GB/DD/1906, Great Britain Destroyer laid down 1906 (Engine 1931) Displacement: 807 t light; 842 t standard; 965 t normal; 1,063 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 265.77 ft / 265.00 ft x 26.00 ft x 11.00 ft (normal load) 81.01 m / 80.77 m x 7.92 m x 3.35 m Armament: 2 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread Weight of broadside 64 lbs / 29 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 450 2 - 18.0" / 457.2 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 28,759 shp / 21,454 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,750nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 221 tons Complement: 86 - 112 Cost: £0.108 million / $0.433 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 8 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 524 tons, 54.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 275 tons, 28.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 158 tons, 16.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 245 lbs / 111 Kg = 7.6 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.40 Metacentric height 1.2 ft / 0.4 m Roll period: 10.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.23 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.13 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.446 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.19 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 72 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Mid (32 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m (12.00 ft / 3.66 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Stern: 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Average freeboard: 14.72 ft / 4.49 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 182.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 111.5 % Waterplane Area: 4,379 Square feet or 407 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 54 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 24 lbs/sq ft or 117 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.41 - Longitudinal: 4.34 - Overall: 0.52 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

## Friday, September 30, 2005

### My 2001 version of the GB/DD/1906 destroyer

When I just entered my GB/DD/1906 design into Springsharp, I used 18in torpedo tubes, as I couldn't stand to do what my friend Cliff had done, and give them 21in TT in 1906. I also increased the draft to 11ft and used a normal displacement of 965 tons. The freeboard is also a bit high, to achieve adequate seakeeping ability. The dimensions are 265ft x 26ft x 11ft. The armament is 2-4in QF guns and 2-18in TT. The speed is my standard 32 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

## Thursday, September 29, 2005

### The GB/PGL/1906 from 2001

In August 2001, I recast my friend Cliff's design for the GB/PGL/1906 to be more in line with practice circa 1906. It still has 3-5in QF guns, but none are superfiring. Instead there is one mount forward and two aft, all on the centerline. Given the vagaries of Springsharp, the design is only viable due to the lightest weight machinery. The dimensions are 340ft x 35ft x 12ft, as I increased the draft to improve the composite strength and seakeeping. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/PGL/1906, Great Britain Large Fast Gunboat laid down 1906 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 1,327 t light; 1,373 t standard; 1,500 t normal; 1,602 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 341.08 ft / 340.00 ft x 35.00 ft x 12.00 ft (normal load) 103.96 m / 103.63 m x 10.67 m x 3.66 m Armament: 3 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline, evenly spread Aft Main mounts separated by engine room Weight of broadside 188 lbs / 85 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 45,870 shp / 34,219 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 3,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 229 tons Complement: 119 - 156 Cost: £0.177 million / $0.709 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 23 tons, 1.6 % Machinery: 794 tons, 52.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 510 tons, 34.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 173 tons, 11.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 416 lbs / 189 Kg = 6.7 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.34 Metacentric height 1.7 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 11.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.30 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.27 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.368 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.71 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 18.44 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 69 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (33 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (12.00 ft / 3.66 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Stern: 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Average freeboard: 17.52 ft / 5.34 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 182.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 175.9 % Waterplane Area: 7,230 Square feet or 672 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 63 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 31 lbs/sq ft or 153 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.42 - Longitudinal: 3.47 - Overall: 0.52 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Wednesday, September 28, 2005

### The 2001 version of the GB/CS/1914 design

I recast the GB/CS/1914 design as a 6in-gunned super destroyer. When I drew the ship in August 2001, I gave it a raised forecastle, three funnels, and lightly protected conning tower. The armament is 4-6in QF guns. The dimensions are 405ft x 41ft x 13ft. The speed is my standard 32 knots. I used direct drive turbines, as 1914 is early for geared turbines, although they are possible that early. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CS/1914, Great Britain Scout Cruiser laid down 1914 Displacement: 2,850 t light; 2,980 t standard; 3,500 t normal; 3,916 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 405.91 ft / 405.00 ft x 41.00 ft x 13.00 ft (normal load) 123.72 m / 123.44 m x 12.50 m x 3.96 m Armament: 4 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline, evenly spread Aft Main mounts separated by engine room Weight of broadside 432 lbs / 196 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 54,836 shp / 40,908 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 936 tons Complement: 226 - 295 Cost: £0.530 million / $2.121 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 54 tons, 1.5 % Machinery: 1,939 tons, 55.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 857 tons, 24.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 650 tons, 18.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 932 lbs / 423 Kg = 8.6 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 0.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.67 Metacentric height 3.1 ft / 0.9 m Roll period: 9.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.27 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.13 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.567 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.88 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.12 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (34 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 17.89 ft / 5.45 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 191.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 165.0 % Waterplane Area: 11,780 Square feet or 1,094 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 75 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 39 lbs/sq ft or 191 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.52 - Longitudinal: 1.59 - Overall: 0.58 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, September 27, 2005

### The 2001 version of the GB/PG/1914 design

In August 2001 (0r so), I recast the design for the GB/PG/1914 to be more typical of what might have been done at that date, rather than the radical concept from 1971, which was flush-decked. The new version had a raised forecastle, with twin funnels and guns on the centerline. One was on the forecastle, two on the centerline, where torpedo tubes might have gone, and one aft. The dimensions, as modified to improve the Springsharp report were 260ft x 27ft x 11ft. I had to increase the draft to improve strength and seakeeping ability. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/PG/1914, Great Britain Fast Gunboat laid down 1914 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 855 t light; 893 t standard; 1,010 t normal; 1,103 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 260.80 ft / 260.00 ft x 27.00 ft x 11.00 ft (normal load) 79.49 m / 79.25 m x 8.23 m x 3.35 m Armament: 4 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline, evenly spread Aft Main mounts separated by engine room Weight of broadside 128 lbs / 58 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 30,584 shp / 22,816 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,650nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 210 tons Complement: 89 - 116 Cost: £0.149 million / $0.598 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 16 tons, 1.6 % Machinery: 529 tons, 52.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 310 tons, 30.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 155 tons, 15.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 262 lbs / 119 Kg = 8.2 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.30 Metacentric height 1.1 ft / 0.3 m Roll period: 10.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.49 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.13 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.458 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.63 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.12 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 74 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forecastle (20 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Mid (35 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m (13.00 ft / 3.96 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Stern: 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Average freeboard: 15.96 ft / 4.86 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 182.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 143.2 % Waterplane Area: 4,507 Square feet or 419 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 55 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 25 lbs/sq ft or 124 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.40 - Longitudinal: 5.64 - Overall: 0.52 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, September 26, 2005

### My 2001 version of the GB/DT/1914

When I was determined to draw ships that looked like they belonged to the period and navy in 2001, I recast the GB/DT/1914 as a ship with two funnels and a forecastle, rather than a raked flush deck and single funnel, as the concept had been from 1971. To make this work in Springsharp, very lightweight machinery was required. The single gun is on the forecastle with the three triple torpedo tube mountings are aft. I had to add freeboard to make the design work, as well as use a normal displacement that would give a 900 ton (about) standard displacement. This is the resulting Springsharp report:

GB/DT/1914, Great Britain Torpedo Boat laid down 1914 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 894 t light; 923 t standard; 1,040 t normal; 1,134 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 265.84 ft / 265.00 ft x 28.00 ft x 9.00 ft (normal load) 81.03 m / 80.77 m x 8.53 m x 2.74 m Armament: 1 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing gun in a deck mount with hoist on centreline forward Weight of broadside 32 lbs / 15 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 450 9 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 32,823 shp / 24,486 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,650nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 210 tons Complement: 91 - 119 Cost: £0.146 million / $0.583 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 570 tons, 54.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 320 tons, 30.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 146 tons, 14.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 294 lbs / 133 Kg = 9.2 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 1.0 ft / 0.3 m Roll period: 11.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.12 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has raised forecastle, rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.545 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.46 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 76 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Mid (32 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (14.00 ft / 4.27 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 16.66 ft / 5.08 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 180.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 27.3 % Waterplane Area: 5,155 Square feet or 479 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 59 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 25 lbs/sq ft or 121 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.42 - Longitudinal: 5.53 - Overall: 0.54 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is extremely poor

## Sunday, September 25, 2005

### Here is my scan of my 2001 drawing of the GB/FG/1913 design

I thought I would try out my new "all-in-one" box that will scan. I thought that the GB/FG/1913 design would be a good place to start:

This drawing was probably from late August 2001.

### My 2001 version of the GB/FG/1913 design

In the original pencil sketch from 1971, we had allowed the GB/FG/1913 to have superfiring guns, but when I did a new drawing in August-September 2001, I was not prepared to allow them in a 1913 destroyer-type vessel. The dimensions for the ship, circa 2001, were 315ft x 30ft x 11ft. I let the normal displacement be 1,350 tons. The armament is 5-4in QF guns and 2-21in TT in a twin centerline mount. There are three funnels with a 4in gun at the rear end of the forecastle and between the forefunnel and the second funnel. The ship is very a WWI British-looking destroyer type. It depends on lightweight machinery to be viable. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/FG/1913, Great Britain Frigate-Gunboat laid down 1913 (Engine 1931) Displacement: 1,107 t light; 1,165 t standard; 1,350 t normal; 1,498 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 315.77 ft / 315.00 ft x 30.00 ft x 11.00 ft (normal load) 96.25 m / 96.01 m x 9.14 m x 3.35 m Armament: 5 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1913 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward Weight of broadside 160 lbs / 73 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 350 2 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 31,980 shp / 23,857 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 4,750nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 334 tons Complement: 110 - 144 Cost: £0.167 million / $0.670 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 20 tons, 1.5 % Machinery: 699 tons, 51.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 387 tons, 28.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 243 tons, 18.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 382 lbs / 173 Kg = 11.9 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.45 Metacentric height 1.6 ft / 0.5 m Roll period: 10.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 59 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.34 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.17 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.455 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.50 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 17.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 69 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Mid (36 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m (12.00 ft / 3.66 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Stern: 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Average freeboard: 15.04 ft / 4.58 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 180.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 125.0 % Waterplane Area: 6,050 Square feet or 562 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 65 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 28 lbs/sq ft or 139 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.46 - Longitudinal: 2.64 - Overall: 0.55 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, September 24, 2005

### The GB/BB/1907 battleship drawing from August 31, 2001

The GB/BB/1907 battleship drawing dating from August 31, 2001 is a moderately good view of my friend Cliff's concept for the class. When I entered the design into Springsharp, there was room for growth, so I used an armor basis of 14in, instead of 13.7in. The machinery date has to be set to 1909 to work, but otherwise, there is no stretching. The dimensions are 680ft x 87ft x 30ft, with a normal displacement of 27,500 tons. The armament is the 6-12in/50 BLR and 8-6in/50 QF guns, all in twin turrets. There was room in the Springsharp design for a maximum speed of 25 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1907, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1907 (Engine 1909) Displacement: 24,084 t light; 24,910 t standard; 27,500 t normal; 29,572 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 680.00 ft / 680.00 ft x 87.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 207.26 m / 207.26 m x 26.52 m x 9.14 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (4x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all aft Weight of broadside 6,048 lbs / 2,743 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 385.00 ft / 117.35 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 87 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 385.00 ft / 117.35 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 59,345 shp / 44,271 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 6,300nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,663 tons Complement: 1,067 - 1,388 Cost: £1.856 million / $7.423 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 756 tons, 2.7 % Armour: 10,995 tons, 40.0 % - Belts: 4,019 tons, 14.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,197 tons, 4.4 % - Armament: 2,471 tons, 9.0 % - Armour Deck: 3,033 tons, 11.0 % - Conning Tower: 275 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 2,697 tons, 9.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,636 tons, 35.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,416 tons, 12.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 53,543 lbs / 24,286 Kg = 62.0 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 9.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.07 Metacentric height 4.6 ft / 1.4 m Roll period: 17.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 86 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.60 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.73 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.542 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.82 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.08 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (65 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 23.44 ft / 7.14 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 69.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 172.2 % Waterplane Area: 40,991 Square feet or 3,808 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 123 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 155 lbs/sq ft or 755 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.55 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

### The GB/CB/1905 from August 31, 2001

This is a much better drawing than the GB/CB/1907. I need to scan the drawings and post them, for posterity. The GB/CB/1905 drawing was good enough that I had made it into a wargame piece back 2001. When I lost my hard disk in the fall of 2002, the scan was lost. Anyway, for whatever reason, the GB/CB/1905 design is working extremely well in Springsharp. It would be tempting to increase the belt armor, but I refrained, to retain the elements of the original design. I did increase turret, barbette, and conning tower to use up growth capacity in the design and to raise the center of gravity, to increase the roll period to above 14 seconds, which is lower than I like. This design is 770ft x 85ft x 27ft, with a normal displacement of 26,500 tons. The armament is the usual 4-12in/45 BLR and 9-6in/50 QF guns. The speed is 33 knots maximum with a range of 7,500 miles at 15 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1905, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1909) Displacement: 22,731 t light; 23,465 t standard; 26,500 t normal; 28,928 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 25.91 m x 8.23 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread 1 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing gun in a deck mount with hoist on centreline aft Weight of broadside 4,428 lbs / 2,009 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 495.00 ft / 150.88 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 425.00 ft / 129.54 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 99 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 495.00 ft / 150.88 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 10.00" / 254 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 160,984 shp / 120,094 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,463 tons Complement: 1,038 - 1,350 Cost: £2.285 million / $9.140 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 554 tons, 2.1 % Armour: 4,869 tons, 18.4 % - Belts: 1,339 tons, 5.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 714 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 973 tons, 3.7 % - Armour Deck: 1,651 tons, 6.2 % - Conning Tower: 191 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 7,317 tons, 27.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,992 tons, 37.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,769 tons, 14.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 30,876 lbs / 14,005 Kg = 35.7 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.29 Metacentric height 6.2 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 14.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 66 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.35 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.32 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.525 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (73 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 26.08 ft / 7.95 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 137.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 217.2 % Waterplane Area: 44,617 Square feet or 4,145 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 111 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 145 lbs/sq ft or 707 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.31 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Friday, September 23, 2005

### I have this bad drawing of a good design: GB/CB/1907

I drew a picture of the GB/CB/1907 design on August 31, 2001. It was a particularly unfortunate picture, in that it was drawn on a day "I couldn't draw". Still, the basic design works quite well in Springsharp. This version had more beam and armor than the GB/CB/1905 version. The armor belt is 6in, while the barbettes and turrets are 9in, maximum. The maximum speed is still 33 knots. It really justifies my friend Cliff's concept for these ships. This version only moderately depends on lightweight machinery. I did extend the belt to take advantage of the growth potential in the design. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1907, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1907 (Engine 1909) Displacement: 23,642 t light; 24,396 t standard; 27,500 t normal; 29,984 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 87.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 26.52 m x 8.23 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread 1 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing gun in a deck mount with hoist on centreline aft Weight of broadside 4,428 lbs / 2,009 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 480.00 ft / 146.30 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 6.00" / 152 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 96 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 480.00 ft / 146.30 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 3rd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 165,828 shp / 123,708 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,588 tons Complement: 1,067 - 1,388 Cost: £2.348 million / $9.391 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 554 tons, 2.0 % Armour: 5,420 tons, 19.7 % - Belts: 1,977 tons, 7.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 693 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 873 tons, 3.2 % - Armour Deck: 1,701 tons, 6.2 % - Conning Tower: 177 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 7,538 tons, 27.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,130 tons, 36.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,858 tons, 14.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 32,851 lbs / 14,901 Kg = 38.0 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.31 Metacentric height 6.6 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 14.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 65 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.31 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.31 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.532 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.85 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (72 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 135.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 216.7 % Waterplane Area: 45,977 Square feet or 4,271 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 110 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 145 lbs/sq ft or 706 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.30 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### The GB/BB/1906 battleship drawing from August 2001

I have a pencil drawing from August 2001 for the GB/BB/1906 battleship. My friend Cliff had conceived this design as a fast battleship that sacrificed armament to get speed and protection. I have kept the citadel armor the same length as the drawing, even though it is short, according to Springsharp. The nominal displacement intended was 25,000 tons, but that was too small for a normal displacement for this design. I had to increase that to 26,500 tons, which produced a standard displacement of only 23,811 tons. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1906, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1906 Displacement: 23,005 t light; 23,811 t standard; 26,500 t normal; 28,652 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 680.00 ft / 680.00 ft x 87.70 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 207.26 m / 207.26 m x 26.73 m x 8.23 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1906 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, evenly spread, 1 raised mount Aft Main mounts separated by engine room 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (4x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 6,048 lbs / 2,743 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.7" / 348 mm 370.00 ft / 112.78 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 84 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 370.00 ft / 112.78 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.7" / 348 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 13.7" / 348 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 13.70" / 348 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 50,515 shp / 37,684 Kw = 24.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,841 tons Complement: 1,038 - 1,350 Cost: £1.899 million / $7.598 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 756 tons, 2.9 % Armour: 9,371 tons, 35.4 % - Belts: 3,597 tons, 13.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 712 tons, 2.7 % - Armament: 2,433 tons, 9.2 % - Armour Deck: 2,367 tons, 8.9 % - Conning Tower: 262 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 3,280 tons, 12.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,598 tons, 36.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,495 tons, 13.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 46,879 lbs / 21,264 Kg = 54.3 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 7.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 5.1 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 16.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 87 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.57 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.73 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.576 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.08 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 43 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (65 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 23.44 ft / 7.14 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 80.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 184.2 % Waterplane Area: 42,648 Square feet or 3,962 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 121 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 153 lbs/sq ft or 749 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.40 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Thursday, September 22, 2005

### The August 2001 version of the GB/BB/1909 design

The GB/BB/1909 design has 9-12in/50 BLR and 8-6in QF guns. I assumed that the armor basis was 14in, and started with a 23-knot speed, although I increased the speed to 24 knots, since there was room to grow. The dimensions are 650ft x 100ft x 28ft, with a normal displacement of 29,000 tons. Since Springsharp allowed for growth in the design, I increased the range to 6,000 nm, as well as increasing the speed to 24 knots. I left the armored citadel lenght the same as the drawing, even though Springsharp complains that it is too short. This is the Srpingsharp report:

GB/BB/1909, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1909 Displacement: 25,453 t light; 26,424 t standard; 29,000 t normal; 31,061 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 650.00 ft / 650.00 ft x 100.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 198.12 m / 198.12 m x 30.48 m x 8.53 m Armament: 9 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1909 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, evenly spread, 1 raised mount Aft Main mounts separated by engine room 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1909 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 8,640 lbs / 3,919 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 85 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 3.50" / 89 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 54,707 shp / 40,811 Kw = 24.00 kts Range 6,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,637 tons Complement: 1,110 - 1,444 Cost: £2.146 million / $8.585 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,080 tons, 3.7 % Armour: 10,678 tons, 36.8 % - Belts: 3,875 tons, 13.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 719 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 2,840 tons, 9.8 % - Armour Deck: 2,959 tons, 10.2 % - Conning Tower: 285 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 2,487 tons, 8.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,209 tons, 38.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,547 tons, 12.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 58,617 lbs / 26,588 Kg = 67.8 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 10.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 6.2 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 16.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 91 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.59 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.82 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.558 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.50 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.50 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 46 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (66 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.52 ft / 7.78 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 70.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 201.2 % Waterplane Area: 45,691 Square feet or 4,245 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 119 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 172 lbs/sq ft or 839 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.85 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Wednesday, September 21, 2005

### The GB/BB/1914 design drawn in August 2001

I really need to scan some of these drawings, as they are pretty interesting (to me). I just ran the GB/BB/1914 design through Springsharp. I used rather modest armor estimates and a moderate speed (23 knots). The ship is 800ft x 120ft x 30ft, and the originally intended displacement was only 45,000 tons. That is way too low for adequate strength. I had to greatly increase that to be viable. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1914, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1914 Displacement: 50,639 t light; 53,002 t standard; 56,500 t normal; 59,299 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 800.00 ft / 800.00 ft x 120.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 243.84 m / 243.84 m x 36.58 m x 9.14 m Armament: 9 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, evenly spread, 1 raised mount Aft Main mounts separated by engine room 20 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (10x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all forward, 6 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 27,494 lbs / 12,471 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 16.0" / 406 mm 430.00 ft / 131.06 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 83 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 430.00 ft / 131.06 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 69,918 shp / 52,159 Kw = 23.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,297 tons Complement: 1,832 - 2,382 Cost: £6.410 million / $25.639 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,437 tons, 6.1 % Armour: 20,809 tons, 36.8 % - Belts: 5,348 tons, 9.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,384 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 6,473 tons, 11.5 % - Armour Deck: 7,033 tons, 12.4 % - Conning Tower: 571 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 2,693 tons, 4.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 23,700 tons, 41.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,861 tons, 10.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 96,099 lbs / 43,590 Kg = 33.0 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 16.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 7.8 ft / 2.4 m Roll period: 18.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 73 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.80 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.45 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.687 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.67 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 41 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (67 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.68 ft / 7.83 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 73.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 203.8 % Waterplane Area: 76,030 Square feet or 7,063 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 105 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 237 lbs/sq ft or 1,158 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.34 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Tuesday, September 20, 2005

### The GB/BB/1915, evidently from August 2001

The GB/BB/1912 design for my friend Cliff, did not work very well in SpringSharp. I had to lower freeboard and greatly increase the displacent (to 36,500 tons, normal). The original intent was for something like 32,500 tons. I confirmed that the secondary armament was intended to be 14-6in QF guns. I am reasonably certain that Cliff wanted a 14in armor basis. This is the SpringSharp report:

GB/BB/1912, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1912 Displacement: 32,569 t light; 34,052 t standard; 36,500 t normal; 38,458 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 700.00 ft / 700.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 29.00 ft (normal load) 213.36 m / 213.36 m x 32.00 m x 8.84 m Armament: 9 - 15.00" / 381 mm guns (3x3 guns), 1,687.50lbs / 765.44kg shells, 1912 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, evenly spread, 1 raised mount Aft Main mounts separated by engine room 14 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1912 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all forward, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 16,700 lbs / 7,575 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 88 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 45,095 shp / 33,641 Kw = 22.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,406 tons Complement: 1,319 - 1,716 Cost: £3.145 million / $12.580 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,087 tons, 5.7 % Armour: 14,205 tons, 38.9 % - Belts: 4,270 tons, 11.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,199 tons, 3.3 % - Armament: 3,434 tons, 9.4 % - Armour Deck: 4,969 tons, 13.6 % - Conning Tower: 332 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 1,798 tons, 4.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 14,479 tons, 39.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,931 tons, 10.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 63,099 lbs / 28,621 Kg = 37.4 x 15.0 " / 381 mm shells or 11.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.13 Metacentric height 6.8 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 75 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.67 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.51 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.599 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.67 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.46 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 40 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (59 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 21.96 ft / 6.69 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 72.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 169.1 % Waterplane Area: 53,724 Square feet or 4,991 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 199 lbs/sq ft or 971 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.45 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

### Roll period for large warships

This is based on a conversation I had yesterday with a prominent author and researcher on naval history topics. We had speculated over the last week or so about whether large metacentric heights were appropriate for large warships. The answer is that there are reasonable limits on metacentric height, due to its effect on roll period. The goal is have a roll period of less than 15 seconds for a large warship. Remember that the formula for roll period is

T=roll period in seconds B=beam in feet GM= metacentric height in feet K= a constant that can vary in the range of 0.38 and 0.55 T=(B x K)/sqrt(GM)It seems that SpringSharp is using a K of 0.42. Prof. Royce, at the Webb Institute told my friend that we should use a K of 0.4, unless there is some specific reason to use something else. If there is a great deal of mass at the sides of the ship, the K would be greater. If the mass was concentrated on the centerline, then the K could be slightly less than 0.4. It turns out that the Bismarck, Tirpitz, and H-Class design all had very large GM values, perhaps above 10.0. My friend speculated that they might have been snappy rollers.

## Monday, September 19, 2005

### The GB/BB/1915 "BBX" design based on my August 2001 drawing

I have this drawing of the GB/BB/1915, my friend Cliff's "BBX" design, that I just ran through SpringSharp. This drawing attributes the 20in guns to the design. I used the dimensions from the drawing, estimated armor, and adjusted displacement and speed to work in SpringSharp. This is the report:

GB/BB/1915 BBX, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1915 Displacement: 67,209 t light; 70,375 t standard; 74,300 t normal; 77,440 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 852.08 ft / 850.00 ft x 135.00 ft x 36.00 ft (normal load) 259.71 m / 259.08 m x 41.15 m x 10.97 m Armament: 9 - 20.00" / 508 mm guns (3x3 guns), 4,000.00lbs / 1,814.37kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, evenly spread, 1 raised mount Aft Main mounts separated by engine room 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all forward, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 37,500 lbs / 17,010 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 435.00 ft / 132.59 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 79 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 435.00 ft / 132.59 m 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 108,743 shp / 81,122 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 7,065 tons Complement: 2,249 - 2,925 Cost: £9.988 million / $39.950 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,688 tons, 6.3 % Armour: 28,942 tons, 39.0 % - Belts: 6,201 tons, 8.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,253 tons, 3.0 % - Armament: 7,036 tons, 9.5 % - Armour Deck: 12,767 tons, 17.2 % - Conning Tower: 685 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 4,119 tons, 5.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 29,460 tons, 39.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 7,091 tons, 9.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 108,870 lbs / 49,383 Kg = 27.2 x 20.0 " / 508 mm shells or 20.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.13 Metacentric height 9.9 ft / 3.0 m Roll period: 18.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 70 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.62 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.40 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.630 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.30 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 44 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (50 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 24.64 ft / 7.51 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 76.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 175.3 % Waterplane Area: 86,262 Square feet or 8,014 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 99 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 261 lbs/sq ft or 1,277 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.36 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, September 18, 2005

### The September 2, 2001 version of the Ger/CS/1905 scout cruiser

My drawing for the Ger/CS/1905 scout cruiser that I drew on September 2, 2001, is quite different from the photos that I have created in the last 6 months. This version has three low cased funnels, cut away side, facing forward, to increase the arc of fire for the guns, and torpedo tubes mounted abreast, just aft of the funnels and on each side of a boat that has a derrick mounted just aft of the after funnel. For Springsharp, I reduced the displacement, have gone with the lightest weight machinery, and increased draft and freeboard. That was necessary to obtain a sufficient seakeeping capability, while maintaining a 36 knot speed and the patch of armor over the machinery spaces. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CS/1905, Germany Scout Cruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 2,195 t light; 2,267 t standard; 2,350 t normal; 2,417 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 370.44 ft / 370.00 ft x 38.00 ft x 14.00 ft (normal load) 112.91 m / 112.78 m x 11.58 m x 4.27 m Armament: 3 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline, evenly spread Aft Main mounts separated by engine room 2 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all forward Weight of broadside 160 lbs / 73 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 2 - 18.0" / 457.2 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 160.00 ft / 48.77 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 2.00" / 51 mm 105.00 ft / 32.00 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 67 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm - - - Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 68,083 shp / 50,790 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 2,750nm at 12.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 150 tons Complement: 168 - 219 Cost: £0.274 million / $1.098 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 20 tons, 0.9 % Armour: 222 tons, 9.4 % - Belts: 197 tons, 8.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 13 tons, 0.6 % - Armour Deck: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Conning Tower: 11 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 1,292 tons, 55.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 662 tons, 28.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 155 tons, 6.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 593 lbs / 269 Kg = 18.5 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.36 Metacentric height 2.0 ft / 0.6 m Roll period: 11.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.17 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.01 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.418 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.74 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 19.24 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 70 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 1.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (33 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 17.80 ft / 5.43 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 184.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 152.9 % Waterplane Area: 8,753 Square feet or 813 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 65 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 35 lbs/sq ft or 173 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.45 - Longitudinal: 2.53 - Overall: 0.53 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, September 17, 2005

### Roll period

I spoke yesterday with Frank Fox about some ship design issues. He had spoken with a professor at the Webb Institute about stability issues. We talked about calculating roll period. The formula is:

T=roll period in seconds B=beam in feet GM= metacentric height in feet K= a constant that can vary in the range of 0.38 and 0.55 T=(B x K)/sqrt(GM)Springsharp must use K=0.42, since the Ger/CB/1905 design has the following:T=14.2 seconds B=80ft GM=5.6ft Therefore K=T x sqrt(GM)/B=14.2 x sqrt(5.6)/80=0.42

### My September 8, 2001 version of the Ger/CB/1905 battleruiser

As part of my series of drawings from September 2001, I drew a German-looking Ger/CB/1905 battlecruiser. It was German-looking in the sense that the masts, tops, cased funnels and bridge were similar to what was used on German ships in 1912-1918. This ship was 700ft x 80ft x 24ft, and had a 19,000 ton normal displacement. The armor basis was just 4in, although the armament had 6in turrets and barbettes. The speed was a fast 31knots. The armament was 4-12in/45 and 12-4in QF guns. This works well in Springsharp with lightweight machinery. I extended the armor belt beyond the drawing to make use of the extra capacity in the design. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1905, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1910) Displacement: 16,397 t light; 16,952 t standard; 19,000 t normal; 20,638 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 701.00 ft / 700.00 ft x 80.00 ft x 24.00 ft (normal load) 213.66 m / 213.36 m x 24.38 m x 7.32 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 3,840 lbs / 1,742 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 405.00 ft / 123.44 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 89 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 405.00 ft / 123.44 m 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 105,177 shp / 78,462 Kw = 31.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,686 tons Complement: 808 - 1,051 Cost: £1.586 million / $6.342 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 480 tons, 2.5 % Armour: 3,839 tons, 20.2 % - Belts: 1,184 tons, 6.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 539 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 649 tons, 3.4 % - Armour Deck: 1,374 tons, 7.2 % - Conning Tower: 92 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 4,346 tons, 22.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,732 tons, 40.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,603 tons, 13.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 27,866 lbs / 12,640 Kg = 32.3 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.29 Metacentric height 5.6 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 14.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 75 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.39 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.51 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.495 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.46 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (63 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.28 ft / 7.71 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 124.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 221.4 % Waterplane Area: 37,136 Square feet or 3,450 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 116 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 134 lbs/sq ft or 657 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.52 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Friday, September 16, 2005

### The September 8, 2001 version of the Ger/CB/1906 design

The oddest thing about the Ger/CB/1906 design is that due to its lightweight machinery, the design works well (except for having a belt that is too short, according to Springsharp). I used the armored citadel length from the 2001 drawing for the calculations. When I entered the design, originally with 1917 machinery, it had too much hull strength, so I changed the machinery date to 1914. I had to change it back, as it turns out that I had forgotten to enter the anti-torpedo bulkhead. After I entered the torpedo bulkhead, I had to reduce the range to 5,600 nm to reach the magic 1.00 composite strength. The dimensions used are 800ft x 85ft x 27ft, with a normal displacement of 25,000 tons. The speed is 33 knots. The armament is 8-12in/45 and 12-4in QF guns. The armor is a legacy of my thinking in 1971, where the belt was only 4in thick, in exchange for a 33 knot speed. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1906, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1906 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 22,547 t light; 23,394 t standard; 25,000 t normal; 26,285 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 801.00 ft / 800.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 244.14 m / 243.84 m x 25.91 m x 8.23 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1906 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1906 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,662 lbs / 3,475 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 425.00 ft / 129.54 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 82 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 425.00 ft / 129.54 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 149,293 shp / 111,373 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,891 tons Complement: 993 - 1,292 Cost: £2.360 million / $9.439 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 958 tons, 3.8 % Armour: 4,942 tons, 19.8 % - Belts: 1,250 tons, 5.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 613 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 1,327 tons, 5.3 % - Armour Deck: 1,642 tons, 6.6 % - Conning Tower: 111 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 5,473 tons, 21.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,174 tons, 44.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,453 tons, 9.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 31,016 lbs / 14,068 Kg = 35.9 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 5.1 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 15.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 66 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.73 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.33 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.477 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.41 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (67 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.60 ft / 7.80 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 130.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 219.4 % Waterplane Area: 44,367 Square feet or 4,122 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 162 lbs/sq ft or 791 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.29 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, September 15, 2005

### The September 8, 2001 version of the Ger/BB/1909 design

The Ger/BB/1909 drawing from September 8, 2001 is not very inspired, but it does look distinctly like a WWI-era German battleship. Partly, the problem is that three triple 12in gun turrets dow't seem very appropriate for such a ship. This drawing has some specifications, so I needed to invent less for Springsharp. The design, as originally entered allowed for room for growth, so I increased the range and deck armor. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1909, Germany Battleship laid down 1909 Displacement: 26,686 t light; 27,692 t standard; 30,760 t normal; 33,214 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 645.00 ft / 645.00 ft x 106.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 196.60 m / 196.60 m x 32.31 m x 9.14 m Armament: 9 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1909 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1909 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 8,640 lbs / 3,919 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 350.00 ft / 106.68 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 83 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 350.00 ft / 106.68 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 4.50" / 114 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 47,943 shp / 35,765 Kw = 23.00 kts Range 7,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,522 tons Complement: 1,160 - 1,509 Cost: £2.146 million / $8.585 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,080 tons, 3.5 % Armour: 11,879 tons, 38.6 % - Belts: 3,813 tons, 12.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,127 tons, 3.7 % - Armament: 2,764 tons, 9.0 % - Armour Deck: 3,880 tons, 12.6 % - Conning Tower: 296 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 2,179 tons, 7.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,548 tons, 37.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,074 tons, 13.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 69,229 lbs / 31,402 Kg = 80.1 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 14.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 7.1 ft / 2.2 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 98 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.50 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.96 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.525 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.08 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 25.40 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 44 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (63 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.28 ft / 7.71 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 61.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 193.6 % Waterplane Area: 46,609 Square feet or 4,330 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 124 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 175 lbs/sq ft or 853 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 2.00 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Wednesday, September 14, 2005

### The Ger/BB/1907 design from September 8, 2001

The drawings from September 8, 2001 are less inspired than those from September 9th. Still, they are not bad. They all look very German, as I had thought that they should. The Ger/BB/1907 drawing has pole masts with the usual German small tops, twin funnels with high casings, a bridge structure built of platforms, on top of a small superstructure with an armored conning tower behind the second gun turret. The secondary armament are in casemates above the hull. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1907, Germany Battleship laid down 1907 (Engine 1916) Displacement: 22,526 t light; 23,354 t standard; 25,000 t normal; 26,317 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 620.00 ft / 620.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 188.98 m / 188.98 m x 32.00 m x 7.92 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,296 lbs / 3,309 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 430.00 ft / 131.06 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 430.00 ft / 131.06 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 107 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 430.00 ft / 131.06 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.0" / 330 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 13.0" / 330 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 13.00" / 330 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 42,995 shp / 32,074 Kw = 23.00 kts Range 5,600nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,962 tons Complement: 993 - 1,292 Cost: £1.779 million / $7.115 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 912 tons, 3.6 % Armour: 10,089 tons, 40.4 % - Belts: 3,357 tons, 13.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 796 tons, 3.2 % - Armament: 2,437 tons, 9.7 % - Armour Deck: 3,260 tons, 13.0 % - Conning Tower: 239 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 1,602 tons, 6.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,923 tons, 39.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,474 tons, 9.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 58,121 lbs / 26,363 Kg = 67.3 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 12.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 7.0 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 83 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.37 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.66 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.517 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.90 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.90 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (62 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 22.20 ft / 6.77 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 60.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 187.3 % Waterplane Area: 44,055 Square feet or 4,093 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 121 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 168 lbs/sq ft or 818 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.70 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Sunday, September 11, 2005

### The September 9, 2001 version of the Ger/DD/1915 design

In my binging on drawing ships on September 9, 2001, I drew the Ger/DD/1915 design. It is a compact German destroyer with a more modern look, with two funnels and no well forward of the bridge. The bridge and funnels are streamlined. The armament is 2-4in QF guns at the ends and 4-21in TT in twin mounts aft. There are 30 mines on rails at the stern. The speed is my standard 32 knots. The design works well in Springsharp, except that I had to increase the freeboard by two feet. The dimensions are 260ft x 26ft x 10ft. The design depends on very lightweight machinery. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/DD/1915, Germany Destroyer laid down 1915 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 769 t light; 796 t standard; 900 t normal; 983 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 262.40 ft / 260.00 ft x 26.00 ft x 10.00 ft (normal load) 79.98 m / 79.25 m x 7.92 m x 3.05 m Armament: 2 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread Weight of broadside 64 lbs / 29 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 28,334 shp / 21,137 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,750nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 187 tons Complement: 81 - 106 Cost: £0.143 million / $0.574 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 8 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 464 tons, 51.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 267 tons, 29.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 131 tons, 14.6 % Miscellaneous weights: 30 tons, 3.3 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 241 lbs / 109 Kg = 7.5 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.27 Metacentric height 1.0 ft / 0.3 m Roll period: 10.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.25 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.466 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.12 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 74 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 1.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Mid (30 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m (12.00 ft / 3.66 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Stern: 12.00 ft / 3.66 m - Average freeboard: 14.64 ft / 4.46 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 177.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 80.5 % Waterplane Area: 4,370 Square feet or 406 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 59 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 24 lbs/sq ft or 118 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.42 - Longitudinal: 4.36 - Overall: 0.53 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is cramped

## Saturday, September 10, 2005

### The Ger/BB/1916 redone

Another related drawing from September 9, 2001, was for a Ger/BB/1916 battleship design. It was related to the last, except with heavier armament. I think that the original concept may have been for 9-18in/45 guns, but by 2001, I had assumed that the armament would be 9-20in/45 guns with the 16 secondary guns which I still think were to be 5in QF guns. Springsharp allowed the design, as originally entered. The steadiness is suspect, but otherwise, the design seems to work. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1916, Germany Battleship laid down 1916 Displacement: 62,801 t light; 65,855 t standard; 70,000 t normal; 73,316 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 760.00 ft / 760.00 ft x 130.00 ft x 37.00 ft (normal load) 231.65 m / 231.65 m x 39.62 m x 11.28 m Armament: 9 - 20.00" / 508 mm guns (3x3 guns), 4,000.00lbs / 1,814.37kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 16 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 37,000 lbs / 16,783 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 460.00 ft / 140.21 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 93 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 460.00 ft / 140.21 m 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 20.0" / 508 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 149,347 shp / 111,413 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 7,462 tons Complement: 2,151 - 2,797 Cost: £11.229 million / $44.915 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,625 tons, 6.6 % Armour: 26,951 tons, 38.5 % - Belts: 6,369 tons, 9.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,587 tons, 3.7 % - Armament: 5,927 tons, 8.5 % - Armour Deck: 11,410 tons, 16.3 % - Conning Tower: 659 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 5,564 tons, 7.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 25,661 tons, 36.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 7,199 tons, 10.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 84,577 lbs / 38,364 Kg = 21.1 x 20.0 " / 508 mm shells or 14.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 9.6 ft / 2.9 m Roll period: 17.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.54 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.670 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.85 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.57 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Mid (50 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Stern: 22.00 ft / 6.71 m - Average freeboard: 22.64 ft / 6.90 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 88.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 150.2 % Waterplane Area: 77,095 Square feet or 7,162 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 93 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 255 lbs/sq ft or 1,244 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.47 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, September 09, 2005

### The Ger/BB/1915 design revisited

Besides drawing German destroyers and light cruisers, four years ago, I drew some of the early 1970 battleship designs, as well. The Ger/BB/1915 design has 9-18in and 16-5in QF guns. The latter are in casemates mounted on the upper deck superstructure. The look is rather like the Baden class ships. The hull, however, is flush decked with a straight prow. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1915, Germany Battleship laid down 1915 Displacement: 53,741 t light; 56,161 t standard; 60,000 t normal; 63,071 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 751.00 ft / 750.00 ft x 130.00 ft x 32.00 ft (normal load) 228.90 m / 228.60 m x 39.62 m x 9.75 m Armament: 9 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 16 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 27,244 lbs / 12,358 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 490.00 ft / 149.35 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 101 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 138,361 shp / 103,217 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 6,200nm at 16.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,910 tons Complement: 1,916 - 2,491 Cost: £7.964 million / $31.856 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,406 tons, 5.7 % Armour: 22,470 tons, 37.4 % - Belts: 6,668 tons, 11.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 5,329 tons, 8.9 % - Armour Deck: 9,878 tons, 16.5 % - Conning Tower: 594 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 5,241 tons, 8.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 22,625 tons, 37.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,259 tons, 10.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 84,755 lbs / 38,444 Kg = 29.1 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 6.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 10.4 ft / 3.2 m Roll period: 17.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.42 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.08 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.673 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.77 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.39 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (50 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 23.72 ft / 7.23 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 70.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 174.4 % Waterplane Area: 76,279 Square feet or 7,087 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 100 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 232 lbs/sq ft or 1,134 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.43 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Thursday, September 08, 2005

### An updated Ger/DD/1914 design

When I was binging on drawing ships on September 9th, 2001, I drew the Ger/DD/1914 design. It is very similar to real ships from the period, except that it is slower. It still is a 32 knot ship, as I recall. Of course, it relies on very lightweight machinery. Two things that are new are 6-21in TT and 30 mines. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/DD/1914, Germany Destroyer laid down 1914 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 783 t light; 810 t standard; 900 t normal; 972 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 266.42 ft / 265.00 ft x 26.00 ft x 9.00 ft (normal load) 81.20 m / 80.77 m x 7.92 m x 2.74 m Armament: 2 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread Weight of broadside 64 lbs / 29 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 250 6 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 28,693 shp / 21,405 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,100nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 162 tons Complement: 81 - 106 Cost: £0.127 million / $0.509 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 8 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 471 tons, 52.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 274 tons, 30.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 117 tons, 13.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 30 tons, 3.3 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 238 lbs / 108 Kg = 7.4 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 0.9 ft / 0.3 m Roll period: 11.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.28 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.08 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.508 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.19 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 74 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 1.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forecastle (20 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Mid (28 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m (13.00 ft / 3.96 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Stern: 13.00 ft / 3.96 m - Average freeboard: 15.48 ft / 4.72 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 179.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 60.8 % Waterplane Area: 4,624 Square feet or 430 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 56 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 23 lbs/sq ft or 112 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.40 - Longitudinal: 4.80 - Overall: 0.51 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is cramped

## Wednesday, September 07, 2005

### The Ger/CL/1915 design from September 2001

In my program to create new drawings for my German designs from the early 1970's, I drew one for the Ger/CL/1915 ship. This has three twin mounts with 2-6in guns. There is one forward and two aft, with one superfiring. Apparently, the 32 knot speed is the issue, along with the relatively small dimensions. I had to cut back on armor, increase draft and freeboard, and drastically increase displacement, as well as use very lightweight machinery. That indicates that the design was too ambitious. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CL/1915, Germany Light Cruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 5,431 t light; 5,621 t standard; 6,250 t normal; 6,753 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 476.47 ft / 475.00 ft x 47.00 ft x 19.00 ft (normal load) 145.23 m / 144.78 m x 14.33 m x 5.79 m Armament: 6 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (3x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority aft, 1 raised mount aft - superfiring Weight of broadside 648 lbs / 294 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 4 - 23.6" / 599.44 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 275.00 ft / 83.82 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 2.00" / 51 mm 200.00 ft / 60.96 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 165.00 ft / 50.29 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 89 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 70,082 shp / 52,281 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 4,750nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,132 tons Complement: 350 - 456 Cost: £0.736 million / $2.943 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 81 tons, 1.3 % Armour: 1,297 tons, 20.7 % - Belts: 645 tons, 10.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 65 tons, 1.0 % - Armour Deck: 558 tons, 8.9 % - Conning Tower: 29 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 1,770 tons, 28.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,284 tons, 36.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 819 tons, 13.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 7,118 lbs / 3,229 Kg = 65.9 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 1.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 2.1 ft / 0.7 m Roll period: 13.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.36 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.07 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.516 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.11 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 21.79 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 62 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 1.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (33 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Stern: 16.00 ft / 4.88 m - Average freeboard: 18.88 ft / 5.75 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 102.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 122.0 % Waterplane Area: 15,090 Square feet or 1,402 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 114 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 80 lbs/sq ft or 393 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.15 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, September 06, 2005

### The Ger/DD/1911 destroyer design: circa September 2001

I have a pencil drawing of a very German-looking version of the Ger/DD/1911 destroyer design. This is a compact destroyer with a very short forecastle and a well deck with a torpedo tube on each side. The dimensions are veryb modest: 240ft x 26ft x 10ft. The speed is my standard 32 knots and the armament is 2-4in QF guns and 4-21in TT. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/DD/1911, Germany Destroyer laid down 1911 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 686 t light; 708 t standard; 800 t normal; 873 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 242.80 ft / 240.00 ft x 26.00 ft x 10.00 ft (normal load) 74.01 m / 73.15 m x 7.92 m x 3.05 m Armament: 2 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1911 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread Weight of broadside 64 lbs / 29 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 2 shafts, 27,849 shp / 20,775 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 3,250nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 165 tons Complement: 74 - 97 Cost: £0.091 million / $0.363 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 8 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 429 tons, 53.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 249 tons, 31.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 114 tons, 14.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 207 lbs / 94 Kg = 6.5 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.29 Metacentric height 1.0 ft / 0.3 m Roll period: 10.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.26 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has raised forecastle, rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.449 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.23 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 15.49 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 76 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Mid (15 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (14.00 ft / 4.27 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 15.31 ft / 4.66 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 181.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 76.7 % Waterplane Area: 3,976 Square feet or 369 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 50 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 23 lbs/sq ft or 114 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.39 - Longitudinal: 6.07 - Overall: 0.51 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is cramped Mid break must be 0% or aft of forecastle & forward of quarter deck

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