Ger/BB/1905, Germany Battleship laid down 1905 Displacement: 20,998 t light; 21,870 t standard; 25,100 t normal; 27,684 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 580.00 ft / 580.00 ft x 90.00 ft x 26.60 ft (normal load) 176.78 m / 176.78 m x 27.43 m x 8.11 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,296 lbs / 3,309 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 370.00 ft / 112.78 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 130.00 ft / 39.62 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m 80.00 ft / 24.38 m Unarmoured ends Upper: 8.00" / 203 mm 370.00 ft / 112.78 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 98 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 370.00 ft / 112.78 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 11.0" / 279 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 11.00" / 279 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 45,227 shp / 33,739 Kw = 23.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,814 tons Complement: 996 - 1,296 Cost: £1.981 million / $7.923 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 912 tons, 3.6 % Armour: 7,782 tons, 31.0 % - Belts: 2,496 tons, 9.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 712 tons, 2.8 % - Armament: 2,187 tons, 8.7 % - Armour Deck: 2,184 tons, 8.7 % - Conning Tower: 203 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 3,426 tons, 13.7 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 8,878 tons, 35.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,102 tons, 16.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 38,109 lbs / 17,286 Kg = 44.1 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 5.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 5.3 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 16.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 80 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.64 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.60 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.633 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.44 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.08 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (67 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 23.60 ft / 7.19 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 92.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 179.0 % Waterplane Area: 39,356 Square feet or 3,656 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 114 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 158 lbs/sq ft or 771 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.73 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

## Monday, July 31, 2006

### From the original high-level specification for the Ger/BB/1905 in the Blue Book

We have finished a pass through the Red Book and I am now going through the Blue Book. I am starting with the original high level specifications for the ships in the German 1905 building program. The first are the four battleships to be built in 1905, which were 580ft x 90ft x 26.6ft, with a Standard displacement of 22,000 tons, 8-12in/45 BLR and 12-4in QF guns. The belt is specified to be 10in. The speed wanted is 23 knots. I am using normal weight machinery. All boilers are oil-fired. This is the Springsharp report:

## Sunday, July 30, 2006

### The smaller GB/CB/1905 with 8-12in and 6in side armour

Applying David K. Brown's concept for what the smaller GB/CB/1905 should have been means that the speed drops to 33 knots. I had to lighten the machinery to use 1923 technology, to keep the Standard displacement at 25,000 tons of the original concept. This version has the 8-12in guns and 6in side armour that Mr. Brown told me would be best. Doing what D. K. Brown suggested actually makes the GB/CB/1905 a much more potent ship than what my friend Cliff was going to build. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1905-Alt version, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1923) Displacement: 24,028 t light; 24,996 t standard; 28,000 t normal; 30,403 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 25.91 m x 8.23 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 10 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,992 lbs / 3,625 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 6.00" / 152 mm 345.00 ft / 105.16 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 93 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 550.00 ft / 167.64 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 168,779 shp / 125,909 Kw = 33.00 kts Range 7,700nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,407 tons Complement: 1,081 - 1,406 Cost: £2.470 million / $9.879 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 999 tons, 3.6 % Armour: 6,195 tons, 22.1 % - Belts: 1,698 tons, 6.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,099 tons, 3.9 % - Armament: 1,542 tons, 5.5 % - Armour Deck: 1,697 tons, 6.1 % - Conning Tower: 159 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 5,641 tons, 20.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,192 tons, 40.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,972 tons, 14.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 37,602 lbs / 17,056 Kg = 43.5 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.17 Metacentric height 5.3 ft / 1.6 m Roll period: 15.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.69 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.25 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.555 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (73 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 27.24 ft / 8.30 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 120.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 222.5 % Waterplane Area: 45,873 Square feet or 4,262 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 110 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 157 lbs/sq ft or 768 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.38 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### The very fast version of the GB/CB/1905 design

This is the GB/CB/1905 as a very fast battlecruiser. I had assumed that it would not be as fast as the GB/CB/1907 very fast version. The GB/CB/1905 from Springsharp is still a bit light, as the idea was to have a Standard displacement of 25,000 tons. I tried "de-rating" the machinery to 1921, but when I went to an 18 knot cruising speed, for a range of 7,500nm, Springsharp reduced the Standard displacement. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1905 very fast, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1921) Displacement: 24,039 t light; 24,824 t standard; 27,800 t normal; 30,181 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 25.91 m x 8.23 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships 1 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing gun in a deck mount with hoist on centreline aft, 1 raised gun Weight of broadside 4,428 lbs / 2,009 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 345.00 ft / 105.16 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 93 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 550.00 ft / 167.64 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 3rd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 238,727 shp / 178,090 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,357 tons Complement: 1,076 - 1,399 Cost: £2.457 million / $9.829 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 554 tons, 2.0 % Armour: 4,936 tons, 17.8 % - Belts: 1,131 tons, 4.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,099 tons, 4.0 % - Armament: 857 tons, 3.1 % - Armour Deck: 1,691 tons, 6.1 % - Conning Tower: 158 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 8,221 tons, 29.6 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,328 tons, 37.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,761 tons, 13.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 29,577 lbs / 13,416 Kg = 34.2 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.31 Metacentric height 6.4 ft / 1.9 m Roll period: 14.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.33 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.08 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.551 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (73 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 27.24 ft / 8.30 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 145.1 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 222.7 % Waterplane Area: 45,703 Square feet or 4,246 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 145 lbs/sq ft or 710 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.36 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, July 29, 2006

### D. K. Brown's concept for the GB/CB/1907

Back in 2001, D. K. Brown, the naval architect and author, told me that my battlecruiser design needed eight guns and 6in side armour to really be viable. I thought that it would be interesting to apply that to the GB/CB/1907 design that I did earlier today. The speed necessarily has to be reduced (to 34 knots). I modifed the secondary armament to be 10-6in QF guns. That actually was my friend Cliff's original concept, but he decided that he could put one gun on the centerline aft, in a superfiring position, and still get the same broadside with one less gun. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1907 very fast (Alt version), Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1907 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 24,643 t light; 25,621 t standard; 28,450 t normal; 30,713 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 88.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 26.82 m x 8.53 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 10 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,992 lbs / 3,625 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 6.00" / 152 mm 345.00 ft / 105.16 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 93 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 550.00 ft / 167.64 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 190,436 shp / 142,065 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,093 tons Complement: 1,094 - 1,423 Cost: £2.543 million / $10.173 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 999 tons, 3.5 % Armour: 6,214 tons, 21.8 % - Belts: 1,704 tons, 6.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,099 tons, 3.9 % - Armament: 1,542 tons, 5.4 % - Armour Deck: 1,709 tons, 6.0 % - Conning Tower: 161 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 6,011 tons, 21.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,419 tons, 40.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,807 tons, 13.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 36,969 lbs / 16,769 Kg = 42.8 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.19 Metacentric height 5.7 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 15.5 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.60 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.19 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.525 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (73 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 27.24 ft / 8.30 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 122.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 221.3 % Waterplane Area: 46,191 Square feet or 4,291 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 160 lbs/sq ft or 779 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.44 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### The GB/CB/1907, the very fast version

About 1973, I had wondered if by using very lightweight machinery, the GB/CB/1905 and GB/CB/1907 designs might have been able to achieve very high speeds. The answer is that they could, although I had overestimated the speed they could make with the power I wanted to provide. Rather than 43 knots, the GB/CB/1907 is good for 37 knots, still quite fast. I did cheat in Springsharp and raise the normal displacement to 28,300 tons, after raising the freeboard by a foot. I could have left it lower, but I wanted to raise the cruising speed to 18 knots. My friend Cliff had named the ships of this class:

1907 Kent Lancaster Donegal Suffolk 1908 Wessex CornwallThey were intended to have 12in/50 guns. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1907 very fast, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1907 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 24,685 t light; 25,481 t standard; 28,300 t normal; 30,555 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 88.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 26.82 m x 8.53 m Armament: 4 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships 1 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing gun in a deck mount with hoist on side, 1 raised gun Weight of broadside 4,428 lbs / 2,009 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 345.00 ft / 105.16 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 93 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 550.00 ft / 167.64 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 3rd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 267,721 shp / 199,720 Kw = 37.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,075 tons Complement: 1,090 - 1,418 Cost: £2.512 million / $10.048 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 554 tons, 2.0 % Armour: 4,956 tons, 17.5 % - Belts: 1,136 tons, 4.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,099 tons, 3.9 % - Armament: 857 tons, 3.0 % - Armour Deck: 1,705 tons, 6.0 % - Conning Tower: 160 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 8,451 tons, 29.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,725 tons, 37.9 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,615 tons, 12.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 29,760 lbs / 13,499 Kg = 34.4 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.32 Metacentric height 6.8 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 14.2 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.28 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.522 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 60 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (73 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 27.24 ft / 8.30 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 144.4 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 221.6 % Waterplane Area: 46,072 Square feet or 4,280 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 108 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 150 lbs/sq ft or 733 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.45 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, July 28, 2006

### The 65,000 ton, 18in gunned version of the Ger/BB/1916 design

This is the version of the Ger/BB/1916 design that has 9-18in guns, 24-5in QF guns, and has a 65,000 ton Standard displacement. The hull is flush-decked, with a high freeboard and flared bow. The protection is expansive, having an 18in armour basis, but is less than the 34,663 tons that I had originally specified. The difference seems to be in that I have put that into the machinery, so that the ship has a 27.5 knot speed. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1916, Germany Battleship laid down 1916 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 62,253 t light; 65,031 t standard; 68,800 t normal; 71,815 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 763.24 ft / 760.00 ft x 132.00 ft x 36.50 ft (normal load) 232.63 m / 231.65 m x 40.23 m x 11.13 m Armament: 9 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 27,744 lbs / 12,584 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 410.00 ft / 124.97 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 83 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 8.00" / 203 mm 410.00 ft / 124.97 m 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 147,545 shp / 110,068 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 8,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,784 tons Complement: 2,123 - 2,761 Cost: £9.399 million / $37.597 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,468 tons, 5.0 % Armour: 29,112 tons, 42.3 % - Belts: 5,860 tons, 8.5 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 4,369 tons, 6.4 % - Armament: 6,779 tons, 9.9 % - Armour Deck: 11,454 tons, 16.6 % - Conning Tower: 651 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 4,657 tons, 6.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 25,015 tons, 36.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 6,547 tons, 9.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 113,154 lbs / 51,326 Kg = 38.8 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 25.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 9.5 ft / 2.9 m Roll period: 18.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 64 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.54 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.28 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.658 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.76 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.57 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: -1.00 ft / -0.30 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 37.00 ft / 11.28 m - Forecastle (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (50 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Stern: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Average freeboard: 27.80 ft / 8.47 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 71.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 187.5 % Waterplane Area: 77,389 Square feet or 7,190 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 241 lbs/sq ft or 1,175 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.76 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, July 27, 2006

### The GB/CB/1905 design study

This is a design study proposed by my friend Cliff for the GB/CB/1905 design. It is really a better ship than what he decided to use. His design study had a 6in belt, 6-12in and 8-6in guns, and a 31 knot speed (he actually hoped to achieve 31.2 knots). When I used his armouring scheme, the weight exceeded what he had planned for the protection weight. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CB/1905 design study, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1909) Displacement: 23,431 t light; 24,289 t standard; 27,400 t normal; 29,889 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 770.00 ft / 770.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 234.70 m / 234.70 m x 25.91 m x 7.92 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread Weight of broadside 6,048 lbs / 2,743 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 93 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 139,103 shp / 103,771 Kw = 31.50 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,600 tons Complement: 1,064 - 1,384 Cost: £2.340 million / $9.361 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 756 tons, 2.8 % Armour: 5,731 tons, 20.9 % - Belts: 1,586 tons, 5.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 895 tons, 3.3 % - Armament: 1,421 tons, 5.2 % - Armour Deck: 1,712 tons, 6.2 % - Conning Tower: 117 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 6,323 tons, 23.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,622 tons, 38.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,969 tons, 14.5 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 35,342 lbs / 16,031 Kg = 40.9 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 4.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.21 Metacentric height 5.6 ft / 1.7 m Roll period: 15.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 66 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.53 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.32 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.564 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.06 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.75 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 52 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (67 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.68 ft / 7.83 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 125.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 213.5 % Waterplane Area: 46,261 Square feet or 4,298 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 152 lbs/sq ft or 741 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.20 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Wednesday, July 26, 2006

### The Ger/CB/1909 design

The Ger/CB/1909 design is pretty amazing to me, as it is very close to the original concept and weights. The ship is rather odd, in that the armament is 6-12in guns in triple turrets and 8-6.7in BLR guns in twin turrets. The armour basis is 5in, although turrets and barbettes are 8in. The ship is laid down in 1909 and has 1909 machinery. The power generated is more than I had originally allowed for the weight, so the ship can reach 32.5 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1909, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1909 Displacement: 26,249 t light; 27,187 t standard; 30,500 t normal; 33,150 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 730.00 ft / 730.00 ft x 90.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 222.50 m / 222.50 m x 27.43 m x 8.23 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1909 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 8 - 6.69" / 170 mm guns (4x2 guns), 149.90lbs / 68.00kg shells, 1909 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread Weight of broadside 6,383 lbs / 2,895 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 5.00" / 127 mm 475.00 ft / 144.78 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 475.00 ft / 144.78 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 8.00" / 203 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm, Conning tower: 8.00" / 203 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 177,795 shp / 132,635 Kw = 32.50 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,964 tons Complement: 1,153 - 1,500 Cost: £2.720 million / $10.881 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 798 tons, 2.6 % Armour: 5,905 tons, 19.4 % - Belts: 1,621 tons, 5.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 949 tons, 3.1 % - Armament: 1,386 tons, 4.5 % - Armour Deck: 1,781 tons, 5.8 % - Conning Tower: 168 tons, 0.6 % Machinery: 8,082 tons, 26.5 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,464 tons, 37.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,251 tons, 13.9 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 33,538 lbs / 15,213 Kg = 38.8 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.9 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.32 Metacentric height 7.0 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 14.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 54 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.35 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.08 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.602 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.11 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.02 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (62 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.28 ft / 7.71 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 135.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 200.1 % Waterplane Area: 48,132 Square feet or 4,472 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 107 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 162 lbs/sq ft or 793 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 1.02 - Longitudinal: 1.37 - Overall: 1.05 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

### Guns above 16in planned in the 1919 to 1921 period

I continue to be interested in the guns above 16in caliber that were planned in the 1919 to 1921 period. The Washington Naval Treaty killed them off, but they existed at least as specifications, if not prototypes. Brassey's Naval Annual for 1919 to 1921 lists the characteristics, such as weight of the piece, length, shot weight, and muzzle velocity. Such information is of interest to those, like me, who are designing ships using Springsharp.

## Tuesday, July 25, 2006

### A very fast battlecruiser: Ger/CB/1917

I don't believe that I have published this previously: Ger/CB/1917. I did not give the design a designation on the specification page, but this is my estimate. The ship was to be a 36,000 ton Standard battlecruiser with 6-18in and 10-5in guns. The normal displacement was to be 37,500 tons. I had hoped for very extreme and unrealistic speeds, but 36 knots is still pretty good. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1917 very fast, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1917 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 34,397 t light; 36,071 t standard; 38,100 t normal; 39,723 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 852.97 ft / 850.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 30.00 ft (normal load) 259.99 m / 259.08 m x 32.00 m x 9.14 m Armament: 6 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (2x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1917 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread 10 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1917 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, evenly spread Weight of broadside 18,121 lbs / 8,220 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 540.00 ft / 164.59 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 98 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 560.00 ft / 170.69 m 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 1.00" / 25 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 6 shafts, 275,894 shp / 205,817 Kw = 36.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,652 tons Complement: 1,363 - 1,772 Cost: £7.865 million / $31.460 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,265 tons, 5.9 % Armour: 4,839 tons, 12.7 % - Belts: 1,104 tons, 2.9 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,326 tons, 3.5 % - Armament: 1,310 tons, 3.4 % - Armour Deck: 1,098 tons, 2.9 % - Conning Tower: 0 tons, 0.0 % Machinery: 8,709 tons, 22.9 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 18,584 tons, 48.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,703 tons, 9.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 33,698 lbs / 15,285 Kg = 11.6 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 4.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.26 Metacentric height 8.2 ft / 2.5 m Roll period: 15.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.64 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.498 Length to Beam Ratio: 8.10 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.15 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 34.00 ft / 10.36 m - Forecastle (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (50 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Stern: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Average freeboard: 27.56 ft / 8.40 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 145.9 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 224.0 % Waterplane Area: 59,359 Square feet or 5,515 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 94 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 215 lbs/sq ft or 1,048 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.49 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, July 24, 2006

### The Ger/BB/1916 design with 20in guns

The Ger/BB/1916 design is a pretty compact ship to be carrying 20in guns, but the design works in Springsharp, at least if you allow lightweight machinery and accept an 18in armour basis. The armament is 9-20in BLR and 24-5in QF guns. I increased the speed to take advantage of the capacity in the design, so this version can reach 27 knots. The drawing is anachronistic, in may ways. I have a concept of a photograph of the ship, taken from the air, in the Pacific, would look like a WWII battleship. I started to write that the ship does not look German, but it does, except that the two funnels are not like what was used in WWII ships. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1916, Germany Battleship laid down 1916 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 67,997 t light; 71,387 t standard; 75,000 t normal; 77,891 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 757.89 ft / 755.00 ft x 130.00 ft x 36.00 ft (normal load) 231.00 m / 230.12 m x 39.62 m x 10.97 m Armament: 9 - 20.00" / 508 mm guns (3x3 guns), 4,000.00lbs / 1,814.37kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 24 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (12x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, evenly spread, 4 raised mounts Weight of broadside 37,500 lbs / 17,010 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 405.00 ft / 123.44 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 83 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 8.00" / 203 mm 405.00 ft / 123.44 m 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 8.00" / 203 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 161,406 shp / 120,409 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,504 tons Complement: 2,265 - 2,945 Cost: £11.505 million / $46.019 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,688 tons, 6.3 % Armour: 30,447 tons, 40.6 % - Belts: 5,817 tons, 7.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 4,316 tons, 5.8 % - Armament: 7,533 tons, 10.0 % - Armour Deck: 12,091 tons, 16.1 % - Conning Tower: 690 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 5,095 tons, 6.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 27,767 tons, 37.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 7,003 tons, 9.3 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 104,696 lbs / 47,489 Kg = 26.2 x 20.0 " / 508 mm shells or 20.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 8.9 ft / 2.7 m Roll period: 18.3 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.72 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.13 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.743 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.81 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.48 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Forecastle (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (50 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Stern: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Average freeboard: 27.48 ft / 8.38 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 81.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 185.5 % Waterplane Area: 81,699 Square feet or 7,590 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 96 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 257 lbs/sq ft or 1,253 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.94 - Longitudinal: 1.69 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, July 23, 2006

### The Daily Mail says that Heather Mills has bought a house 15 minutes away from Paul McCartney

The Daily Mail has apparently been sitting on the story about Heather Mills buying a £550,000 house that is just a 15 minute drive away from Paul McCartney's estate.
Records indicate that she actually bought the house on May 26th.

### The GB/BB/1914 design

My friend Cliff intended to built the GB/BB/1914 design in quantity. He wanted a 25-knot battleship with 18in guns. We liked the 5in gun as our secondary armament. Even Admiral Fisher liked the size, as the shell is easily handled, compared to the 6in shell. The main problem with the design is that to achieve adequate strength, the Standard displacement needed to be much greater than 48,500 tons. To satisfy Springsharp, the Standard displacement needed to be 55,354 tons. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1914, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1914 (Engine 1923) Displacement: 52,796 t light; 55,354 t standard; 58,500 t normal; 61,017 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 802.03 ft / 800.00 ft x 120.00 ft x 34.00 ft (normal load) 244.46 m / 243.84 m x 36.58 m x 10.36 m Armament: 9 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1914 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 20 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns (10x2 guns), 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1914 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 27,494 lbs / 12,471 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 85 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 5.00" / 127 mm 440.00 ft / 134.11 m 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 18.0" / 457 mm 12.0" / 305 mm 18.0" / 457 mm 2nd: 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm 5.00" / 127 mm - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 18.00" / 457 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 94,626 shp / 70,591 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,664 tons Complement: 1,880 - 2,445 Cost: £6.590 million / $26.358 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,437 tons, 5.9 % Armour: 23,982 tons, 41.0 % - Belts: 5,745 tons, 9.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,686 tons, 4.6 % - Armament: 5,639 tons, 9.6 % - Armour Deck: 9,326 tons, 15.9 % - Conning Tower: 584 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 3,163 tons, 5.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 22,215 tons, 38.0 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,704 tons, 9.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 86,778 lbs / 39,362 Kg = 29.8 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 17.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.12 Metacentric height 8.1 ft / 2.5 m Roll period: 17.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 66 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.60 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.32 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.627 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.67 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 45 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Mid (50 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 21.64 ft / 6.60 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 74.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 153.2 % Waterplane Area: 72,019 Square feet or 6,691 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 101 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 234 lbs/sq ft or 1,140 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.22 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Saturday, July 22, 2006

### A rather odd design study for a GB/BB/1909 battleship

My friend Cliff was interested in exploring the space of possible battleship designs. The GB/BB/1909 design had rather thin turret and barbette armour (8in) and very thick deck armour (7in). The design study does not have a specification. I have an inboard profile and armour weights broken down. I also have a 26,000 ton Standard displacement and dimensions. The Cp is specified as 0.61. The drawing is annotated with armour thicknesses and the weights mention the deck thickness and the A/T bulkhead thickness (2in). I have adjusted the speed to be that which is achievable. The barrel lengths indicate that the guns are greater than 12in, so I moved up to 13.5in guns. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1908 Design Study, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1908 (Engine 1917) Displacement: 24,739 t light; 25,701 t standard; 27,700 t normal; 29,299 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 570.00 ft / 570.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 173.74 m / 173.74 m x 32.00 m x 7.92 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1908 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 10 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1908 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,992 lbs / 3,625 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 340.00 ft / 103.63 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 92 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 340.00 ft / 103.63 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 7.00" / 178 mm, Conning tower: 10.00" / 254 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 69,224 shp / 51,641 Kw = 25.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,598 tons Complement: 1,073 - 1,395 Cost: £2.060 million / $8.241 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 999 tons, 3.6 % Armour: 11,214 tons, 40.5 % - Belts: 2,488 tons, 9.0 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 654 tons, 2.4 % - Armament: 2,083 tons, 7.5 % - Armour Deck: 5,792 tons, 20.9 % - Conning Tower: 197 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 2,538 tons, 9.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,988 tons, 36.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,961 tons, 10.7 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 56,145 lbs / 25,467 Kg = 65.0 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 10.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.20 Metacentric height 7.6 ft / 2.3 m Roll period: 16.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 62 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.36 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.25 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.623 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.43 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 23.87 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Forecastle (20 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Mid (72 %): 26.00 ft / 7.92 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Stern: 18.00 ft / 5.49 m - Average freeboard: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 71.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 193.7 % Waterplane Area: 44,722 Square feet or 4,155 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 114 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 166 lbs/sq ft or 812 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.97 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Friday, July 21, 2006

### A GB/BB/1908 design study

This specification appears to be for a ship that was intended to give up speed and armament to achieve good protection. The hull is flush decked and there are two triple 12in turrets, one at either end. There is a complete belt, 14in amidships and 6in at the ends. The deck armour is 4in. The design has so much excess capacity that a speed of 26 knots can be achieved. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1908 design study, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1908 Displacement: 26,971 t light; 27,913 t standard; 31,000 t normal; 33,469 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 620.00 ft / 620.00 ft x 100.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 188.98 m / 188.98 m x 30.48 m x 8.53 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (2x3 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1908 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 1 raised mount 10 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1908 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 6,264 lbs / 2,841 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 6.00" / 152 mm 220.00 ft / 67.06 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Main Belt covers 99 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 3.00" / 76 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 14.0" / 356 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 14.0" / 356 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 14.00" / 356 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 81,981 shp / 61,158 Kw = 26.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 5,556 tons Complement: 1,167 - 1,518 Cost: £2.181 million / $8.725 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 783 tons, 2.5 % Armour: 11,662 tons, 37.6 % - Belts: 4,731 tons, 15.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,243 tons, 4.0 % - Armament: 1,956 tons, 6.3 % - Armour Deck: 3,435 tons, 11.1 % - Conning Tower: 298 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 4,140 tons, 13.4 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,386 tons, 33.5 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,029 tons, 13.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 55,110 lbs / 24,997 Kg = 63.8 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 9.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.22 Metacentric height 7.2 ft / 2.2 m Roll period: 15.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.31 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.26 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.625 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.20 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.90 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Forecastle (20 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Mid (67 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Stern: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m - Average freeboard: 24.24 ft / 7.39 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 78.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 181.8 % Waterplane Area: 46,413 Square feet or 4,312 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 118 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 161 lbs/sq ft or 785 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.62 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, July 20, 2006

### The GB/CB/1908 design for a fast battlecruiser (Corrected)

As usual, the GB/CB/1908 design for a fast battlecruiser with 6-12in guns depends on lightweight machinery. The specification is minimal, giving the Standard displacement as 25,000 tons and the armament as 6-12in guns. The dimensions are only referenced by the displacement calculation. Otherwise, I would have only known the length (750ft). I went with a secondary armament of 10-6in QF guns, as there was nothing given. I suspect that my friend Cliff, who conceived the design, would have had fewer 6in guns. The specification specified 4in-6in armour, so I used that for the upper and lower belt. (The freeboard is higher, still, but corrected to reflect the long forecastle and lower quarterdeck)

GB/CB/1908, Great Britain Battlecruiser laid down 1908 (Engine 1921) Displacement: 23,883 t light; 24,753 t standard; 27,400 t normal; 29,518 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 750.00 ft / 750.00 ft x 80.00 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 228.60 m / 228.60 m x 24.38 m x 8.53 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1908 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 10 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1908 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 6,264 lbs / 2,841 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 4.00" / 102 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 95 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 465.00 ft / 141.73 m 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 6.00" / 152 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 201,582 shp / 150,380 Kw = 34.50 kts Range 6,700nm at 18.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,765 tons Complement: 1,064 - 1,384 Cost: £2.465 million / $9.862 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 783 tons, 2.9 % Armour: 6,098 tons, 22.3 % - Belts: 1,574 tons, 5.7 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 963 tons, 3.5 % - Armament: 1,073 tons, 3.9 % - Armour Deck: 2,370 tons, 8.6 % - Conning Tower: 117 tons, 0.4 % Machinery: 6,942 tons, 25.3 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,060 tons, 36.7 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,517 tons, 12.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 29,848 lbs / 13,539 Kg = 34.5 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.4 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.19 Metacentric height 4.9 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 15.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 52 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.61 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.04 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.571 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.38 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.39 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (67 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.68 ft / 7.83 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 138.3 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 197.1 % Waterplane Area: 42,700 Square feet or 3,967 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 104 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 149 lbs/sq ft or 728 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.31 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, July 19, 2006

### The "extended" version of the GB/BB/1905 design

In 1973, I had played with the GB/BB/1905 design to see what sort of high speed might be attainable with lightweight machinery. In what I was able to achieve with Springsharp, the protection that my friend Cliff had specified actually weighed more than I had allowed in 1973, and less power was required than I had thought would be necessary. The result is rather a compromise, but one which is about what I had wanted. The ship is now a 30-knot ship with 13.4in armour. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1905 Extended, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1905 (Engine 1923) Displacement: 24,003 t light; 24,843 t standard; 26,500 t normal; 27,826 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 680.00 ft / 680.00 ft x 87.70 ft x 28.00 ft (normal load) 207.26 m / 207.26 m x 26.73 m x 8.53 m Armament: 6 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (3x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 8 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (4x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 6,048 lbs / 2,743 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 13.4" / 340 mm 355.00 ft / 108.20 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 80 % of normal length - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 13.4" / 340 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 13.4" / 340 mm 2nd: 3.38" / 86 mm 3.38" / 86 mm 3.38" / 86 mm - Armour deck: 4.50" / 114 mm, Conning tower: 6.75" / 171 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 119,317 shp / 89,010 Kw = 30.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,983 tons Complement: 1,038 - 1,350 Cost: £2.033 million / $8.134 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 756 tons, 2.9 % Armour: 9,345 tons, 35.3 % - Belts: 3,402 tons, 12.8 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 2,331 tons, 8.8 % - Armour Deck: 3,483 tons, 13.1 % - Conning Tower: 129 tons, 0.5 % Machinery: 3,988 tons, 15.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,914 tons, 37.4 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,497 tons, 9.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 41,756 lbs / 18,940 Kg = 48.3 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.7 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 4.8 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 16.9 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 63 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.53 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.26 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.555 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.75 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 26.08 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (64 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.36 ft / 7.73 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 70.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 195.1 % Waterplane Area: 41,833 Square feet or 3,886 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 113 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 157 lbs/sq ft or 765 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.95 - Longitudinal: 1.64 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Tuesday, July 18, 2006

### The GB/PG/1915 design is very marginal

My friend Cliff's concept for the GB/PG/1915 is very difficult to realize in Springsharp. He wanted a flush-decked ship with 4-4in QF guns and a speed of 32 knots. The Standard displacement was 800 tons in Cliff's specification. He allowed for 250 tons of oil fuel. The reality was that in Springsharp, some compromises had to be made to achieve adequate strength and seakeeping. The freeboard had to be considerably raised and the displacement ballooned to 939 tons Standard. The fuel oil was 254 tons, so it is very close to the specified amount. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/PG/1915, Enter country Enter ship type laid down 1915 (Engine 1945) Displacement: 905 t light; 939 t standard; 1,080 t normal; 1,193 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 263.66 ft / 260.00 ft x 27.00 ft x 10.00 ft (normal load) 80.36 m / 79.25 m x 8.23 m x 3.05 m Armament: 4 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread Weight of broadside 128 lbs / 58 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 180 Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 33,739 shp / 25,169 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 4,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 254 tons Complement: 93 - 122 Cost: £0.180 million / $0.721 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 16 tons, 1.5 % Machinery: 563 tons, 52.1 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 326 tons, 30.1 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 175 tons, 16.2 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 303 lbs / 137 Kg = 9.5 x 4.0 " / 102 mm shells or 0.2 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.29 Metacentric height 1.1 ft / 0.3 m Roll period: 10.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.51 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.03 Hull form characteristics: Hull has raised forecastle, rise forward of midbreak, low quarterdeck Block coefficient: 0.538 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.63 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 16.12 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 76 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Forecastle (20 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m (18.00 ft / 5.49 m aft of break) - Mid (50 %): 17.00 ft / 5.18 m (16.00 ft / 4.88 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m before break) - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 16.58 ft / 5.05 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 179.8 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 163.0 % Waterplane Area: 4,847 Square feet or 450 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 59 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 25 lbs/sq ft or 123 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.39 - Longitudinal: 5.91 - Overall: 0.51 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Monday, July 17, 2006

### The GB/CS/1915 design from the Red Book

I have had trouble with getting a good result from Springsharp with the GB/CS/1914 scout cruiser. This and a fast gunboat design were conceived by my friend Cliff, back in 1971, as what he wanted to build, starting in 1915. I have tried to stay close to his concept, while working at having an acceptable Springsharp report. The main concern I have about what the design is the roll period is probably too short. The ship has an ambitious 32 knot speed and carries 4-6in QF guns with 4-21in TT. I worked in some light protection, and Springsharp did that while still letting me get by with the fast, light combatant strength (between 0.5 and 1.0). This is the Springsharp report:

GB/CS/1915, Great Britain Scout Cruiser laid down 1915 (Engine 1941) Displacement: 2,780 t light; 2,880 t standard; 3,200 t normal; 3,456 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 409.21 ft / 405.00 ft x 41.00 ft x 15.00 ft (normal load) 124.73 m / 123.44 m x 12.50 m x 4.57 m Armament: 4 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 432 lbs / 196 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 150 4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 270.00 ft / 82.30 m 9.00 ft / 2.74 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm 2.00" / 51 mm - Armour deck: 2.00" / 51 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 2 shafts, 48,338 shp / 36,060 Kw = 32.00 kts Range 5,400nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 576 tons Complement: 212 - 276 Cost: £0.456 million / $1.825 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 54 tons, 1.7 % Armour: 635 tons, 19.8 % - Belts: 201 tons, 6.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 % - Armament: 42 tons, 1.3 % - Armour Deck: 392 tons, 12.2 % - Conning Tower: 0 tons, 0.0 % Machinery: 1,222 tons, 38.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 870 tons, 27.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 420 tons, 13.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 1,512 lbs / 686 Kg = 14.0 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 0.6 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.33 Metacentric height 2.2 ft / 0.7 m Roll period: 11.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.36 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has raised forecastle, rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.450 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.88 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 20.12 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 64 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 6.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Forecastle (20 %): 18.00 ft / 5.49 m (17.00 ft / 5.18 m aft of break) - Mid (50 %): 16.00 ft / 4.88 m (15.00 ft / 4.57 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Stern: 14.00 ft / 4.27 m - Average freeboard: 15.97 ft / 4.87 m Ship tends to be wet forward Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 136.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 122.4 % Waterplane Area: 10,589 Square feet or 984 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 88 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 45 lbs/sq ft or 219 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.57 - Longitudinal: 1.44 - Overall: 0.62 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Sunday, July 16, 2006

### The extended version of the Ger/BB/1907 design

In about 1973, I started to experiment with what extended versions of my original designs for the wargame building program. For the Ger/BB/1907 design, I decided to go for lighter weight machinery and reduced side armour coverage, so the result was more like an 1870's design, with unarmoured ends, except for the deck. I thought that about 120,000 SHP would produce 30 knots, and that proved to be correct. I was able to stay within the 27,500 tons normal displacement. I had thought that the Standard displacement would be 25,847 tons, and the Springsharp design proved to be very close at 25,830 tons. The ship carries 8-12in and 12-4in guns, and the armour basis is 12in with a 4in deck. I did have to increase the draft at normal displacement to 27.5ft, to help achieve adequate strength. The steadiness and seakeeping are both just barely adequate, I suppose due to the high speed that the design is trying to achieve.
This is a photo of one of the ships:

This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1907 Extended, Germany Battleship laid down 1907 (Engine 1925) Displacement: 24,910 t light; 25,830 t standard; 27,500 t normal; 28,836 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 620.00 ft / 620.00 ft x 105.00 ft x 27.50 ft (normal load) 188.98 m / 188.98 m x 32.00 m x 8.38 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1907 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1907 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,296 lbs / 3,309 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Ends: Unarmoured Upper: 10.0" / 254 mm 340.00 ft / 103.63 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m Main Belt covers 89 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 360.00 ft / 109.73 m 26.00 ft / 7.92 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 12.0" / 305 mm 9.00" / 229 mm 11.0" / 279 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 12.00" / 305 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 120,174 shp / 89,650 Kw = 29.33 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,006 tons Complement: 1,067 - 1,388 Cost: £2.184 million / $8.737 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 912 tons, 3.3 % Armour: 9,438 tons, 34.3 % - Belts: 2,814 tons, 10.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 693 tons, 2.5 % - Armament: 2,373 tons, 8.6 % - Armour Deck: 3,323 tons, 12.1 % - Conning Tower: 236 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 3,902 tons, 14.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 10,659 tons, 38.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,590 tons, 9.4 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 44,433 lbs / 20,155 Kg = 51.4 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 7.3 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 7.0 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 16.7 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 51 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.33 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.02 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.538 Length to Beam Ratio: 5.90 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.90 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (67 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m (19.00 ft / 5.79 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Stern: 19.00 ft / 5.79 m - Average freeboard: 24.60 ft / 7.50 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 88.2 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 198.7 % Waterplane Area: 44,910 Square feet or 4,172 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 112 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 171 lbs/sq ft or 836 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 1.83 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Saturday, July 15, 2006

### This is very close to my concept for the Ger/BB/1905 from 1973

I had the idea, in the summer of 1973, that the Ger/BB/1905 design could be expanded by using light-weight, high-power machinery. Instead of a 23-knot ship, it becomes a 289 knot ship. This is a nominally 22,000 ton ship with 8-12in BLR and 12-4in QF guns, with a 10in armour basis. I also have several recent photos of ships of this type:

This is of one of the ships in the South Atlantic, taken from a boat.

This is actually a more useful photo, as you can see detail. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1905 Extended Version, Germany Battleship laid down 1905 (Engine 1923) Displacement: 21,580 t light; 22,430 t standard; 24,000 t normal; 25,256 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 580.00 ft / 580.00 ft x 90.00 ft x 27.00 ft (normal load) 176.78 m / 176.78 m x 27.43 m x 8.23 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in casemate mounts on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,296 lbs / 3,309 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: 4.00" / 102 mm 190.00 ft / 57.91 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Main Belt covers 103 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 2.00" / 51 mm 390.00 ft / 118.87 m 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 10.0" / 254 mm 7.00" / 178 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 10.00" / 254 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 95,111 shp / 70,953 Kw = 28.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 2,826 tons Complement: 963 - 1,253 Cost: £1.966 million / $7.866 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 912 tons, 3.8 % Armour: 8,324 tons, 34.7 % - Belts: 3,157 tons, 13.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 779 tons, 3.2 % - Armament: 2,097 tons, 8.7 % - Armour Deck: 2,111 tons, 8.8 % - Conning Tower: 179 tons, 0.7 % Machinery: 3,179 tons, 13.2 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 9,165 tons, 38.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,420 tons, 10.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 38,106 lbs / 17,285 Kg = 44.1 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 6.0 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 5.0 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 17.0 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 56 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.62 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.11 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.596 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.44 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 24.08 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 59 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 30.00 ft / 9.14 m - Forecastle (20 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m - Mid (72 %): 28.00 ft / 8.53 m (20.00 ft / 6.10 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Stern: 20.00 ft / 6.10 m - Average freeboard: 25.92 ft / 7.90 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 92.5 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 198.6 % Waterplane Area: 38,036 Square feet or 3,534 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 163 lbs/sq ft or 797 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.93 - Longitudinal: 2.01 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Friday, July 14, 2006

### The original concept for the Ger/CB/1905 battlecruisers

I am pleasantly surprised just how viable the original concept is for the Ger/CB/1905 battlecruisers. They were nominally 33 knot ships with 8-12in guns and a 4in armour basis.
This is the photo of one of the ships, as originally conceived:

This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/CB/1906 Original Concept, Germany Battlecruiser laid down 1905 (Engine 1921) Displacement: 24,632 t light; 25,547 t standard; 27,300 t normal; 28,702 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 800.00 ft / 800.00 ft x 85.00 ft x 26.00 ft (normal load) 243.84 m / 243.84 m x 25.91 m x 7.92 m Armament: 8 - 12.00" / 305 mm guns (4x2 guns), 864.00lbs / 391.90kg shells, 1905 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 4.00" / 102 mm guns in single mounts, 32.00lbs / 14.51kg shells, 1905 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships Weight of broadside 7,296 lbs / 3,309 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 425.00 ft / 129.54 m 16.00 ft / 4.88 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 82 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 1.50" / 38 mm 425.00 ft / 129.54 m 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 6.00" / 152 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 3.00" / 76 mm 3.00" / 76 mm - Armour deck: 3.00" / 76 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Direct drive, 4 shafts, 182,631 shp / 136,243 Kw = 34.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 3,155 tons Complement: 1,061 - 1,380 Cost: £2.509 million / $10.035 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 912 tons, 3.3 % Armour: 5,801 tons, 21.2 % - Belts: 1,180 tons, 4.3 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 590 tons, 2.2 % - Armament: 1,343 tons, 4.9 % - Armour Deck: 2,610 tons, 9.6 % - Conning Tower: 78 tons, 0.3 % Machinery: 6,289 tons, 23.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 11,630 tons, 42.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,668 tons, 9.8 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 34,142 lbs / 15,486 Kg = 39.5 x 12.0 " / 305 mm shells or 3.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.15 Metacentric height 5.1 ft / 1.5 m Roll period: 15.8 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.72 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.21 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.540 Length to Beam Ratio: 9.41 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 28.28 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): -2.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 36.00 ft / 10.97 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (69 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Average freeboard: 27.08 ft / 8.25 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 130.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 228.2 % Waterplane Area: 47,034 Square feet or 4,370 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 106 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 160 lbs/sq ft or 783 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.98 - Longitudinal: 1.25 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

### A Ger/BB/1905 battleship in the South Atlantic

This photo is of a Ger/BB/1905 battleship taken from a boat in the South Atlantic:

### Another GB/BB/1915 design

This is another GB/BB/1915 design study. This study explored how well 9-16.5in guns would work on a relatively short 45,000 ton ship. I implemented the design so that the machinery power, weight, and protection weight were as close as possible to what was specified. This is an outline of the original specification:

Dimensions= 755ft x 110ft x 32ft 9-16.5in (130 ton) Weights: Cp = 0.61 Cm=0.97 10-6in (6 ton) Hull= 14,200 tons Displacement=45,000 tons 120,000 SHP=24.8 knots Mach= 4,000 tons Machinery weight basis=30 SHP/ton On overload=26.2 knots Prot= 20,530 tons Arm= 2,670 tons Misc= 3,600 tonsAs usual, this specification underestimated the hull weight needed to achieve adequate strength. The power specified actually would propel the ship to a higher speed. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1915 Alt, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1915 (Engine 1924) Displacement: 46,855 t light; 48,959 t standard; 51,500 t normal; 53,533 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 757.17 ft / 755.00 ft x 110.00 ft x 32.00 ft (normal load) 230.78 m / 230.12 m x 33.53 m x 9.75 m Armament: 9 - 16.50" / 419 mm guns (3x3 guns), 2,246.06lbs / 1,018.80kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring 10 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1915 Model Quick firing guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 21,295 lbs / 9,659 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 17.0" / 432 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 82 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 6.00" / 152 mm 400.00 ft / 121.92 m 32.00 ft / 9.75 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 17.0" / 432 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 17.0" / 432 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 6.00" / 152 mm, Conning tower: 17.00" / 432 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 121,839 shp / 90,892 Kw = 27.00 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,575 tons Complement: 1,709 - 2,222 Cost: £6.455 million / $25.819 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 2,662 tons, 5.2 % Armour: 20,734 tons, 40.3 % - Belts: 5,277 tons, 10.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 2,842 tons, 5.5 % - Armament: 4,862 tons, 9.4 % - Armour Deck: 7,246 tons, 14.1 % - Conning Tower: 507 tons, 1.0 % Machinery: 4,013 tons, 7.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 19,446 tons, 37.8 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 4,645 tons, 9.0 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 82,094 lbs / 37,237 Kg = 36.6 x 16.5 " / 419 mm shells or 15.1 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10 Metacentric height 6.9 ft / 2.1 m Roll period: 17.6 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 62 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.79 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.25 Hull form characteristics: Hull has rise forward of midbreak Block coefficient: 0.678 Length to Beam Ratio: 6.86 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 27.48 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 51 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 4.00 degrees Stern overhang: -2.00 ft / -0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Forecastle (20 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m - Mid (65 %): 29.00 ft / 8.84 m (21.00 ft / 6.40 m aft of break) - Quarterdeck (15 %): 21.00 ft / 6.40 m - Stern: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m - Average freeboard: 24.79 ft / 7.55 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 78.7 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 193.1 % Waterplane Area: 65,278 Square feet or 6,065 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 103 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 218 lbs/sq ft or 1,063 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.96 - Longitudinal: 1.42 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

## Thursday, July 13, 2006

### Revised Super Lion photo

The Super Lion was a design from the Red Book from the early 1970's. This photo closely follows the original pencil sketch from that period. Since I overwrote what I had, this photo will appear now and in what I had originally posted:

### The GB/BB/1915 design study

This is a design study for a British battleship to be built in 1915. The drawing style seems to date the design to what I was doing about 1973. The ship had 12-16in BLR and 12-6in QF guns. I had underestimated the necessary displacement to achieve adequate strength. I had thought that the Standard displacement could be as low as 50,000 tons, but I had to increase the displacement in Springsharp. I had underestimated the speed that could be achieved with 170,000 SHP. Instead of 27.5 knots, the design can reach 29.5 knots. This is the Springsharp report:

GB/BB/1915, Great Britain Battleship laid down 1915 (Engine 1925) Displacement: 50,176 t light; 52,585 t standard; 55,200 t normal; 57,292 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 846.32 ft / 841.00 ft x 120.00 ft x 33.00 ft (normal load) 257.96 m / 256.34 m x 36.58 m x 10.06 m Armament: 12 - 16.00" / 406 mm guns (4x3 guns), 2,048.00lbs / 928.96kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 12 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1915 Model Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists on side, all amidships, 2 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 25,872 lbs / 11,735 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 15.0" / 381 mm 430.00 ft / 131.06 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 79 % of normal length Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces - Torpedo Bulkhead: 4.00" / 102 mm 430.00 ft / 131.06 m 31.00 ft / 9.45 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 15.0" / 381 mm 8.00" / 203 mm 15.0" / 381 mm 2nd: 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm 4.00" / 102 mm - Armour deck: 4.00" / 102 mm, Conning tower: 15.00" / 381 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 166,795 shp / 124,429 Kw = 29.50 kts Range 6,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 4,708 tons Complement: 1,799 - 2,340 Cost: £7.609 million / $30.434 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 3,234 tons, 5.9 % Armour: 18,226 tons, 33.0 % - Belts: 5,006 tons, 9.1 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 1,973 tons, 3.6 % - Armament: 5,417 tons, 9.8 % - Armour Deck: 5,361 tons, 9.7 % - Conning Tower: 469 tons, 0.8 % Machinery: 5,415 tons, 9.8 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 23,301 tons, 42.2 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 5,024 tons, 9.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 73,230 lbs / 33,217 Kg = 35.8 x 16.0 " / 406 mm shells or 11.8 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.09 Metacentric height 7.7 ft / 2.4 m Roll period: 18.1 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 59 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.69 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.18 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.580 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.01 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 29.00 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 50 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 38.00 ft / 11.58 m - Forecastle (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m - Average freeboard: 26.04 ft / 7.94 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 91.0 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 191.8 % Waterplane Area: 72,450 Square feet or 6,731 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 100 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 235 lbs/sq ft or 1,148 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.97 - Longitudinal: 1.29 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

## Wednesday, July 12, 2006

### The Ger/BB/1915-1916 design

All I have on the Red Book page for this is an inboard profile. I used a little creative license to supply the other specifications. I did that and what would make Springsharp happy. The pencil drawing shows a 920ft long, flush-decked hull. The armament is four main turrets, with two superfiring. The secondary armament is clearly meant to be 16-6in QF guns. This is the Springsharp report:

Ger/BB/1915-1916, Enter country Enter ship type laid down 1916 (Engine 1927) Displacement: 72,261 t light; 75,702 t standard; 79,500 t normal; 82,539 t full load Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught 925.50 ft / 920.00 ft x 125.00 ft x 33.00 ft (normal load) 282.09 m / 280.42 m x 38.10 m x 10.06 m Armament: 12 - 18.00" / 457 mm guns (4x3 guns), 2,916.00lbs / 1,322.68kg shells, 1916 Model Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes) on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring 16 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns (8x2 guns), 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1916 Model Quick firing guns in turrets (on barbettes) on side, all amidships, 4 raised mounts - superfiring Weight of broadside 36,720 lbs / 16,656 kg Shells per gun, main battery: 90 Armour: - Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg) Main: 17.0" / 432 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 17.00 ft / 5.18 m Ends: Unarmoured Main Belt covers 84 % of normal length - Torpedo Bulkhead: 6.00" / 152 mm 500.00 ft / 152.40 m 33.00 ft / 10.06 m - Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max) Main: 17.0" / 432 mm 10.0" / 254 mm 17.0" / 432 mm 2nd: 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm 6.00" / 152 mm - Armour deck: 6.00" / 152 mm, Conning tower: 17.00" / 432 mm Machinery: Oil fired boilers, steam turbines, Geared drive, 4 shafts, 200,864 shp / 149,844 Kw = 29.00 kts Range 7,500nm at 15.00 kts Bunker at max displacement = 6,837 tons Complement: 2,366 - 3,077 Cost: £11.900 million / $47.601 million Distribution of weights at normal displacement: Armament: 4,590 tons, 5.8 % Armour: 29,824 tons, 37.5 % - Belts: 6,502 tons, 8.2 % - Torpedo bulkhead: 3,663 tons, 4.6 % - Armament: 8,446 tons, 10.6 % - Armour Deck: 10,536 tons, 13.3 % - Conning Tower: 677 tons, 0.9 % Machinery: 6,340 tons, 8.0 % Hull, fittings & equipment: 31,507 tons, 39.6 % Fuel, ammunition & stores: 7,239 tons, 9.1 % Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 % Overall survivability and seakeeping ability: Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship): 114,544 lbs / 51,956 Kg = 39.3 x 18.0 " / 457 mm shells or 20.5 torpedoes Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.08 Metacentric height 8.1 ft / 2.5 m Roll period: 18.4 seconds Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 60 % - Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.84 Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.19 Hull form characteristics: Hull has a flush deck Block coefficient: 0.733 Length to Beam Ratio: 7.36 : 1 'Natural speed' for length: 30.33 kts Power going to wave formation at top speed: 49 % Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50 Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 5.00 degrees Stern overhang: 2.00 ft / 0.61 m Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length): - Stem: 40.00 ft / 12.19 m - Forecastle (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Mid (50 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Quarterdeck (15 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Stern: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m - Average freeboard: 28.04 ft / 8.55 m Ship space, strength and comments: Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 82.6 % - Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 206.3 % Waterplane Area: 94,918 Square feet or 8,818 Square metres Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 100 % Structure weight / hull surface area: 250 lbs/sq ft or 1,220 Kg/sq metre Hull strength (Relative): - Cross-sectional: 0.99 - Longitudinal: 1.10 - Overall: 1.00 Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

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