.07 m / 266.40 m) x 32.92 m x (10.06 / 10.52 m)
Armament:
6 - 16.00" / 406 mm 45.0 cal guns - 2,065.00lbs / 936.67kg shells, 90 per gun
Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1921 Model
2 x Triple mounts on centreline, forward deck forward
1 raised mount - superfiring
12 - 5.50" / 140 mm 50.0 cal guns - 85.00lbs / 38.56kg shells, 150 per gun
Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1921 Model
6 x Single mounts on sides, aft deck forward
6 - 4.70" / 119 mm 45.0 cal guns - 52.35lbs / 23.75kg shells, 150 per gun
Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1921 Model
6 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft
6 raised mounts
32 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm 45.0 cal guns - 2.00lbs / 0.91kg shells, 150 per gun
Anti-air guns in deck mounts, 1921 Model
8 x 2 row quad mounts on sides, evenly spread
Weight of broadside 13,788 lbs / 6,254 kg
Armour:
- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)
Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 580.00 ft / 176.78 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m
Ends: Unarmoured
Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length
Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces
Main Belt inclined -10.00 degrees (positive = in)
- Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
2.00" / 51 mm 580.00 ft / 176.78 m 33.00 ft / 10.06 m
Beam between torpedo bulkheads 64.00 ft / 19.51 m
- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 10.0" / 254 mm
2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm
- Armoured deck - multiple decks:
For and Aft decks: 3.00" / 76 mm
Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm
- Conning towers: Forward 8.00" / 203 mm, Aft 6.00" / 152 mm
Machinery:
Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,
Geared drive, 6 shafts, 333,404 shp / 248,720 Kw = 38.00 kts
Range 8,500nm at 18.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 6,592 tons
Complement:
1,595 - 2,074
Cost:
£9.863 million / $39.453 million
Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 2,448 tons, 5.2 %
- Guns: 2,448 tons, 5.2 %
Armour: 11,045 tons, 23.5 %
- Belts: 2,633 tons, 5.6 %
- Torpedo bulkhead: 1,416 tons, 3.0 %
- Armament: 2,847 tons, 6.1 %
- Armour Deck: 3,756 tons, 8.0 %
- Conning Towers: 393 tons, 0.8 %
Machinery: 7,976 tons, 17.0 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 20,184 tons, 43.0 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,338 tons, 11.4 %
Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %
Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
72,600 lbs / 32,931 Kg = 35.4 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 9.4 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.11
Metacentric height 6.8 ft / 2.1 m
Roll period: 17.3 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.66
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.10
Hull form characteristics:
Hull has rise forward of midbreak,
an extended bulbous bow and large transom stern
Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.528 / 0.536
Length to Beam Ratio: 8.09 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 34.21 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 60 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 51
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 18.00 degrees
Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m
Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
Fore end, Aft end
- Forecastle: 25.00 %, 41.00 ft / 12.50 m, 36.00 ft / 10.97 m
- Forward deck: 30.00 %, 36.00 ft / 10.97 m, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m
- Aft deck: 30.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m
- Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m, 32.00 ft / 9.75 m
- Average freeboard: 34.25 ft / 10.44 m
Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 135.7 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 266.6 %
Waterplane Area: 67,154 Square feet or 6,239 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 119 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 209 lbs/sq ft or 1,021 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 0.94
- Longitudinal: 1.84
- Overall: 1.00
Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
Excellent accommodation and workspace room
</pre>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-76996657657112280562009-04-17T07:08:00.000-07:002009-04-17T07:12:07.463-07:00Gas turbine propulsionI am curious to know about naval gas turbine propulsion. I have heard from a knowledgeable source that the power output of turbines might be able to be increased considerably beyond the nominal figures. We now have some quite large naval ships, such as the new American helicopter carriers, that are gas turbine powered. We could be talking 40,000 ton or larger ships. If we want to speculate about maximum speeds, we would need to have some idea about what is possible.Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-81712692698480433542009-04-09T08:22:00.000-07:002009-04-09T08:24:09.816-07:00Lou Coatney has more drawings of the same sortIf you have a need, these are really useful. <a href="http://lcoat.tripod.com/shipdraw.htm">Lou Coatney points out on the NavWarGames Yahoo Group that he has even more of the ONI ship drawings</a>.Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-61358741970747028432009-04-09T06:09:00.000-07:002009-04-09T06:12:19.217-07:00Lou Coatney has ONI WWII ship drawingsThanks to Paolo Disalvo, on the NavWarGames Yahoo Group, I found out about <a href="http://www.coatneyhistory.com/">Lou Coatney</a>'s page of links to the <a href="http://www.coatneyhistory.com/drawings.htm">U.S.Navy ONI WWII ship drawings</a>.Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-15283292194922970782009-04-05T07:15:00.000-07:002009-04-05T07:18:47.507-07:00More about the Makin IslandI wondered if by lightening the ship if the Makin Island could make a higher speed than 25 knots. I was not very successful, but I thought that I would make the Springsharp report available to those who are interested. I did not attempt to do anything except get a reasonably good speed for the dimensions, power, number of shafts, and displacement. I didn't attempt to deal with the actual ship configuration:
<pre style="font-size:10px;">
Makin Island, United States LHD laid down 1950
Displacement:
35,420 t light; 36,197 t standard; 38,843 t normal; 40,960 t full load
Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
(808.09 ft / 780.00 ft) x 106.00 ft x (27.00 / 28.17 ft)
(246.31 m / 237.74 m) x 32.31 m x (8.23 / 8.58 m)
Machinery:
Diesel Internal combustion motors,
Geared drive, 2 shafts, 70,363 shp / 52,491 Kw = 25.46 kts
Range 9,500nm at 15.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 4,762 tons
Complement:
1,383 - 1,798
Cost:
£11.535 million / $46.139 million
Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 0 tons, 0.0 %
Machinery: 1,683 tons, 4.3 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 33,737 tons, 86.9 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,423 tons, 8.8 %
Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %
Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
358,561 lbs / 162,641 Kg = 3,320.0 x 6 " / 152 mm shells or 29.2 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.05
Metacentric height 6.0 ft / 1.8 m
Roll period: 18.1 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 100 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.00
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 2.00
Hull form characteristics:
Hull has a flush deck,
an extended bulbous bow and large transom stern
Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.609 / 0.616
Length to Beam Ratio: 7.36 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 32.28 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 44 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 30.00 degrees
Stern overhang: 5.00 ft / 1.52 m
Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
Fore end, Aft end
- Forecastle: 20.00 %, 40.00 ft / 12.19 m, 40.00 ft / 12.19 m
- Forward deck: 30.00 %, 40.00 ft / 12.19 m, 40.00 ft / 12.19 m
- Aft deck: 35.00 %, 40.00 ft / 12.19 m, 40.00 ft / 12.19 m
- Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 40.00 ft / 12.19 m, 40.00 ft / 12.19 m
- Average freeboard: 40.00 ft / 12.19 m
Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 16.0 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 350.2 %
Waterplane Area: 63,568 Square feet or 5,906 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 1,000 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 343 lbs/sq ft or 1,674 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 2.40
- Longitudinal: 6.34
- Overall: 2.64
Excellent machinery, storage, compartmentation space
Excellent accommodation and workspace room
Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform
Excellent seaboat, comfortable, rides out heavy weather easily
</pre>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-89053403897467263792009-04-04T15:52:00.000-07:002009-04-04T16:03:38.921-07:00The Makin Island (LHD-8)<p>
<a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/b2/LHD8_Sea_Trial.jpg/800px-LHD8_Sea_Trial.jpg"><img style="cursor:pointer; cursor:hand;width: 800px; height: 476px;" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/b2/LHD8_Sea_Trial.jpg/800px-LHD8_Sea_Trial.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></a>
</p>
I was interested in seeing some photographs of the new amphib, Makin Island (LHD-8). From some angles, the ship seems pretty warlike and impressive. Wikipedia is saying that the ship can only make 20 knots, but gives the dimensions and the power. The ship is about 780ft LWL x 106ft x 27ft. A reasonable normal displacement is 41,000 tons. With power of 70,000 SHP, I thought that a higher speed should be possible. I ran an experiment with Springsharp and it seems that the ship, at about 41,500 tons should be able to make 25 knots.
</p>
<p>
I was interested in the story behind the ship name, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makin_Island_raid">Carlson's Raiders attack on Makin Island</a> in 1942. The <a href="http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-n/ss168.htm">Nautilus</a> and <a href="http://www.hazegray.org/danfs/submar/sm1.htm">Argonaut</a> seem to have been originally intended as cruiser submarines when they were designed. The German success with cruiser submarines in the Great War seemed to argue for the type having usefulness, but the Japanese were the only great power to have any success at all with the type after 1918.Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com1tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-36113963740466731002009-03-13T17:39:00.000-07:002009-03-13T17:42:27.235-07:00The Ger/CB/1905 designThis version of the Ger/CB/1905 design is very faithful to the original concept. Everything about it is accurate, based on my early 1971 drawings that show the size and thickness of the armour and freeboard. The ship is a 31 knot light battlecruiser with 4-12in/45 and 12-4in QF guns. The armour basis is 4in, with some components protected with up to 9in of armour. This is the Springsharp report:
<pre style="font-size:10px;">
Ger/CB/1905, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1909)
Displacement:
18,281 t light; 18,900 t standard; 20,808 t normal; 22,335 t full load
Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
(702.00 ft / 700.00 ft) x 80.00 ft x (24.40 / 25.79 ft)
(213.97 m / 213.36 m) x 24.38 m x (7.44 / 7.86 m)
Armament:
4 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 850.00lbs / 385.55kg shells, 90 per gun
Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1905 Model
2 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread
12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 150 per gun
Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1905 Model
6 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft
6 x Single mounts on sides, aft deck forward
Weight of broadside 3,784 lbs / 1,716 kg
Armour:
- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)
Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
Ends: Unarmoured
Upper: 3.00" / 76 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
Main Belt covers 84 % of normal length
Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces
- Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
1.00" / 25 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 24.40 ft / 7.44 m
Beam between torpedo bulkheads 59.00 ft / 17.98 m
- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 8.00" / 203 mm
2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm
- Armoured deck - multiple decks:
For and Aft decks: 3.00" / 76 mm
Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm
- Conning towers: Forward 9.00" / 229 mm, Aft 4.00" / 102 mm
Machinery:
Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,
Direct drive, 4 shafts, 113,127 shp / 84,392 Kw = 31.00 kts
Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 3,436 tons
Complement:
866 - 1,126
Cost:
£1.729 million / $6.915 million
Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 744 tons, 3.6 %
- Guns: 744 tons, 3.6 %
Armour: 4,571 tons, 22.0 %
- Belts: 917 tons, 4.4 %
- Torpedo bulkhead: 343 tons, 1.6 %
- Armament: 952 tons, 4.6 %
- Armour Deck: 2,148 tons, 10.3 %
- Conning Towers: 212 tons, 1.0 %
Machinery: 5,142 tons, 24.7 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,823 tons, 37.6 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,527 tons, 12.1 %
Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %
Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
28,663 lbs / 13,001 Kg = 33.2 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.3 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.23
Metacentric height 5.3 ft / 1.6 m
Roll period: 14.7 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 65 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.40
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.30
Hull form characteristics:
Hull has low quarterdeck ,
a ram bow and a cruiser stern
Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.533 / 0.541
Length to Beam Ratio: 8.75 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 26.46 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees
Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m
Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
Fore end, Aft end
- Forecastle: 20.00 %, 28.00 ft / 8.53 m, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m
- Forward deck: 30.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m
- Aft deck: 15.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m
- Quarter deck: 35.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 19.00 ft / 5.79 m
- Average freeboard: 23.81 ft / 7.26 m
Ship tends to be wet forward
Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 130.7 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 222.8 %
Waterplane Area: 38,465 Square feet or 3,574 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 139 lbs/sq ft or 680 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 0.97
- Longitudinal: 1.34
- Overall: 1.00
Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
Excellent accommodation and workspace room
Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily
</pre>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-69402843869398717872009-02-21T10:45:00.000-08:002009-02-21T10:49:21.429-08:00My latest try at a Ger/CB/1906 designIn 1973, I had fantasized that there was a way to achieve 36 knots with this basic design, but seems extremely unrealistic. If you can handle inclined 4in side armour, this version works pretty well. The maximum speed is 33 knots, which is still extreme for a ship laid in 1906. I don't have a good photograph of one of these ships, at least one that I am happy to use. This is the Springsharp report:
<pre style="font-size:10px;">
Ger/CB/1906 Modified, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1906 (Engine 1921)
Displacement:
27,182 t light; 28,426 t standard; 30,056 t normal; 31,360 t full load
Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
(805.00 ft / 800.00 ft) x 85.00 ft x (26.00 / 26.92 ft)
(245.36 m / 243.84 m) x 25.91 m x (7.92 / 8.21 m)
Armament:
8 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 850.00lbs / 385.55kg shells, 150 per gun
Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1906 Model
4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread
2 raised mounts - superfiring
8 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun
Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1906 Model
8 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft
Weight of broadside 7,715 lbs / 3,499 kg
Armour:
- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)
Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 450.00 ft / 137.16 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m
Ends: Unarmoured
Main Belt covers 87 % of normal length
Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces
Main Belt inclined -12.00 degrees (positive = in)
- Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
1.50" / 38 mm 450.00 ft / 137.16 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m
Beam between torpedo bulkheads 56.00 ft / 17.07 m
- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm
2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm
- Armoured deck - multiple decks:
For and Aft decks: 4.00" / 102 mm
Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 5.00" / 127 mm
- Conning towers: Forward 8.00" / 203 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm
Machinery:
Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,
Direct drive, 4 shafts, 176,210 shp / 131,453 Kw = 33.00 kts
Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 2,934 tons
Complement:
1,140 - 1,483
Cost:
£2.548 million / $10.190 million
Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 1,509 tons, 5.0 %
- Guns: 1,509 tons, 5.0 %
Armour: 7,836 tons, 26.1 %
- Belts: 1,380 tons, 4.6 %
- Torpedo bulkhead: 649 tons, 2.2 %
- Armament: 1,897 tons, 6.3 %
- Armour Deck: 3,743 tons, 12.5 %
- Conning Tower: 167 tons, 0.6 %
Machinery: 6,068 tons, 20.2 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,769 tons, 39.2 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,874 tons, 9.6 %
Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %
Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
42,283 lbs / 19,179 Kg = 48.9 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.8 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08
Metacentric height 4.5 ft / 1.4 m
Roll period: 16.8 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 62 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.85
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.24
Hull form characteristics:
Hull has low quarterdeck ,
a ram bow and a cruiser stern
Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.595 / 0.600
Length to Beam Ratio: 9.41 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees
Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m
Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
Fore end, Aft end
- Forecastle: 28.00 %, 33.00 ft / 10.06 m, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m
- Forward deck: 30.00 %, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m
- Aft deck: 15.00 %, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m, 30.00 ft / 9.14 m
- Quarter deck: 27.00 %, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m
- Average freeboard: 28.45 ft / 8.67 m
Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 135.0 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 248.1 %
Waterplane Area: 49,502 Square feet or 4,599 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 111 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 162 lbs/sq ft or 792 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 0.98
- Longitudinal: 1.25
- Overall: 1.00
Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
Excellent accommodation and workspace room
Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily
</pre>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-28931328892347307722009-02-08T15:31:00.000-08:002009-02-08T15:54:44.015-08:00Another try at a Ger/BB/1905 design<p>
<a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Wyzt7vQJbVg/SY9wqBrmO_I/AAAAAAAACos/itRFHUZX6zQ/s1600-h/Ger-BB-1905-b1.JPG"><img style="cursor:pointer; cursor:hand;width: 200px; height: 72px;" src="http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Wyzt7vQJbVg/SY9wqBrmO_I/AAAAAAAACos/itRFHUZX6zQ/s200/Ger-BB-1905-b1.JPG" border="0" alt=""id="BLOGGER_PHOTO_ID_5300579153746476018" /></a>
</p>
This is my latest attempt at my 1971 design for a German battleship laid down in 1905: the Ger/BB/1905 design. This was a ship with 8-12in/45 BLR and 12-4in QF guns with a speed of 23 knots. I had figured that I could sacrifice gunpower to reach a higher speed. We agreed at the time to use only oil fuel, even though that was anachronistic. This is the Springsharp report:
<pre style="font-size:10px;">
GB/BB/1905, Germany Battleship laid down 1905
Displacement:
21,024 t light; 21,896 t standard; 24,557 t normal; 26,686 t full load
Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
(586.00 ft / 580.00 ft) x 90.00 ft x (26.60 / 28.52 ft)
(178.61 m / 176.78 m) x 27.43 m x (8.11 / 8.69 m)
Armament:
8 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 870.00lbs / 394.63kg shells, 90 per gun
Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1905 Model
4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread
2 raised mounts - superfiring
12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.27lbs / 14.64kg shells, 150 per gun
Quick firing guns in casemate mounts, 1905 Model
12 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread
Weight of broadside 7,347 lbs / 3,333 kg
Armour:
- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)
Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 310.00 ft / 94.49 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 120.00 ft / 36.58 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
150.00 ft / 45.72 m Unarmoured ends
Upper: 9.00" / 229 mm 310.00 ft / 94.49 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
Main Belt covers 82 % of normal length
Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces
- Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
2.00" / 51 mm 310.00 ft / 94.49 m 26.60 ft / 8.11 m
Beam between torpedo bulkheads 67.00 ft / 20.42 m
- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 11.0" / 279 mm
2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm
- Armoured deck - multiple decks:
For and Aft decks: 3.00" / 76 mm
Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm
- Conning towers: Forward 11.00" / 279 mm, Aft 8.00" / 203 mm
Machinery:
Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,
Direct drive, 4 shafts, 44,389 shp / 33,114 Kw = 23.00 kts
Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 4,790 tons
Complement:
980 - 1,275
Cost:
£1.876 million / $7.504 million
Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 1,308 tons, 5.3 %
- Guns: 1,308 tons, 5.3 %
Armour: 7,835 tons, 31.9 %
- Belts: 2,406 tons, 9.8 %
- Torpedo bulkhead: 610 tons, 2.5 %
- Armament: 2,302 tons, 9.4 %
- Armour Deck: 2,170 tons, 8.8 %
- Conning Towers: 346 tons, 1.4 %
Machinery: 3,363 tons, 13.7 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,518 tons, 34.7 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,533 tons, 14.4 %
Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %
Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
41,639 lbs / 18,887 Kg = 48.2 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 6.3 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18
Metacentric height 5.8 ft / 1.8 m
Roll period: 15.7 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 82 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.68
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.64
Hull form characteristics:
Hull has low quarterdeck ,
a ram bow and a cruiser stern
Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.619 / 0.627
Length to Beam Ratio: 6.44 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 24.08 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees
Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m
Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
Fore end, Aft end
- Forecastle: 25.00 %, 27.00 ft / 8.23 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m
- Forward deck: 30.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m
- Aft deck: 14.00 %, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m, 26.00 ft / 7.92 m
- Quarter deck: 31.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m
- Average freeboard: 23.62 ft / 7.20 m
Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 93.5 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 196.4 %
Waterplane Area: 38,860 Square feet or 3,610 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 117 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 162 lbs/sq ft or 791 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 0.94
- Longitudinal: 1.80
- Overall: 1.00
Adequate machinery, storage, compartmentation space
Excellent accommodation and workspace room
Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform
Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather
</pre>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-86105112894454332102009-01-25T13:32:00.000-08:002009-01-25T13:33:01.810-08:00My friend Cliff's GB/DL/1906 designI thought that I would make another attempt to create Cliff's GB/DL/1906 design in Springsharp. This was a 35 knot ship with 4-88mm QF guns and 2-21in TT. As usual, it was anachronistic, but that is what he wanted. By playing games with Springsharp, I got a viable design, but with a much higher freeboard and displacement than Cliff had planned:
<pre style="font-size:10px;">
GB/DL/1906, Great Britain Destroyer Leader laid down 1906 (Engine 1933)
Displacement:
1,590 t light; 1,633 t standard; 1,770 t normal; 1,880 t full load
Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
(328.52 ft / 326.00 ft) x 30.00 ft x (12.00 / 12.58 ft)
(100.13 m / 99.36 m) x 9.14 m x (3.66 / 3.83 m)
Armament:
4 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm 50.0 cal guns - 22.00lbs / 9.98kg shells, 150 per gun
Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1906 Model
4 x Single mounts on centreline, evenly spread
Weight of broadside 88 lbs / 40 kg
Main Torpedoes
2 - 21.0" / 533 mm, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m torpedoes - 1.315 t each, 2.630 t total
In 2 sets of deck mounted centre rotating tubes
Machinery:
Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,
Direct drive, 2 shafts, 57,363 shp / 42,793 Kw = 35.00 kts
Range 3,500nm at 14.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 247 tons
Complement:
136 - 177
Cost:
£0.218 million / $0.871 million
Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 33 tons, 1.9 %
- Guns: 28 tons, 1.6 %
- Weapons: 5 tons, 0.3 %
Machinery: 1,089 tons, 61.5 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 471 tons, 26.6 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 180 tons, 10.2 %
Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %
Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
332 lbs / 151 Kg = 16.0 x 3.5 " / 88 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.13
Metacentric height 1.0 ft / 0.3 m
Roll period: 12.4 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 75 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.30
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06
Hull form characteristics:
Hull has rise forward of midbreak,
a normal bow and a round stern
Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.528 / 0.535
Length to Beam Ratio: 10.87 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 18.06 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 74 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 71
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 6.00 degrees
Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
Fore end, Aft end
- Forecastle: 18.00 %, 24.00 ft / 7.32 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m
- Forward deck: 14.00 %, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m, 23.00 ft / 7.01 m
- Aft deck: 53.00 %, 15.00 ft / 4.57 m, 15.00 ft / 4.57 m
- Quarter deck: 15.00 %, 15.00 ft / 4.57 m, 15.00 ft / 4.57 m
- Average freeboard: 17.63 ft / 5.37 m
Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 203.4 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 125.2 %
Waterplane Area: 6,686 Square feet or 621 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 52 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 28 lbs/sq ft or 137 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 0.42
- Longitudinal: 3.98
- Overall: 0.52
Extremely poor machinery, storage, compartmentation space
Excellent accommodation and workspace room
Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform
</pre>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com0tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7357587.post-5457878246319611702009-01-09T09:40:00.000-08:002009-01-10T09:48:47.891-08:00USS Wampanoag fast cruiser<p>
<a onblur="try {parent.deselectBloggerImageGracefully();} catch(e) {}" href="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_Wyzt7vQJbVg/SWf7TJPbTYI/AAAAAAAAClA/Pus0KebPX98/s1600-h/cruiser-wampanoag-03b.JPG"><img style="cursor:pointer; cursor:hand;width: 200px; height: 121px;" src="http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_Wyzt7vQJbVg/SWf7TJPbTYI/AAAAAAAAClA/Pus0KebPX98/s200/cruiser-wampanoag-03b.JPG" border="0" alt=""id="BLOGGER_PHOTO_ID_5289472593686646146" /></a>
</p>
I recently became interested in the fast American cruiser USS Wampanoag, laid down in 1863. The purpose of the Wampanoag class was to catch the 16 and 17 knot blockade runners built in Britain that were trying to enter Southern ports. David Dixon Porter was in an internal political struggle with Benjamin Isherwood and succeeded in stopping the construction of these ships until they no longer had a mission. the Wampanoag apparently could sustain 16.6 knots and could be pressed up to 17.75 knots, making her the fastest American warship until the USS Charleston was completed about 20 years later. This is my edited Wampanoag photograph and I did a Springsharp design:
<pre style="font-size:10px;">
Wampanoag, United States Cruiser laid down 1863 (Engine 1864)
Displacement:
4,724 t light; 4,947 t standard; 5,401 t normal; 5,763 t full load
Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
(365.00 ft / 355.00 ft) x 45.20 ft x (19.00 / 20.08 ft)
(111.25 m / 108.20 m) x 13.78 m x (5.79 / 6.12 m)
Armament:
10 - 8.00" / 203 mm 20.0 cal guns - 177.02lbs / 80.30kg shells, 100 per gun
Muzzle loading guns in deck mounts, 1863 Model
10 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread
2 - 6.70" / 170 mm 22.0 cal guns - 104.52lbs / 47.41kg shells, 150 per gun
Muzzle loading guns in deck mounts, 1863 Model
2 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft
Weight of broadside 1,979 lbs / 898 kg
Machinery:
Coal fired boilers, simple reciprocating steam engines,
Geared drive, 1 shaft, 9,198 ihp / 6,862 Kw = 17.75 kts
Range 1,500nm at 10.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 816 tons (100% coal)
Complement:
314 - 409
Cost:
£0.572 million / $2.288 million
Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 124 tons, 2.3 %
- Guns: 124 tons, 2.3 %
Machinery: 2,607 tons, 48.3 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,992 tons, 36.9 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 677 tons, 12.5 %
Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %
Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
1,291 lbs / 585 Kg = 8.5 x 8.0 " / 203 mm shells or 0.5 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.69
Metacentric height 3.6 ft / 1.1 m
Roll period: 10.0 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 93 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.35
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.86
Hull form characteristics:
Hull has raised forecastle, raised quarterdeck ,
a normal bow and a round stern
Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.620 / 0.626
Length to Beam Ratio: 7.85 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 18.84 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees
Stern overhang: 10.00 ft / 3.05 m
Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
Fore end, Aft end
- Forecastle: 28.00 %, 18.00 ft / 5.49 m, 16.00 ft / 4.88 m
- Forward deck: 30.00 %, 11.00 ft / 3.35 m, 11.00 ft / 3.35 m
- Aft deck: 17.00 %, 11.00 ft / 3.35 m, 11.00 ft / 3.35 m
- Quarter deck: 25.00 %, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m, 14.00 ft / 4.27 m
- Average freeboard: 13.37 ft / 4.08 m
Ship tends to be wet forward
Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 164.7 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 78.3 %
Waterplane Area: 11,734 Square feet or 1,090 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 96 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 109 lbs/sq ft or 530 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 0.94
- Longitudinal: 1.70
- Overall: 1.00
Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
Cramped accommodation and workspace room
Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform
Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather
</pre>Jimhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/07843351294592716332noreply@blogger.com3