## Wednesday, May 31, 2006

### Today is the 90th anniversary of the start of the Battle of Jutland (31 May-1June 1916)

### Ger/BB/1905 Flush Decked

Ger/BB/1905, Germany Battleship laid down 1905 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 17,391 t light; 18,165 t standard; 20,000 t normal; 21,468 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 492.00 ft / 490.00 ft x 90.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 149.96 m / 149.35 m x 27.43 m x 8.53 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 8,208 lbs / 3,723 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 295.00 ft / 89.92 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 93 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 295.00 ft / 89.92 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 26,280 shp / 19,605 Kw = 20.50 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,303 tons Complement: 840 - 1,093 Cost: £1.605 million / $6.422 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,026 tons, 5.1 % Armour: 8,472 tons, 42.4 % - Belts: 2,731 tons, 13.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,222 tons, 6.1 % - Armament: 2,014 tons, 10.1 % - Armour Deck: 2,314 tons, 11.6 % - Conning Tower: 190 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 963 tons, 4.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 6,930 tons, 34.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,609 tons, 13.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 34,814 lbs / 15,791 Kg = 40.3 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 8.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 5.1 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 77 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.55 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.54 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.567 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.44 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 22.14 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Forecastle (20 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Mid (50 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 18.48 ft / 5.63 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 70.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 127.6 % Waterplane Area: 31,269 Square feet or 2,905 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 159 lbs/sq ft or 776 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.92 - Longitudinal: 2.14 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Tuesday, May 30, 2006

### The Ger/CB/1915 lives up to expectations

Ger/CB/1915, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 38,850 t light; 40,455 t standard; 42,750 t normal; 44,586 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 901.73 ft / 900.00 ft x 100.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 274.85 m / 274.32 m x 30.48 m x 9.14 m Armament: 6 - 16.50" / 419 mm guns (2x3 guns), 2,246.06lbs / 1,018.80kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (4x3 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all aft Weight of broadside 14,772 lbs / 6,701 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 72 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 420.00 ft / 128.02 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 9.00" / 229 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 292,831 shp / 218,452 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,132 tons Complement: 1,486 - 1,932 Cost: £5.887 million / $23.547 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,847 tons, 4.3 % Armour: 10,159 tons, 23.8 % - Belts: 2,877 tons, 6.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,352 tons, 3.2 % - Armament: 2,194 tons, 5.1 % - Armour Deck: 3,500 tons, 8.2 % - Conning Tower: 237 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 8,116 tons, 19.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 18,728 tons, 43.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,900 tons, 9.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 52,051 lbs / 23,610 Kg = 23.2 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 6.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 6.6 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 16.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.70 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.554 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (74 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 26.32 ft / 8.02 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 117.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 215.4 % Waterplane Area: 63,056 Square feet or 5,858 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 203 lbs/sq ft or 993 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.21 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, May 29, 2006

### Another version of my friend Cliff's BBX design

GB/BB/1915 BBX, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1915 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 64,590 t light; 67,422 t standard; 71,500 t normal; 74,762 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 801.62 ft / 800.00 ft x 135.00 ft x 37.00 ft (normal load) 244.34 m / 243.84 m x 41.15 m x 11.28 m Armament: 9 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 27,744 lbs / 12,584 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 19.00 ft / 5.79 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 89 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 8.00" / 203 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 178,280 shp / 132,997 Kw = 28.40 kts Range 10,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 7,340 tons Complement: 2,186 - 2,842 Cost: £8.532 million / $34.127 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,468 tons, 4.9 % Armour: 30,992 tons, 43.3 % - Belts: 7,235 tons, 10.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 4,955 tons, 6.9 % - Armament: 6,154 tons, 8.6 % - Armour Deck: 11,980 tons, 16.8 % - Conning Tower: 668 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 4,941 tons, 6.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 25,189 tons, 35.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,910 tons, 9.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 114,464 lbs / 51,920 Kg = 39.3 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 27.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.19 Metacentric height 10.7 ft / 3.3 m Roll period: 17.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.37 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.626 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.93 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (50 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 23.64 ft / 7.21 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 69.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 162.2 % Waterplane Area: 80,943 Square feet or 7,520 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 238 lbs/sq ft or 1,164 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.40 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, May 28, 2006

### Even at 60,000 tons standard, the Ger/BB/1915 is still potent

Ger/BB/1915-Smaller, Germany Battleship laid down 1915 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 57,389 t light; 60,062 t standard; 63,000 t normal; 65,350 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 752.24 ft / 750.00 ft x 130.00 ft x 34.00 ft (normal load) 229.28 m / 228.60 m x 39.62 m x 10.36 m Armament: 9 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (8x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 27,972 lbs / 12,688 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 82 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 8.00" / 203 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 75,765 shp / 56,521 Kw = 23.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,288 tons Complement: 1,987 - 2,584 Cost: £7.621 million / $30.485 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,497 tons, 5.6 % Armour: 28,001 tons, 44.4 % - Belts: 5,736 tons, 9.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 3,907 tons, 6.2 % - Armament: 6,536 tons, 10.4 % - Armour Deck: 11,208 tons, 17.8 % - Conning Tower: 614 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 2,100 tons, 3.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 23,642 tons, 37.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,611 tons, 8.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 150 tons, 0.2 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 115,976 lbs / 52,606 Kg = 39.8 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 28.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 9.2 ft / 2.8 m Roll period: 18.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 80 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.62 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.61 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.665 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.77 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.39 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 25.56 ft / 7.79 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 62.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 181.5 % Waterplane Area: 75,732 Square feet or 7,036 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 238 lbs/sq ft or 1,163 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.62 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Saturday, May 27, 2006

### I am amazed at how accurate the 1971 concept for the Ger/BB/1915 design

Ger/BB/1915, Germany Battleship laid down 1915 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 69,130 t light; 72,038 t standard; 75,300 t normal; 77,909 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 751.57 ft / 750.00 ft x 130.00 ft x 39.00 ft (normal load) 229.08 m / 228.60 m x 39.62 m x 11.89 m Armament: 9 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (3 mounts), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 2 raised guns - superfiring 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 27,744 lbs / 12,584 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 22.0" / 559 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 23.00 ft / 7.01 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 82 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 10.0" / 254 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 39.00 ft / 11.89 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 22.0" / 559 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 22.0" / 559 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 10.00" / 254 mm, Conning tower: 22.00" / 559 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 120,277 shp / 89,727 Kw = 25.20 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,871 tons Complement: 2,272 - 2,954 Cost: £8.435 million / $33.742 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,468 tons, 4.6 % Armour: 37,997 tons, 50.5 % - Belts: 9,500 tons, 12.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 5,772 tons, 7.7 % - Armament: 7,511 tons, 10.0 % - Armour Deck: 14,368 tons, 19.1 % - Conning Tower: 845 tons, 1.1 % Machinery: 3,334 tons, 4.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 24,182 tons, 32.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,170 tons, 8.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 150 tons, 0.2 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 138,171 lbs / 62,673 Kg = 47.4 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 37.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.11 Metacentric height 9.0 ft / 2.7 m Roll period: 18.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 69 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.52 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.38 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.693 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.77 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.39 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 25.40 ft / 7.74 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 58.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 162.8 % Waterplane Area: 77,667 Square feet or 7,216 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 232 lbs/sq ft or 1,135 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.68 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Friday, May 26, 2006

### I tried to reproduce the British Abdiel class minelayer in Springsharp

Abdiel class, Great Britain Cruiser Minelayer laid down 1939 (Engine 1950) Displacement: 2,591 t light; 2,667 t standard; 2,950 t normal; 3,176 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 416.10 ft / 415.00 ft x 40.00 ft x 14.00 ft (normal load) 126.83 m / 126.49 m x 12.19 m x 4.27 m Armament: 6 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (3x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1939 Model Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 4 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns (1x4 guns), 2.00lbs / 0.91kg shells, 1939 Model Quick firing guns in deck mount on centreline aft, all raised guns - superfiring Weight of broadside 200 lbs / 91 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 73,894 shp / 55,125 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 509 tons Complement: 199 - 260 Cost: £1.936 million / $7.744 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 25 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 1,579 tons, 53.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 837 tons, 28.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 359 tons, 12.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 150 tons, 5.1 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 796 lbs / 361 Kg = 24.9 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.36 Metacentric height 2.2 ft / 0.7 m Roll period: 11.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.22 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.20 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.444 Length to Beam Ratio: 10.38 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.37 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 68 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Forecastle (20 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Mid (50 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 19.16 ft / 5.84 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 184.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 191.7 % Waterplane Area: 10,540 Square feet or 979 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 76 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 37 lbs/sq ft or 181 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.46 - Longitudinal: 2.33 - Overall: 0.54 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Thursday, May 25, 2006

### The Ger/BB/1916 Large can easily be made faster

Ger/BB/1916 Large Mod.A Red Book, Germany Battleship laid down 1916 (Engine 1923) Displacement: 85,001 t light; 88,989 t standard; 92,534 t normal; 95,370 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 905.80 ft / 900.00 ft x 150.00 ft x 35.70 ft (normal load) 276.09 m / 274.32 m x 45.72 m x 10.88 m Armament: 10 - 21.00" / 533 mm guns (4 mounts), 4,630.50lbs / 2,100.36kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 47,805 lbs / 21,684 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 16.0" / 406 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 86 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 8.00" / 203 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 16.0" / 406 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 169,236 shp / 126,250 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 6,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,381 tons Complement: 2,652 - 3,448 Cost: £14.378 million / $57.511 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 5,976 tons, 6.5 % Armour: 36,615 tons, 39.6 % - Belts: 6,731 tons, 7.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 5,232 tons, 5.7 % - Armament: 8,243 tons, 8.9 % - Armour Deck: 15,616 tons, 16.9 % - Conning Tower: 793 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 5,656 tons, 6.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 36,753 tons, 39.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 7,534 tons, 8.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 135,108 lbs / 61,284 Kg = 29.2 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 29.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 12.5 ft / 3.8 m Roll period: 17.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.51 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.21 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low forecastle Block coefficient: 0.672 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 48 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (27.00 ft / 8.23 m aft of break) - Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 25.86 ft / 7.88 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 78.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 193.0 % Waterplane Area: 105,513 Square feet or 9,803 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 97 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 277 lbs/sq ft or 1,352 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.22 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Wednesday, May 24, 2006

### High speed

As an aside from the current theme, writing about the supply of Malta, elsewhere, prompted some thoughts about the value of speed. The rise of aviation removed much of the tactical value of extremely high speeds. Very high speed was still relevant, as it provided a means for inferior forces to escape and for superior forces to catch an enemy surface force.

The British Abdiel class minelayers were very useful for supplying Malta, as they had both good volume and weight carrying characteristics, but they also had the capability for high, sustained speeds. The designed 40 knot speed was probably not practical, especially when loaded, but they were probably good for a sustained speed of 36 knots. That made them good candidates for the Malta resupply mission, especially when the enemy was more active in the air.

In regions such as the Mediterranean Sea the real value was the strategic mobility offered by high speed. That was what made the small Italian cruisers, such as the Attilio Regolo, so valuable.

In the Pacific War, the United States came to desire large, fast destroyers to "run with the carriers". By late in the war, development was underway for the larger sort of destroyer that was commonplace, postwar. As catapult power increased, the need for speed was diminished, as aircraft carriers were able to launch aircraft at lower speeds. The volume and weight carrying capacity of the large destroyers was still valuable at a time when ships were starting to be loaded with electronic equipment.

### The large battleship, tweaked

10 - 21.00" / 533 mm guns (4 mounts), 4,630.50lbs / 2,100.36kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 47,805 lbs / 21,684 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 16.0" / 406 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 86 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 8.00" / 203 mm 505.00 ft / 153.92 m 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 16.0" / 406 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 84,849 shp / 63,298 Kw = 22.70 kts Range 6,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,162 tons Complement: 2,562 - 3,332 Cost: £13.507 million / $54.026 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 5,976 tons, 6.8 % Armour: 36,162 tons, 40.9 % - Belts: 6,724 tons, 7.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 5,232 tons, 5.9 % - Armament: 8,243 tons, 9.3 % - Armour Deck: 15,193 tons, 17.2 % - Conning Tower: 770 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 2,836 tons, 3.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 36,097 tons, 40.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 7,329 tons, 8.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 143,423 lbs / 65,056 Kg = 31.0 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 35.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 12.1 ft / 3.7 m Roll period: 18.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 67 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.55 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.34 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low forecastle Block coefficient: 0.642 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 38 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (27.00 ft / 8.23 m aft of break) - Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 25.86 ft / 7.88 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 70.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 194.3 % Waterplane Area: 102,658 Square feet or 9,537 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 99 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 278 lbs/sq ft or 1,359 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.27 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Tuesday, May 23, 2006

### My very large battleship design: Ger/BB/1916

Ger/BB/1916 Red Book, Germany Battleship laid down 1916 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 82,140 t light; 86,128 t standard; 92,500 t normal; 97,597 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 905.80 ft / 900.00 ft x 150.00 ft x 35.70 ft (normal load) 276.09 m / 274.32 m x 45.72 m x 10.88 m Armament: 10 - 21.00" / 533 mm guns (4 mounts), 4,630.50lbs / 2,100.36kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 47,805 lbs / 21,684 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 620.00 ft / 188.98 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 16.0" / 406 mm 620.00 ft / 188.98 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 106 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 7.00" / 178 mm 620.00 ft / 188.98 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 16.0" / 406 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 16.00" / 406 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 85,287 shp / 63,624 Kw = 22.50 kts Range 12,000nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 11,469 tons Complement: 2,651 - 3,447 Cost: £13.535 million / $54.140 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 5,976 tons, 6.5 % Armour: 37,074 tons, 40.1 % - Belts: 7,856 tons, 8.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 4,657 tons, 5.0 % - Armament: 8,243 tons, 8.9 % - Armour Deck: 15,612 tons, 16.9 % - Conning Tower: 705 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 2,692 tons, 2.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 36,399 tons, 39.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 10,360 tons, 11.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 158,522 lbs / 71,904 Kg = 34.2 x 21.0 " / 533 mm shells or 38.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 12.4 ft / 3.8 m Roll period: 17.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 68 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.54 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.35 Hull form characteristics: Hull has low forecastle Block coefficient: 0.672 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.00 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 38 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 3.00 ft / 0.91 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (27.00 ft / 8.23 m aft of break) - Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 25.86 ft / 7.88 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 66.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 193.0 % Waterplane Area: 105,490 Square feet or 9,800 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 102 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 274 lbs/sq ft or 1,339 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.25 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Monday, May 22, 2006

### A particularly over-optimistic battleship design

50,000 tons 30 knots 9-18in, 20-5in 16in-18in Belt, 7in + 4in Decks, 2in A/T Prot. Turrets: 12in face, 12in top, 8in sides and rear 16in Barbettes, 16in C.T., 16in Funnel Bases 850ft x 120ft x 30.4ft (Hull depth=60ft) Hull weight basis=0.24 (L X B X D X HWB = hull weight in tons) Cp=0.58 Cm=0.97 2.8 SHP/ton = 140,000 SHP Hull =14,720 tons Aux. Mach. = 4,670 tons Armament = 3,330 tons Protection =21,380 tons Misc. = 4,000 tonsI almost think that my friend Cliff had designed this ship, given its attempt to achieve a great deal on a small displacement. The turret protection also seems to reflect his ideas. If that is the case, then this might have been intended to be a British ship. In any case, I used the power that was planned, but the Springsharp design can only do 27.5 knots for that power. The draft is too shallow for adequate strength. To achieve adequate strength, the displacement needed to be much greater. This is the resulting Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1916 Red Book, Germany Enter ship type laid down 1916 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 56,428 t light; 58,904 t standard; 62,100 t normal; 64,657 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 854.24 ft / 850.00 ft x 120.00 ft x 32.00 ft (normal load) 260.37 m / 259.08 m x 36.58 m x 9.75 m Armament: 9 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 20 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (10x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 27,494 lbs / 12,471 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 550.00 ft / 167.64 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 16.0" / 406 mm 550.00 ft / 167.64 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 550.00 ft / 167.64 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 16.0" / 406 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 6.00" / 152 mm, Conning tower: 16.00" / 406 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 140,865 shp / 105,086 Kw = 27.50 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,754 tons Complement: 1,966 - 2,557 Cost: £8.974 million / $35.898 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,437 tons, 5.5 % Armour: 22,915 tons, 36.9 % - Belts: 6,916 tons, 11.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,180 tons, 1.9 % - Armament: 5,478 tons, 8.8 % - Armour Deck: 8,800 tons, 14.2 % - Conning Tower: 541 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 4,447 tons, 7.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 25,630 tons, 41.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,672 tons, 9.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 99,512 lbs / 45,138 Kg = 34.1 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 15.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.09 Metacentric height 7.8 ft / 2.4 m Roll period: 18.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 71 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.80 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.42 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.666 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.08 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 48 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (50 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Stern: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Average freeboard: 27.40 ft / 8.35 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 77.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 207.4 % Waterplane Area: 79,281 Square feet or 7,365 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 105 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 239 lbs/sq ft or 1,168 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.99 - Longitudinal: 1.43 - Overall: 1.03 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Sunday, May 21, 2006

### The F/CA/1917 Mod.A from the Red Book drawing

F/CA/1917, France Heavy Cruiser laid down 1917 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 17,267 t light; 17,873 t standard; 19,200 t normal; 20,262 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 731.31 ft / 729.00 ft x 80.00 ft x 24.00 ft (normal load) 222.90 m / 222.20 m x 24.38 m x 7.32 m Armament: 6 - 11.00" / 279 mm guns (2x3 guns), 665.50lbs / 301.87kg shells, 1917 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1917 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 4,857 lbs / 2,203 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 10.00 ft / 3.05 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 84 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 0.75" / 19 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 1.75" / 44 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 187,527 shp / 139,895 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,388 tons Complement: 815 - 1,060 Cost: £3.288 million / $13.150 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 607 tons, 3.2 % Armour: 2,833 tons, 14.8 % - Belts: 691 tons, 3.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 255 tons, 1.3 % - Armament: 589 tons, 3.1 % - Armour Deck: 1,236 tons, 6.4 % - Conning Tower: 62 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 4,956 tons, 25.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,871 tons, 46.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,933 tons, 10.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 22,191 lbs / 10,065 Kg = 33.3 x 11.0 " / 279 mm shells or 2.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 5.0 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 15.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.54 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.08 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.480 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.11 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (62 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.36 ft / 7.73 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 143.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 224.5 % Waterplane Area: 38,169 Square feet or 3,546 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 150 lbs/sq ft or 730 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.55 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, May 20, 2006

### The GB/DL/1916 from the Red Book

GB/DL/1916, Great Britain Destroyer Leader laid down 1916 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 2,185 t light; 2,234 t standard; 2,450 t normal; 2,623 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 417.31 ft / 415.00 ft x 42.00 ft x 12.00 ft (normal load) 127.20 m / 126.49 m x 12.80 m x 3.66 m Armament: 4 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline, evenly spread Aft Main mounts separated by engine room Weight of broadside 432 lbs / 196 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 0 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 64,750 shp / 48,304 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 4,250nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 389 tons Complement: 173 - 226 Cost: £0.510 million / $2.042 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 54 tons, 2.2 % Machinery: 1,358 tons, 55.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 773 tons, 31.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 265 tons, 10.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 635 lbs / 288 Kg = 5.9 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.49 Metacentric height 2.7 ft / 0.8 m Roll period: 10.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.30 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.410 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.88 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.37 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 3.00 degrees Stern overhang: 1.00 ft / 0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Forecastle (20 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Mid (32 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Stern: 15.00 ft / 4.57 m - Average freeboard: 17.72 ft / 5.40 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 194.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 164.9 % Waterplane Area: 10,794 Square feet or 1,003 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 64 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 38 lbs/sq ft or 188 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.46 - Longitudinal: 1.70 - Overall: 0.52 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, May 19, 2006

### Sorry for the formatting problems

### Another Ger/BB/1916 design

Hull =21,020 tons Machinery = 6,700 tons Armament = 3,810 tons Protection=23,670 tons Misc = 4,800 tons (8%)I used the exact dimensions from my specification, and given that there was little guidance with respect to details, I filled those in:

Ger/BB/1916, Germany Battleship laid down 1916 (Engine 1923) Displacement: 58,178 t light; 60,913 t standard; 64,300 t normal; 67,010 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 924.24 ft / 920.00 ft x 120.00 ft x 32.80 ft (normal load) 281.71 m / 280.42 m x 36.58 m x 10.00 m Armament: 12 - 16.50" / 419 mm guns (4x3 guns), 2,246.06lbs / 1,018.80kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (8x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 28,681 lbs / 13,009 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 600.00 ft / 182.88 m 18.00 ft / 5.49 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 600.00 ft / 182.88 m 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 157,061 shp / 117,167 Kw = 28.50 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,097 tons Complement: 2,018 - 2,624 Cost: £9.462 million / $37.850 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,585 tons, 5.6 % Armour: 23,270 tons, 36.2 % - Belts: 6,491 tons, 10.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,753 tons, 4.3 % - Armament: 5,922 tons, 9.2 % - Armour Deck: 7,620 tons, 11.9 % - Conning Tower: 484 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 5,249 tons, 8.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 26,074 tons, 40.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,122 tons, 9.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 92,432 lbs / 41,927 Kg = 41.2 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 16.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 8.1 ft / 2.5 m Roll period: 17.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 61 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.69 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.23 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.621 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.67 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.33 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 46 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (67 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 23.84 ft / 7.27 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 82.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 184.9 % Waterplane Area: 82,377 Square feet or 7,653 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 237 lbs/sq ft or 1,158 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.01 - Longitudinal: 0.99 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, May 18, 2006

### I need to do some work on the formatting!

### I have this clunky looking design that works well

Ger/BB/1916 Red Book, Germany Battleship laid down 1916 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 41,637 t light; 43,630 t standard; 46,000 t normal; 47,896 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 755.00 ft / 755.00 ft x 110.00 ft x 32.00 ft (normal load) 230.12 m / 230.12 m x 33.53 m x 9.75 m Armament: 9 - 16.50" / 419 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,246.06lbs / 1,018.80kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 10 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 21,295 lbs / 9,659 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 425.00 ft / 129.54 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 87 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 425.00 ft / 129.54 m 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 5.00" / 127 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 118,693 shp / 88,545 Kw = 27.50 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,266 tons Complement: 1,569 - 2,041 Cost: £6.797 million / $27.188 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,662 tons, 5.8 % Armour: 16,698 tons, 36.3 % - Belts: 4,536 tons, 9.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,950 tons, 4.2 % - Armament: 4,176 tons, 9.1 % - Armour Deck: 5,649 tons, 12.3 % - Conning Tower: 387 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,290 tons, 7.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 18,987 tons, 41.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,364 tons, 9.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 71,599 lbs / 32,477 Kg = 31.9 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 12.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.07 Metacentric height 6.6 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 18.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 69 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.88 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.37 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.606 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.86 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.48 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -1.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (67 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 26.68 ft / 8.13 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 81.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 198.6 % Waterplane Area: 61,072 Square feet or 5,674 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 221 lbs/sq ft or 1,077 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.64 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Wednesday, May 17, 2006

### A further variant: the F/CA/1917 Mod.B

F/CA/1917 Mod.A, France Heavy Cruiser laid down 1917 (Engine 1923) Displacement: 17,768 t light; 18,499 t standard; 19,900 t normal; 21,021 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 730.08 ft / 729.00 ft x 80.00 ft x 24.00 ft (normal load) 222.53 m / 222.20 m x 24.38 m x 7.32 m Armament: 6 - 11.00" / 279 mm guns (2x3 guns), 665.50lbs / 301.87kg shells, 1917 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1917 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all aft Weight of broadside 4,857 lbs / 2,203 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 6 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 3.00" / 76 mm 370.00 ft / 112.78 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 78 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 1.00" / 25 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 176,586 shp / 131,733 Kw = 35.20 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,521 tons Complement: 837 - 1,089 Cost: £3.560 million / $14.241 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 607 tons, 3.1 % Armour: 2,292 tons, 11.5 % - Belts: 438 tons, 2.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 1,010 tons, 5.1 % - Armour Deck: 717 tons, 3.6 % - Conning Tower: 127 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 5,902 tons, 29.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,967 tons, 45.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,132 tons, 10.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 18,002 lbs / 8,165 Kg = 27.1 x 11.0 " / 279 mm shells or 1.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.19 Metacentric height 4.9 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 15.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 53 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.53 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.06 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.498 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.11 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 57 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (73 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 24.24 ft / 7.39 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 119.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 201.0 % Waterplane Area: 38,773 Square feet or 3,602 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 105 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 151 lbs/sq ft or 738 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.43 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Tuesday, May 16, 2006

### The 729ft version of the F/CA/1917 (the Mod.A)

F/CA/1917 Mod.A, France Heavy Cruiser laid down 1917 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 16,610 t light; 17,225 t standard; 18,400 t normal; 19,340 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 730.05 ft / 729.00 ft x 76.00 ft x 23.00 ft (normal load) 222.52 m / 222.20 m x 23.16 m x 7.01 m Armament: 8 - 9.45" / 240 mm guns (2x4 guns), 421.80lbs / 191.32kg shells, 1917 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1917 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all aft Weight of broadside 3,630 lbs / 1,647 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 6 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 370.00 ft / 112.78 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 78 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 173,529 shp / 129,453 Kw = 35.50 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,115 tons Complement: 789 - 1,026 Cost: £2.974 million / $11.897 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 454 tons, 2.5 % Armour: 3,376 tons, 18.3 % - Belts: 1,032 tons, 5.6 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 852 tons, 4.6 % - Armour Deck: 1,373 tons, 7.5 % - Conning Tower: 120 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 4,810 tons, 26.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,971 tons, 43.3 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,790 tons, 9.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 21,825 lbs / 9,900 Kg = 51.7 x 9.4 " / 240 mm shells or 2.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 4.5 ft / 1.4 m Roll period: 15.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.45 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.505 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.59 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 57 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (73 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 23.24 ft / 7.08 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 103.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 194.9 % Waterplane Area: 37,096 Square feet or 3,446 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 111 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 140 lbs/sq ft or 684 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.31 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### The F/CA/1917 heavy cruiser design

Dunkerque Strasbourg Jean Bart Richelieu Gascogne ClemenceauI stayed as close as I could to the original specifications, but I had to increase the draft to 22ft, to achieve adequate seakeeping. This is the Springsharp report:

F/CA/1917, France Heavy Cruiser laid down 1917 (Engine 1937) Displacement: 14,924 t light; 15,502 t standard; 16,600 t normal; 17,478 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 677.05 ft / 676.00 ft x 75.00 ft x 22.00 ft (normal load) 206.36 m / 206.04 m x 22.86 m x 6.71 m Armament: 8 - 9.45" / 240 mm guns (2x4 guns), 421.80lbs / 191.32kg shells, 1917 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1917 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all aft Weight of broadside 3,630 lbs / 1,647 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 120 6 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 340.00 ft / 103.63 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 77 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 143,591 shp / 107,119 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 1,976 tons Complement: 730 - 950 Cost: £2.656 million / $10.623 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 454 tons, 2.7 % Armour: 3,196 tons, 19.3 % - Belts: 958 tons, 5.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 852 tons, 5.1 % - Armour Deck: 1,274 tons, 7.7 % - Conning Tower: 112 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 3,980 tons, 24.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,294 tons, 43.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 1,676 tons, 10.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 21,636 lbs / 9,814 Kg = 51.3 x 9.4 " / 240 mm shells or 2.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16 Metacentric height 4.3 ft / 1.3 m Roll period: 15.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.50 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.521 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.01 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (73 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Stern: 17.00 ft / 5.18 m - Average freeboard: 23.24 ft / 7.08 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 98.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 194.1 % Waterplane Area: 34,435 Square feet or 3,199 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 139 lbs/sq ft or 679 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.46 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, May 15, 2006

### In our game in 1971, we decided to build large ships, starting in 1914

### A 105,000 ton battleship design

Ger/BB/1917, Germany Battleship laid down 1917 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 96,451 t light; 100,375 t standard; 105,000 t normal; 108,700 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 1,089.24 ft / 1,085.00 ft x 140.00 ft x 34.00 ft (normal load) 332.00 m / 330.71 m x 42.67 m x 10.36 m Armament: 9 - 19.75" / 502 mm guns (3x3 guns), 3,851.87lbs / 1,747.18kg shells, 1917 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1917 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 36,167 lbs / 16,405 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 650.00 ft / 198.12 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 92 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 7.00" / 178 mm 650.00 ft / 198.12 m 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 280,433 shp / 209,203 Kw = 30.70 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 8,326 tons Complement: 2,916 - 3,791 Cost: £15.296 million / $61.183 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,521 tons, 4.3 % Armour: 38,388 tons, 36.6 % - Belts: 8,702 tons, 8.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 5,556 tons, 5.3 % - Armament: 7,337 tons, 7.0 % - Armour Deck: 15,930 tons, 15.2 % - Conning Tower: 863 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 8,852 tons, 8.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 44,690 tons, 42.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 8,549 tons, 8.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 182,463 lbs / 82,764 Kg = 47.4 x 19.8 " / 502 mm shells or 40.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.25 Metacentric height 12.4 ft / 3.8 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 58 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.43 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.16 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.712 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 32.94 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 47 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (50 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Stern: 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Average freeboard: 26.48 ft / 8.07 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 70.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 208.9 % Waterplane Area: 123,010 Square feet or 11,428 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 114 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 285 lbs/sq ft or 1,391 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.19 - Longitudinal: 0.94 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, May 14, 2006

### What I am calling the Ger/CB/1917 design

Ger/CB/1917, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1917 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 40,735 t light; 42,383 t standard; 45,000 t normal; 47,093 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 876.15 ft / 875.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 267.05 m / 266.70 m x 32.00 m x 8.53 m Armament: 6 - 16.50" / 419 mm guns (2x3 guns), 2,246.06lbs / 1,018.80kg shells, 1917 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 20 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (10x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1917 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 14,726 lbs / 6,680 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 450.00 ft / 137.16 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 79 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 450.00 ft / 137.16 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 9.00" / 229 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 10.00" / 254 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 6 shafts, 284,942 shp / 212,567 Kw = 35.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,710 tons Complement: 1,544 - 2,008 Cost: £7.693 million / $30.772 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,841 tons, 4.1 % Armour: 10,196 tons, 22.7 % - Belts: 2,723 tons, 6.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 866 tons, 1.9 % - Armament: 2,562 tons, 5.7 % - Armour Deck: 3,772 tons, 8.4 % - Conning Tower: 273 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 8,994 tons, 20.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 19,704 tons, 43.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,265 tons, 9.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 56,995 lbs / 25,852 Kg = 25.4 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 6.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18 Metacentric height 7.3 ft / 2.2 m Roll period: 16.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.62 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.612 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.33 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.58 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Mid (64 %): 31.00 ft / 9.45 m (23.00 ft / 7.01 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 28.28 ft / 8.62 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 118.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 238.3 % Waterplane Area: 67,968 Square feet or 6,314 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 105 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 205 lbs/sq ft or 1,001 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.27 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, May 13, 2006

### Now, I changed the armament to something more conventional

GB/CB/1921 Super Fast Mod.A Red Book, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1921 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 34,791 t light; 36,107 t standard; 38,100 t normal; 39,695 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 896.66 ft / 894.00 ft x 97.00 ft x 31.00 ft (normal load) 273.30 m / 272.49 m x 29.57 m x 9.45 m Armament: 2 - 14.00" / 356 mm guns (1x2 guns), 1,372.00lbs / 622.33kg shells, 1921 Model Breech loading guns in a turret (on a barbette) on centreline forward 2 - 14.00" / 356 mm guns (1x2 guns), 1,372.00lbs / 622.33kg shells, 1921 Model Breech loading guns in a turret (on a barbette) on centreline amidships 4 - 14.00" / 356 mm guns (2x2 guns), 1,372.00lbs / 622.33kg shells, 1921 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline, all aft, 1 raised mount - superfiring 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1921 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 11,726 lbs / 5,319 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 89 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3rd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 6 shafts, 405,739 shp / 302,681 Kw = 40.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,588 tons Complement: 1,363 - 1,772 Cost: £9.885 million / $39.539 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,466 tons, 3.8 % Armour: 5,478 tons, 14.4 % - Belts: 1,599 tons, 4.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 558 tons, 1.5 % - Armament: 1,045 tons, 2.7 % - Armour Deck: 2,130 tons, 5.6 % - Conning Tower: 146 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 10,246 tons, 26.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 17,601 tons, 46.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,309 tons, 8.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 35,207 lbs / 15,970 Kg = 25.7 x 14.0 " / 356 mm shells or 3.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.19 Metacentric height 6.6 ft / 2.0 m Roll period: 15.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.64 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.496 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.22 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.90 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Forecastle (20 %): 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Mid (40 %): 35.00 ft / 10.67 m (27.00 ft / 8.23 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Stern: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Average freeboard: 30.44 ft / 9.28 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 145.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 237.0 % Waterplane Area: 57,571 Square feet or 5,349 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 101 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 195 lbs/sq ft or 952 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.59 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### Forty knots and 4-17in guns

GB/CB/1921 Super Fast Mod.A Red Book, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1921 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 32,693 t light; 33,885 t standard; 35,800 t normal; 37,332 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 881.66 ft / 879.00 ft x 94.00 ft x 31.00 ft (normal load) 268.73 m / 267.92 m x 28.65 m x 9.45 m Armament: 4 - 17.00" / 432 mm guns (2x2 guns), 2,456.50lbs / 1,114.25kg shells, 1921 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 12 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1921 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread Weight of broadside 10,576 lbs / 4,797 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 91 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 520.00 ft / 158.50 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 6 shafts, 390,931 shp / 291,635 Kw = 40.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,446 tons Complement: 1,300 - 1,691 Cost: £9.257 million / $37.029 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,322 tons, 3.7 % Armour: 5,435 tons, 15.2 % - Belts: 1,591 tons, 4.4 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 558 tons, 1.6 % - Armament: 1,128 tons, 3.2 % - Armour Deck: 2,017 tons, 5.6 % - Conning Tower: 140 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 9,872 tons, 27.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 16,064 tons, 44.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,107 tons, 8.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 32,840 lbs / 14,896 Kg = 13.4 x 17.0 " / 432 mm shells or 3.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 6.4 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 15.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.60 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.489 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.35 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.65 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Forecastle (20 %): 35.00 ft / 10.67 m - Mid (40 %): 35.00 ft / 10.67 m (27.00 ft / 8.23 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Stern: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Average freeboard: 30.44 ft / 9.28 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 148.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 235.3 % Waterplane Area: 54,516 Square feet or 5,065 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 100 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 185 lbs/sq ft or 902 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.55 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, May 12, 2006

### I couldn't resist trying the GB/CB/1921 Super Fast design

GB/CB/1921 Super Fast Red Book, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1921 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 24,968 t light; 25,985 t standard; 27,600 t normal; 28,892 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 802.31 ft / 800.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 29.70 ft (normal load) 244.54 m / 243.84 m x 25.91 m x 9.05 m Armament: 4 - 17.00" / 432 mm guns (2x2 guns), 2,456.50lbs / 1,114.25kg shells, 1921 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 4 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (2x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1921 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns (6x2 guns), 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1921 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 10,338 lbs / 4,689 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 80 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 470.00 ft / 143.26 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 90 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.00" / 25 mm 470.00 ft / 143.26 m 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3rd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 250,474 shp / 186,853 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,907 tons Complement: 1,069 - 1,391 Cost: £7.242 million / $28.966 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 1,292 tons, 4.7 % Armour: 4,711 tons, 17.1 % - Belts: 1,438 tons, 5.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 504 tons, 1.8 % - Armament: 1,007 tons, 3.6 % - Armour Deck: 1,644 tons, 6.0 % - Conning Tower: 118 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 6,325 tons, 22.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 12,639 tons, 45.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,632 tons, 9.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 26,956 lbs / 12,227 Kg = 11.0 x 17.0 " / 432 mm shells or 3.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 5.1 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 15.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.78 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.478 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.41 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 57 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Mid (40 %): 30.00 ft / 9.14 m (23.00 ft / 7.01 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Stern: 23.00 ft / 7.01 m - Average freeboard: 26.04 ft / 7.94 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 142.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 199.2 % Waterplane Area: 44,434 Square feet or 4,128 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 100 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 178 lbs/sq ft or 869 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.52 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent