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Sunday, September 20, 2009

Cruising formations for Dutch warships?

One question that I have is if the Dutch sailed in some cruising formation with their fleet when not engaged in actual fighting. I have speculated that the ships in the same squadron sailed as a clump and that the fleet consisted of clumps, grouped by squadron. Is there a more definitive answer?

Sunday, August 16, 2009

Another run at the GB/CB/1905 fast battlecruiser design

I have tended to be obsessed with Cliff's design for a fast British battlecruiser, what we called the GB/CB/1905 design. I just got a good result by using light weight machinery. I am mystified why the protection is so good, considering the armour basis of 4in:
GB/CB/1905, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1910)

Displacement:
 23,677 t light; 24,490 t standard; 27,903 t normal; 30,632 t full load

Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
 (778.00 ft / 770.00 ft) x 80.00 ft x (27.50 / 29.67 ft)
 (237.13 m / 234.70 m) x 24.38 m  x (8.38 / 9.04 m)

Armament:
      4 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 850.00lbs / 385.55kg shells, 90 per gun
   Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1905 Model
   2 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread
  1 raised mount - superfiring
      9 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun
   Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1905 Model
   8 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread
   1 x Single mount on centreline, aft deck aft
  1 raised mount
      Weight of broadside 4,429 lbs / 2,009 kg

Armour:
   - Belts:  Width (max) Length (avg)  Height (avg)
 Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 580.00 ft / 176.78 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m
 Ends: Unarmoured
   Main Belt covers 116 % of normal length
   Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces

   - Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
  1.50" / 38 mm 580.00 ft / 176.78 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m
 Beam between torpedo bulkheads 56.00 ft / 17.07 m

   - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
 Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm  8.00" / 203 mm
 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm  4.00" / 102 mm

   - Armoured deck - multiple decks:
 For and Aft decks: 3.00" / 76 mm
 Forecastle: 2.00" / 51 mm  Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm

   - Conning towers: Forward 8.00" / 203 mm, Aft 5.00" / 127 mm

Machinery:
 Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, 
 Direct drive, 4 shafts, 168,353 shp / 125,591 Kw = 33.00 kts
 Range 6,500nm at 17.00 kts
 Bunker at max displacement = 6,142 tons

Complement:
 1,079 - 1,403

Cost:
 £2.236 million / $8.944 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
 Armament: 923 tons, 3.3 %
    - Guns: 923 tons, 3.3 %
 Armour: 5,984 tons, 21.4 %
    - Belts: 1,501 tons, 5.4 %
    - Torpedo bulkhead: 869 tons, 3.1 %
    - Armament: 1,029 tons, 3.7 %
    - Armour Deck: 2,327 tons, 8.3 %
    - Conning Towers: 258 tons, 0.9 %
 Machinery: 6,957 tons, 24.9 %
 Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,813 tons, 35.2 %
 Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,226 tons, 15.1 %
 Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
 Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
   36,559 lbs / 16,583 Kg = 42.3 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.1 torpedoes
 Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17
 Metacentric height 4.8 ft / 1.5 m
 Roll period: 15.4 seconds
 Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 65 %
   - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.55
 Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1.30

Hull form characteristics:
 Hull has low quarterdeck ,
   a ram bow and a cruiser stern
 Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.577 / 0.587
 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.63 : 1
 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts
 Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 %
 Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees
 Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m
 Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
    Fore end,  Aft end
    - Forecastle: 30.00 %,  33.00 ft / 10.06 m,  29.00 ft / 8.84 m
    - Forward deck: 30.00 %,  29.00 ft / 8.84 m,  29.00 ft / 8.84 m
    - Aft deck: 10.00 %,  29.00 ft / 8.84 m,  29.00 ft / 8.84 m
    - Quarter deck: 30.00 %,  21.00 ft / 6.40 m,  22.00 ft / 6.71 m
    - Average freeboard:  27.23 ft / 8.30 m

Ship space, strength and comments:
 Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 136.1 %
  - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 225.6 %
 Waterplane Area: 44,072 Square feet or 4,094 Square metres
 Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 %
 Structure weight / hull surface area: 145 lbs/sq ft or 706 Kg/sq metre
 Hull strength (Relative):
  - Cross-sectional: 0.97
  - Longitudinal: 1.36
  - Overall: 1.00
 Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
 Excellent accommodation and workspace room
 Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

Saturday, August 15, 2009

Sadly, Alt_Naval seems to be gone

One of my inspiration for making imaginary ship photographs, Alt_Naval, seems to be gone. I tried to go there and found that the page was not there. I did a Google search and could not find a new URL for the site. It is gone. Thankfully, the "Wolf's Den" still exists. That was the first site that I had found with fake ship photographs. "Wolf's Den" has a new URL, but still lives on! I still like the classic Queen Victoria class pictures.

Friday, July 17, 2009

A super American battlecruiser: the US/CB/1943

I have been toying with very large battleship and battlecruiser designs since I was young. This is a fast battlecruiser armed with 12-21in/55 guns. I don't like the deep draft, but I don't see an alternative.
US-CB-1943, United States Battlecruiser laid down 1943

Displacement:
 192,480 t light; 201,981 t standard; 217,137 t normal; 229,261 t full load

Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
 (1,366.74 ft / 1,350.00 ft) x 188.00 ft x (38.00 / 39.85 ft)
 (416.58 m / 411.48 m) x 57.30 m  x (11.58 / 12.15 m)

Armament:
      12 - 21.00" / 533 mm 55.0 cal guns - 5,000.00lbs / 2,267.96kg shells, 150 per gun
   Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1943 Model
   3 x Quad mounts on centreline ends, majority forward
  1 raised mount - superfiring
      24 - 5.00" / 127 mm 55.0 cal guns - 72.00lbs / 32.66kg shells, 150 per gun
   Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1943 Model
   12 x Twin mounts on sides, forward deck aft
  4 raised mounts - superfiring
      88 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm 60.0 cal guns - 2.00lbs / 0.91kg shells, 150 per gun
   Breech loading guns in deck mounts, 1943 Model
   22 x 4-gun mounts on sides, evenly spread
  12 raised mounts
      Weight of broadside 61,904 lbs / 28,079 kg

Armour:
   - Belts:  Width (max) Length (avg)  Height (avg)
 Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 900.00 ft / 274.32 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m
 Ends: Unarmoured
 Upper: 14.0" / 356 mm 900.00 ft / 274.32 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m
   Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length
   Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces
   Main Belt inclined -17.00 degrees (positive = in)

   - Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
  8.00" / 203 mm 900.00 ft / 274.32 m 37.00 ft / 11.28 m
 Beam between torpedo bulkheads 80.00 ft / 24.38 m

   - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
 Main: 20.0" / 508 mm 15.0" / 381 mm  20.0" / 508 mm
 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 4.00" / 102 mm  5.00" / 127 mm

   - Armoured deck - multiple decks:
 For and Aft decks: 8.00" / 203 mm
 Forecastle: 5.00" / 127 mm  Quarter deck: 8.00" / 203 mm

   - Conning towers: Forward 20.00" / 508 mm, Aft 15.00" / 381 mm

Machinery:
 Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, 
 Geared drive, 10 shafts, 637,542 shp / 475,606 Kw = 35.00 kts
 Range 12,000nm at 18.00 kts
 Bunker at max displacement = 27,280 tons

Complement:
 5,029 - 6,538

Cost:
 £105.209 million / $420.837 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
 Armament: 11,042 tons, 5.1 %
    - Guns: 11,042 tons, 5.1 %
 Armour: 69,922 tons, 32.2 %
    - Belts: 11,396 tons, 5.2 %
    - Torpedo bulkhead: 9,857 tons, 4.5 %
    - Armament: 12,878 tons, 5.9 %
    - Armour Deck: 33,067 tons, 15.2 %
    - Conning Towers: 2,724 tons, 1.3 %
 Machinery: 16,465 tons, 7.6 %
 Hull, fittings & equipment: 95,051 tons, 43.8 %
 Fuel, ammunition & stores: 24,657 tons, 11.4 %
 Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
 Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
   495,302 lbs / 224,665 Kg = 107.0 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 150.3 torpedoes
 Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.36
 Metacentric height 22.2 ft / 6.8 m
 Roll period: 16.8 seconds
 Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 58 %
   - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.32
 Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1.15

Hull form characteristics:
 Hull has a flush deck,
   an extended bulbous bow and large transom stern
 Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.788 / 0.793
 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.18 : 1
 'Natural speed' for length: 41.90 kts
 Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 %
 Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 20.00 degrees
 Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
 Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
    Fore end,  Aft end
    - Forecastle: 20.00 %,  46.00 ft / 14.02 m,  40.00 ft / 12.19 m
    - Forward deck: 30.00 %,  40.00 ft / 12.19 m,  38.00 ft / 11.58 m
    - Aft deck: 35.00 %,  38.00 ft / 11.58 m,  37.00 ft / 11.28 m
    - Quarter deck: 15.00 %,  37.00 ft / 11.28 m,  38.00 ft / 11.58 m
    - Average freeboard:  38.93 ft / 11.87 m

Ship space, strength and comments:
 Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 129.5 %
  - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 332.2 %
 Waterplane Area: 229,646 Square feet or 21,335 Square metres
 Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 128 %
 Structure weight / hull surface area: 352 lbs/sq ft or 1,718 Kg/sq metre
 Hull strength (Relative):
  - Cross-sectional: 1.18
  - Longitudinal: 0.95
  - Overall: 1.00
 Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
 Excellent accommodation and workspace room

Tuesday, July 07, 2009

The picture posted "May 31, 1916"

Rob pointed out to me that the picture I posted five weeks ago was actually from the Battle of the Dogger Bank. The Tiger is steaming at high speed towards the left of the picture while in the background, on the right, is the burning, sinking Bl├╝cher.

Sunday, May 31, 2009

May 31, 1916

In my younger years, I was focused on the Battle of Jutland and the events leading up to the war at sea (1905-1918). Today is the anniversary of the start of the Battle of Jutland. This seemed like a good Jutland picture.

Friday, May 29, 2009

A fast version of the Ger/CB/1905

The Ger/CB/1905 design is the classic light battlecruiser type. The design in anachronistic and looks British, but it works well. I wanted to see how much speed I could achieve with it, and the answer is that I could get 35 knots without a lot of trouble. Of course, it relies on very light machinery:
Ger/CB/1905 Fast, Germany Light Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1923)

Displacement:
 18,384 t light; 19,004 t standard; 20,886 t normal; 22,392 t full load

Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
 (707.00 ft / 700.00 ft) x 80.00 ft x (24.40 / 25.77 ft)
 (215.49 m / 213.36 m) x 24.38 m  x (7.44 / 7.85 m)

Armament:
      4 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 850.00lbs / 385.55kg shells, 90 per gun
   Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1905 Model
   2 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread
      12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.27lbs / 14.64kg shells, 150 per gun
   Quick firing guns in casemate mounts, 1905 Model
   6 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft
   6 x Single mounts on sides, aft deck forward
      Weight of broadside 3,787 lbs / 1,718 kg

Armour:
   - Belts:  Width (max) Length (avg)  Height (avg)
 Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
 Ends: Unarmoured
 Upper: 3.00" / 76 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
   Main Belt covers 97 % of normal length
   Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces

   - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
 Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm  4.00" / 102 mm
 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm  4.00" / 102 mm

   - Armoured deck - multiple decks:
 For and Aft decks: 3.00" / 76 mm
 Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm  Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm

   - Conning towers: Forward 9.00" / 229 mm, Aft 4.00" / 102 mm

Machinery:
 Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, 
 Direct drive, 4 shafts, 185,595 shp / 138,454 Kw = 35.00 kts
 Range 6,500nm at 17.00 kts
 Bunker at max displacement = 3,388 tons

Complement:
 868 - 1,129

Cost:
 £1.856 million / $7.424 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
 Armament: 689 tons, 3.3 %
    - Guns: 689 tons, 3.3 %
 Armour: 3,897 tons, 18.7 %
    - Belts: 1,032 tons, 4.9 %
    - Armament: 498 tons, 2.4 %
    - Armour Deck: 2,154 tons, 10.3 %
    - Conning Towers: 212 tons, 1.0 %
 Machinery: 6,203 tons, 29.7 %
 Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,596 tons, 36.4 %
 Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,502 tons, 12.0 %
 Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
 Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
   21,714 lbs / 9,849 Kg = 25.1 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 2.0 torpedoes
 Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.30
 Metacentric height 5.8 ft / 1.8 m
 Roll period: 14.0 seconds
 Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 %
   - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.29
 Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1.07

Hull form characteristics:
 Hull has rise forward of midbreak,
   a ram bow and a cruiser stern
 Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.535 / 0.543
 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.75 : 1
 'Natural speed' for length: 26.46 kts
 Power going to wave formation at top speed: 60 %
 Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees
 Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m
 Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
    Fore end,  Aft end
    - Forecastle: 32.00 %,  32.00 ft / 9.75 m,  28.00 ft / 8.53 m
    - Forward deck: 30.00 %,  28.00 ft / 8.53 m,  27.00 ft / 8.23 m
    - Aft deck: 23.00 %,  19.00 ft / 5.79 m,  19.00 ft / 5.79 m
    - Quarter deck: 15.00 %,  19.00 ft / 5.79 m,  19.00 ft / 5.79 m
    - Average freeboard:  24.94 ft / 7.60 m

Ship space, strength and comments:
 Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 111.3 %
  - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 201.4 %
 Waterplane Area: 38,537 Square feet or 3,580 Square metres
 Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 %
 Structure weight / hull surface area: 133 lbs/sq ft or 650 Kg/sq metre
 Hull strength (Relative):
  - Cross-sectional: 0.96
  - Longitudinal: 1.48
  - Overall: 1.00
 Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
 Excellent accommodation and workspace room

Sunday, May 17, 2009

Naval Airship Command comments on my MySpace page

Naval Airship Command has posted some great pictures in the comments on my MySpace page. They include U.S. Navy blimps and dirigibles.

Saturday, May 02, 2009

My latest attempt at a very fast 1921-style battlecruiser

One of my long term obsessions is with very fast 1921-style battlecruisers. This latest one relies upon the lightest weight machinery to achieve 38 knots. The battlecruiser carries 6-16in/45 guns and has a 9in belt and 3in deck armour. This is the Springsharp design:
GB/CB/1921, Great Britain Fast Battlecruiser laid down 1921 (Engine 1950)

Displacement:
 41,653 t light; 43,329 t standard; 46,991 t normal; 49,921 t full load

Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
 (889.32 ft / 874.00 ft) x 108.00 ft x (33.00 / 34.53 ft)
 (271.07 m / 266.40 m) x 32.92 m  x (10.06 / 10.52 m)

Armament:
      6 - 16.00" / 406 mm 45.0 cal guns - 2,065.00lbs / 936.67kg shells, 90 per gun
   Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1921 Model
   2 x Triple mounts on centreline, forward deck forward
  1 raised mount - superfiring
      12 - 5.50" / 140 mm 50.0 cal guns - 85.00lbs / 38.56kg shells, 150 per gun
   Quick firing guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1921 Model
   6 x Single mounts on sides, aft deck forward
      6 - 4.70" / 119 mm 45.0 cal guns - 52.35lbs / 23.75kg shells, 150 per gun
   Anti-air guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1921 Model
   6 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft
  6 raised mounts
      32 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm 45.0 cal guns - 2.00lbs / 0.91kg shells, 150 per gun
   Anti-air guns in deck mounts, 1921 Model
   8 x 2 row quad mounts on sides, evenly spread
      Weight of broadside 13,788 lbs / 6,254 kg

Armour:
   - Belts:  Width (max) Length (avg)  Height (avg)
 Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 580.00 ft / 176.78 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m
 Ends: Unarmoured
   Main Belt covers 102 % of normal length
   Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces
   Main Belt inclined -10.00 degrees (positive = in)

   - Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
  2.00" / 51 mm 580.00 ft / 176.78 m 33.00 ft / 10.06 m
 Beam between torpedo bulkheads 64.00 ft / 19.51 m

   - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
 Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 8.00" / 203 mm  10.0" / 254 mm
 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm  4.00" / 102 mm

   - Armoured deck - multiple decks:
 For and Aft decks: 3.00" / 76 mm
 Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm  Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm

   - Conning towers: Forward 8.00" / 203 mm, Aft 6.00" / 152 mm

Machinery:
 Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, 
 Geared drive, 6 shafts, 333,404 shp / 248,720 Kw = 38.00 kts
 Range 8,500nm at 18.00 kts
 Bunker at max displacement = 6,592 tons

Complement:
 1,595 - 2,074

Cost:
 £9.863 million / $39.453 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
 Armament: 2,448 tons, 5.2 %
    - Guns: 2,448 tons, 5.2 %
 Armour: 11,045 tons, 23.5 %
    - Belts: 2,633 tons, 5.6 %
    - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,416 tons, 3.0 %
    - Armament: 2,847 tons, 6.1 %
    - Armour Deck: 3,756 tons, 8.0 %
    - Conning Towers: 393 tons, 0.8 %
 Machinery: 7,976 tons, 17.0 %
 Hull, fittings & equipment: 20,184 tons, 43.0 %
 Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,338 tons, 11.4 %
 Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
 Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
   72,600 lbs / 32,931 Kg = 35.4 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 9.4 torpedoes
 Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.11
 Metacentric height 6.8 ft / 2.1 m
 Roll period: 17.3 seconds
 Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 %
   - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.66
 Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1.10

Hull form characteristics:
 Hull has rise forward of midbreak,
   an extended bulbous bow and large transom stern
 Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.528 / 0.536
 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.09 : 1
 'Natural speed' for length: 34.21 kts
 Power going to wave formation at top speed: 60 %
 Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 51
 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 18.00 degrees
 Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m
 Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
    Fore end,  Aft end
    - Forecastle: 25.00 %,  41.00 ft / 12.50 m,  36.00 ft / 10.97 m
    - Forward deck: 30.00 %,  36.00 ft / 10.97 m,  33.00 ft / 10.06 m
    - Aft deck: 30.00 %,  32.00 ft / 9.75 m,  32.00 ft / 9.75 m
    - Quarter deck: 15.00 %,  32.00 ft / 9.75 m,  32.00 ft / 9.75 m
    - Average freeboard:  34.25 ft / 10.44 m

Ship space, strength and comments:
 Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 135.7 %
  - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 266.6 %
 Waterplane Area: 67,154 Square feet or 6,239 Square metres
 Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 119 %
 Structure weight / hull surface area: 209 lbs/sq ft or 1,021 Kg/sq metre
 Hull strength (Relative):
  - Cross-sectional: 0.94
  - Longitudinal: 1.84
  - Overall: 1.00
 Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
 Excellent accommodation and workspace room

Friday, April 17, 2009

Gas turbine propulsion

I am curious to know about naval gas turbine propulsion. I have heard from a knowledgeable source that the power output of turbines might be able to be increased considerably beyond the nominal figures. We now have some quite large naval ships, such as the new American helicopter carriers, that are gas turbine powered. We could be talking 40,000 ton or larger ships. If we want to speculate about maximum speeds, we would need to have some idea about what is possible.

Thursday, April 09, 2009

Sunday, April 05, 2009

More about the Makin Island

I wondered if by lightening the ship if the Makin Island could make a higher speed than 25 knots. I was not very successful, but I thought that I would make the Springsharp report available to those who are interested. I did not attempt to do anything except get a reasonably good speed for the dimensions, power, number of shafts, and displacement. I didn't attempt to deal with the actual ship configuration:
Makin Island, United States LHD laid down 1950

Displacement:
 35,420 t light; 36,197 t standard; 38,843 t normal; 40,960 t full load

Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
 (808.09 ft / 780.00 ft) x 106.00 ft x (27.00 / 28.17 ft)
 (246.31 m / 237.74 m) x 32.31 m  x (8.23 / 8.58 m)

Machinery:
 Diesel Internal combustion motors, 
 Geared drive, 2 shafts, 70,363 shp / 52,491 Kw = 25.46 kts
 Range 9,500nm at 15.00 kts
 Bunker at max displacement = 4,762 tons

Complement:
 1,383 - 1,798

Cost:
 £11.535 million / $46.139 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
 Armament: 0 tons, 0.0 %
 Machinery: 1,683 tons, 4.3 %
 Hull, fittings & equipment: 33,737 tons, 86.9 %
 Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,423 tons, 8.8 %
 Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
 Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
   358,561 lbs / 162,641 Kg = 3,320.0 x 6 " / 152 mm shells or 29.2 torpedoes
 Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.05
 Metacentric height 6.0 ft / 1.8 m
 Roll period: 18.1 seconds
 Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 100 %
   - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.00
 Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 2.00

Hull form characteristics:
 Hull has a flush deck,
   an extended bulbous bow and large transom stern
 Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.609 / 0.616
 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.36 : 1
 'Natural speed' for length: 32.28 kts
 Power going to wave formation at top speed: 44 %
 Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 30.00 degrees
 Stern overhang: 5.00 ft / 1.52 m
 Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
    Fore end,  Aft end
    - Forecastle: 20.00 %,  40.00 ft / 12.19 m,  40.00 ft / 12.19 m
    - Forward deck: 30.00 %,  40.00 ft / 12.19 m,  40.00 ft / 12.19 m
    - Aft deck: 35.00 %,  40.00 ft / 12.19 m,  40.00 ft / 12.19 m
    - Quarter deck: 15.00 %,  40.00 ft / 12.19 m,  40.00 ft / 12.19 m
    - Average freeboard:  40.00 ft / 12.19 m

Ship space, strength and comments:
 Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 16.0 %
  - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 350.2 %
 Waterplane Area: 63,568 Square feet or 5,906 Square metres
 Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 1,000 %
 Structure weight / hull surface area: 343 lbs/sq ft or 1,674 Kg/sq metre
 Hull strength (Relative):
  - Cross-sectional: 2.40
  - Longitudinal: 6.34
  - Overall: 2.64
 Excellent machinery, storage, compartmentation space
 Excellent accommodation and workspace room
 Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform
 Excellent seaboat, comfortable, rides out heavy weather easily

Saturday, April 04, 2009

The Makin Island (LHD-8)

I was interested in seeing some photographs of the new amphib, Makin Island (LHD-8). From some angles, the ship seems pretty warlike and impressive. Wikipedia is saying that the ship can only make 20 knots, but gives the dimensions and the power. The ship is about 780ft LWL x 106ft x 27ft. A reasonable normal displacement is 41,000 tons. With power of 70,000 SHP, I thought that a higher speed should be possible. I ran an experiment with Springsharp and it seems that the ship, at about 41,500 tons should be able to make 25 knots.

I was interested in the story behind the ship name, and Carlson's Raiders attack on Makin Island in 1942. The Nautilus and Argonaut seem to have been originally intended as cruiser submarines when they were designed. The German success with cruiser submarines in the Great War seemed to argue for the type having usefulness, but the Japanese were the only great power to have any success at all with the type after 1918.

Friday, March 13, 2009

The Ger/CB/1905 design

This version of the Ger/CB/1905 design is very faithful to the original concept. Everything about it is accurate, based on my early 1971 drawings that show the size and thickness of the armour and freeboard. The ship is a 31 knot light battlecruiser with 4-12in/45 and 12-4in QF guns. The armour basis is 4in, with some components protected with up to 9in of armour. This is the Springsharp report:
Ger/CB/1905, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1909)

Displacement:
 18,281 t light; 18,900 t standard; 20,808 t normal; 22,335 t full load

Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
 (702.00 ft / 700.00 ft) x 80.00 ft x (24.40 / 25.79 ft)
 (213.97 m / 213.36 m) x 24.38 m  x (7.44 / 7.86 m)

Armament:
      4 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 850.00lbs / 385.55kg shells, 90 per gun
   Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1905 Model
   2 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread
      12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 50.0 cal guns - 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 150 per gun
   Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1905 Model
   6 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft
   6 x Single mounts on sides, aft deck forward
      Weight of broadside 3,784 lbs / 1,716 kg

Armour:
   - Belts:  Width (max) Length (avg)  Height (avg)
 Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
 Ends: Unarmoured
 Upper: 3.00" / 76 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
   Main Belt covers 84 % of normal length
   Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces

   - Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
  1.00" / 25 mm 380.00 ft / 115.82 m 24.40 ft / 7.44 m
 Beam between torpedo bulkheads 59.00 ft / 17.98 m

   - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
 Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 4.00" / 102 mm  8.00" / 203 mm
 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm  4.00" / 102 mm

   - Armoured deck - multiple decks:
 For and Aft decks: 3.00" / 76 mm
 Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm  Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm

   - Conning towers: Forward 9.00" / 229 mm, Aft 4.00" / 102 mm

Machinery:
 Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, 
 Direct drive, 4 shafts, 113,127 shp / 84,392 Kw = 31.00 kts
 Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts
 Bunker at max displacement = 3,436 tons

Complement:
 866 - 1,126

Cost:
 £1.729 million / $6.915 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
 Armament: 744 tons, 3.6 %
    - Guns: 744 tons, 3.6 %
 Armour: 4,571 tons, 22.0 %
    - Belts: 917 tons, 4.4 %
    - Torpedo bulkhead: 343 tons, 1.6 %
    - Armament: 952 tons, 4.6 %
    - Armour Deck: 2,148 tons, 10.3 %
    - Conning Towers: 212 tons, 1.0 %
 Machinery: 5,142 tons, 24.7 %
 Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,823 tons, 37.6 %
 Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,527 tons, 12.1 %
 Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
 Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
   28,663 lbs / 13,001 Kg = 33.2 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.3 torpedoes
 Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.23
 Metacentric height 5.3 ft / 1.6 m
 Roll period: 14.7 seconds
 Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 65 %
   - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.40
 Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1.30

Hull form characteristics:
 Hull has low quarterdeck ,
   a ram bow and a cruiser stern
 Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.533 / 0.541
 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.75 : 1
 'Natural speed' for length: 26.46 kts
 Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 %
 Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees
 Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m
 Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
    Fore end,  Aft end
    - Forecastle: 20.00 %,  28.00 ft / 8.53 m,  27.00 ft / 8.23 m
    - Forward deck: 30.00 %,  27.00 ft / 8.23 m,  26.00 ft / 7.92 m
    - Aft deck: 15.00 %,  26.00 ft / 7.92 m,  26.00 ft / 7.92 m
    - Quarter deck: 35.00 %,  18.00 ft / 5.49 m,  19.00 ft / 5.79 m
    - Average freeboard:  23.81 ft / 7.26 m
 Ship tends to be wet forward

Ship space, strength and comments:
 Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 130.7 %
  - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 222.8 %
 Waterplane Area: 38,465 Square feet or 3,574 Square metres
 Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 %
 Structure weight / hull surface area: 139 lbs/sq ft or 680 Kg/sq metre
 Hull strength (Relative):
  - Cross-sectional: 0.97
  - Longitudinal: 1.34
  - Overall: 1.00
 Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
 Excellent accommodation and workspace room
 Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

Saturday, February 21, 2009

My latest try at a Ger/CB/1906 design

In 1973, I had fantasized that there was a way to achieve 36 knots with this basic design, but seems extremely unrealistic. If you can handle inclined 4in side armour, this version works pretty well. The maximum speed is 33 knots, which is still extreme for a ship laid in 1906. I don't have a good photograph of one of these ships, at least one that I am happy to use. This is the Springsharp report:
Ger/CB/1906 Modified, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1906 (Engine 1921)

Displacement:
 27,182 t light; 28,426 t standard; 30,056 t normal; 31,360 t full load

Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
 (805.00 ft / 800.00 ft) x 85.00 ft x (26.00 / 26.92 ft)
 (245.36 m / 243.84 m) x 25.91 m  x (7.92 / 8.21 m)

Armament:
      8 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 850.00lbs / 385.55kg shells, 150 per gun
   Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1906 Model
   4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread
  2 raised mounts - superfiring
      8 - 6.00" / 152 mm 50.0 cal guns - 114.33lbs / 51.86kg shells, 150 per gun
   Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1906 Model
   8 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft
      Weight of broadside 7,715 lbs / 3,499 kg

Armour:
   - Belts:  Width (max) Length (avg)  Height (avg)
 Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 450.00 ft / 137.16 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m
 Ends: Unarmoured
   Main Belt covers 87 % of normal length
   Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces
   Main Belt inclined -12.00 degrees (positive = in)

   - Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
  1.50" / 38 mm 450.00 ft / 137.16 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m
 Beam between torpedo bulkheads 56.00 ft / 17.07 m

   - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
 Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm  8.00" / 203 mm
 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm  4.00" / 102 mm

   - Armoured deck - multiple decks:
 For and Aft decks: 4.00" / 102 mm
 Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm  Quarter deck: 5.00" / 127 mm

   - Conning towers: Forward 8.00" / 203 mm, Aft 0.00" / 0 mm

Machinery:
 Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, 
 Direct drive, 4 shafts, 176,210 shp / 131,453 Kw = 33.00 kts
 Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts
 Bunker at max displacement = 2,934 tons

Complement:
 1,140 - 1,483

Cost:
 £2.548 million / $10.190 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
 Armament: 1,509 tons, 5.0 %
    - Guns: 1,509 tons, 5.0 %
 Armour: 7,836 tons, 26.1 %
    - Belts: 1,380 tons, 4.6 %
    - Torpedo bulkhead: 649 tons, 2.2 %
    - Armament: 1,897 tons, 6.3 %
    - Armour Deck: 3,743 tons, 12.5 %
    - Conning Tower: 167 tons, 0.6 %
 Machinery: 6,068 tons, 20.2 %
 Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,769 tons, 39.2 %
 Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,874 tons, 9.6 %
 Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
 Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
   42,283 lbs / 19,179 Kg = 48.9 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.8 torpedoes
 Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08
 Metacentric height 4.5 ft / 1.4 m
 Roll period: 16.8 seconds
 Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 62 %
   - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.85
 Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1.24

Hull form characteristics:
 Hull has low quarterdeck ,
   a ram bow and a cruiser stern
 Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.595 / 0.600
 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.41 : 1
 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts
 Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 %
 Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -3.00 degrees
 Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m
 Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
    Fore end,  Aft end
    - Forecastle: 28.00 %,  33.00 ft / 10.06 m,  30.00 ft / 9.14 m
    - Forward deck: 30.00 %,  30.00 ft / 9.14 m,  30.00 ft / 9.14 m
    - Aft deck: 15.00 %,  30.00 ft / 9.14 m,  30.00 ft / 9.14 m
    - Quarter deck: 27.00 %,  22.00 ft / 6.71 m,  24.00 ft / 7.32 m
    - Average freeboard:  28.45 ft / 8.67 m

Ship space, strength and comments:
 Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 135.0 %
  - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 248.1 %
 Waterplane Area: 49,502 Square feet or 4,599 Square metres
 Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 111 %
 Structure weight / hull surface area: 162 lbs/sq ft or 792 Kg/sq metre
 Hull strength (Relative):
  - Cross-sectional: 0.98
  - Longitudinal: 1.25
  - Overall: 1.00
 Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
 Excellent accommodation and workspace room
 Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

Sunday, February 08, 2009

Another try at a Ger/BB/1905 design

This is my latest attempt at my 1971 design for a German battleship laid down in 1905: the Ger/BB/1905 design. This was a ship with 8-12in/45 BLR and 12-4in QF guns with a speed of 23 knots. I had figured that I could sacrifice gunpower to reach a higher speed. We agreed at the time to use only oil fuel, even though that was anachronistic. This is the Springsharp report:
GB/BB/1905, Germany Battleship laid down 1905

Displacement:
 21,024 t light; 21,896 t standard; 24,557 t normal; 26,686 t full load

Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
 (586.00 ft / 580.00 ft) x 90.00 ft x (26.60 / 28.52 ft)
 (178.61 m / 176.78 m) x 27.43 m  x (8.11 / 8.69 m)

Armament:
      8 - 12.00" / 305 mm 45.0 cal guns - 870.00lbs / 394.63kg shells, 90 per gun
   Breech loading guns in turret on barbette mounts, 1905 Model
   4 x Twin mounts on centreline ends, evenly spread
  2 raised mounts - superfiring
      12 - 4.00" / 102 mm 45.0 cal guns - 32.27lbs / 14.64kg shells, 150 per gun
   Quick firing guns in casemate mounts, 1905 Model
   12 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread
      Weight of broadside 7,347 lbs / 3,333 kg

Armour:
   - Belts:  Width (max) Length (avg)  Height (avg)
 Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 310.00 ft / 94.49 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
 Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 120.00 ft / 36.58 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
   150.00 ft / 45.72 m Unarmoured ends
 Upper: 9.00" / 229 mm 310.00 ft / 94.49 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m
   Main Belt covers 82 % of normal length
   Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces

   - Torpedo Bulkhead - Additional damage containing bulkheads:
  2.00" / 51 mm 310.00 ft / 94.49 m 26.60 ft / 8.11 m
 Beam between torpedo bulkheads 67.00 ft / 20.42 m

   - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
 Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 9.00" / 229 mm  11.0" / 279 mm
 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm  4.00" / 102 mm

   - Armoured deck - multiple decks:
 For and Aft decks: 3.00" / 76 mm
 Forecastle: 3.00" / 76 mm  Quarter deck: 3.00" / 76 mm

   - Conning towers: Forward 11.00" / 279 mm, Aft 8.00" / 203 mm

Machinery:
 Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, 
 Direct drive, 4 shafts, 44,389 shp / 33,114 Kw = 23.00 kts
 Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts
 Bunker at max displacement = 4,790 tons

Complement:
 980 - 1,275

Cost:
 £1.876 million / $7.504 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
 Armament: 1,308 tons, 5.3 %
    - Guns: 1,308 tons, 5.3 %
 Armour: 7,835 tons, 31.9 %
    - Belts: 2,406 tons, 9.8 %
    - Torpedo bulkhead: 610 tons, 2.5 %
    - Armament: 2,302 tons, 9.4 %
    - Armour Deck: 2,170 tons, 8.8 %
    - Conning Towers: 346 tons, 1.4 %
 Machinery: 3,363 tons, 13.7 %
 Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,518 tons, 34.7 %
 Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,533 tons, 14.4 %
 Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
 Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
   41,639 lbs / 18,887 Kg = 48.2 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 6.3 torpedoes
 Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18
 Metacentric height 5.8 ft / 1.8 m
 Roll period: 15.7 seconds
 Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 82 %
   - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.68
 Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1.64

Hull form characteristics:
 Hull has low quarterdeck ,
   a ram bow and a cruiser stern
 Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.619 / 0.627
 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.44 : 1
 'Natural speed' for length: 24.08 kts
 Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 %
 Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees
 Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m
 Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
    Fore end,  Aft end
    - Forecastle: 25.00 %,  27.00 ft / 8.23 m,  26.00 ft / 7.92 m
    - Forward deck: 30.00 %,  26.00 ft / 7.92 m,  26.00 ft / 7.92 m
    - Aft deck: 14.00 %,  26.00 ft / 7.92 m,  26.00 ft / 7.92 m
    - Quarter deck: 31.00 %,  18.00 ft / 5.49 m,  18.00 ft / 5.49 m
    - Average freeboard:  23.62 ft / 7.20 m

Ship space, strength and comments:
 Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 93.5 %
  - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 196.4 %
 Waterplane Area: 38,860 Square feet or 3,610 Square metres
 Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 117 %
 Structure weight / hull surface area: 162 lbs/sq ft or 791 Kg/sq metre
 Hull strength (Relative):
  - Cross-sectional: 0.94
  - Longitudinal: 1.80
  - Overall: 1.00
 Adequate machinery, storage, compartmentation space
 Excellent accommodation and workspace room
 Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform
 Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

Sunday, January 25, 2009

My friend Cliff's GB/DL/1906 design

I thought that I would make another attempt to create Cliff's GB/DL/1906 design in Springsharp. This was a 35 knot ship with 4-88mm QF guns and 2-21in TT. As usual, it was anachronistic, but that is what he wanted. By playing games with Springsharp, I got a viable design, but with a much higher freeboard and displacement than Cliff had planned:
GB/DL/1906, Great Britain Destroyer Leader laid down 1906 (Engine 1933)

Displacement:
 1,590 t light; 1,633 t standard; 1,770 t normal; 1,880 t full load

Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
 (328.52 ft / 326.00 ft) x 30.00 ft x (12.00 / 12.58 ft)
 (100.13 m / 99.36 m) x 9.14 m  x (3.66 / 3.83 m)

Armament:
      4 - 3.46" / 88.0 mm 50.0 cal guns - 22.00lbs / 9.98kg shells, 150 per gun
   Quick firing guns in deck and hoist mounts, 1906 Model
   4 x Single mounts on centreline, evenly spread
      Weight of broadside 88 lbs / 40 kg
      Main Torpedoes
      2 - 21.0" / 533 mm, 22.00 ft / 6.71 m torpedoes - 1.315 t each, 2.630 t total
 In 2 sets of deck mounted centre rotating tubes

Machinery:
 Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, 
 Direct drive, 2 shafts, 57,363 shp / 42,793 Kw = 35.00 kts
 Range 3,500nm at 14.00 kts
 Bunker at max displacement = 247 tons

Complement:
 136 - 177

Cost:
 £0.218 million / $0.871 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
 Armament: 33 tons, 1.9 %
    - Guns: 28 tons, 1.6 %
    - Weapons: 5 tons, 0.3 %
 Machinery: 1,089 tons, 61.5 %
 Hull, fittings & equipment: 471 tons, 26.6 %
 Fuel, ammunition & stores: 180 tons, 10.2 %
 Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
 Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
   332 lbs / 151 Kg = 16.0 x 3.5 " / 88 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes
 Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.13
 Metacentric height 1.0 ft / 0.3 m
 Roll period: 12.4 seconds
 Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 75 %
   - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.30
 Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1.06

Hull form characteristics:
 Hull has rise forward of midbreak,
   a normal bow and a round stern
 Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.528 / 0.535
 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.87 : 1
 'Natural speed' for length: 18.06 kts
 Power going to wave formation at top speed: 74 %
 Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 71
 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 6.00 degrees
 Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
 Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
    Fore end,  Aft end
    - Forecastle: 18.00 %,  24.00 ft / 7.32 m,  23.00 ft / 7.01 m
    - Forward deck: 14.00 %,  23.00 ft / 7.01 m,  23.00 ft / 7.01 m
    - Aft deck: 53.00 %,  15.00 ft / 4.57 m,  15.00 ft / 4.57 m
    - Quarter deck: 15.00 %,  15.00 ft / 4.57 m,  15.00 ft / 4.57 m
    - Average freeboard:  17.63 ft / 5.37 m

Ship space, strength and comments:
 Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 203.4 %
  - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 125.2 %
 Waterplane Area: 6,686 Square feet or 621 Square metres
 Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 52 %
 Structure weight / hull surface area: 28 lbs/sq ft or 137 Kg/sq metre
 Hull strength (Relative):
  - Cross-sectional: 0.42
  - Longitudinal: 3.98
  - Overall: 0.52
 Extremely poor machinery, storage, compartmentation space
 Excellent accommodation and workspace room
 Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform

Friday, January 09, 2009

USS Wampanoag fast cruiser

I recently became interested in the fast American cruiser USS Wampanoag, laid down in 1863. The purpose of the Wampanoag class was to catch the 16 and 17 knot blockade runners built in Britain that were trying to enter Southern ports. David Dixon Porter was in an internal political struggle with Benjamin Isherwood and succeeded in stopping the construction of these ships until they no longer had a mission. the Wampanoag apparently could sustain 16.6 knots and could be pressed up to 17.75 knots, making her the fastest American warship until the USS Charleston was completed about 20 years later. This is my edited Wampanoag photograph and I did a Springsharp design:
Wampanoag, United States Cruiser laid down 1863 (Engine 1864)

Displacement:
 4,724 t light; 4,947 t standard; 5,401 t normal; 5,763 t full load

Dimensions: Length (overall / waterline) x beam x draught (normal/deep)
 (365.00 ft / 355.00 ft) x 45.20 ft x (19.00 / 20.08 ft)
 (111.25 m / 108.20 m) x 13.78 m  x (5.79 / 6.12 m)

Armament:
      10 - 8.00" / 203 mm 20.0 cal guns - 177.02lbs / 80.30kg shells, 100 per gun
   Muzzle loading guns in deck mounts, 1863 Model
   10 x Single mounts on sides, evenly spread
      2 - 6.70" / 170 mm 22.0 cal guns - 104.52lbs / 47.41kg shells, 150 per gun
   Muzzle loading guns in deck mounts, 1863 Model
   2 x Single mounts on sides, forward deck aft
      Weight of broadside 1,979 lbs / 898 kg

Machinery:
 Coal fired boilers, simple reciprocating steam engines, 
 Geared drive, 1 shaft, 9,198 ihp / 6,862 Kw = 17.75 kts
 Range 1,500nm at 10.00 kts
 Bunker at max displacement = 816 tons (100% coal)

Complement:
 314 - 409

Cost:
 £0.572 million / $2.288 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
 Armament: 124 tons, 2.3 %
    - Guns: 124 tons, 2.3 %
 Machinery: 2,607 tons, 48.3 %
 Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,992 tons, 36.9 %
 Fuel, ammunition & stores: 677 tons, 12.5 %
 Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
 Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
   1,291 lbs / 585 Kg = 8.5 x 8.0 " / 203 mm shells or 0.5 torpedoes
 Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.69
 Metacentric height 3.6 ft / 1.1 m
 Roll period: 10.0 seconds
 Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 93 %
   - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.35
 Seaboat quality  (Average = 1.00): 1.86

Hull form characteristics:
 Hull has raised forecastle, raised quarterdeck ,
   a normal bow and a round stern
 Block coefficient (normal/deep): 0.620 / 0.626
 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.85 : 1
 'Natural speed' for length: 18.84 kts
 Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 %
 Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees
 Stern overhang: 10.00 ft / 3.05 m
 Freeboard (% = length of deck as a percentage of waterline length):
    Fore end,  Aft end
    - Forecastle: 28.00 %,  18.00 ft / 5.49 m,  16.00 ft / 4.88 m
    - Forward deck: 30.00 %,  11.00 ft / 3.35 m,  11.00 ft / 3.35 m
    - Aft deck: 17.00 %,  11.00 ft / 3.35 m,  11.00 ft / 3.35 m
    - Quarter deck: 25.00 %,  14.00 ft / 4.27 m,  14.00 ft / 4.27 m
    - Average freeboard:  13.37 ft / 4.08 m
 Ship tends to be wet forward

Ship space, strength and comments:
 Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 164.7 %
  - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 78.3 %
 Waterplane Area: 11,734 Square feet or 1,090 Square metres
 Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 96 %
 Structure weight / hull surface area: 109 lbs/sq ft or 530 Kg/sq metre
 Hull strength (Relative):
  - Cross-sectional: 0.94
  - Longitudinal: 1.70
  - Overall: 1.00
 Cramped machinery, storage, compartmentation space
 Cramped accommodation and workspace room
 Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform
 Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

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